Iron curtain: symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1989. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances:
Brinksmanship: is the practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. Proxy wars: war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly.
Berlin blockade: western powers decide to introduce a new currency into West Germany Soviet refuses to accept in Berlin. Societ blockaded transportation corriders into West Berlin Allies considered abandoning, but feared domino theory
An armed attack on one member, the treaty's Article 5 pledged, would be an armed attack on them all. Article 2, moreover, was the result of sheer Canadian insistence and perseverance. It summoned alliance members to improve themselves and each other politically, socially and economically. The argument behind the &quot;Canadian article,&quot; its instant nickname, was that there must be the development of a genuine North Atlantic community if the alliance was to endure and reach out to find the better, safer ground of a sane and moral world. It was inspiring stuff, and St. Laurent and Pearson meant every word of it.
An intercontinental ballistic missile ( ICBM ) is a ballistic missile with a long range (greater than 5,500 km or 3,500 miles) typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more nuclear warheads ). Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target.
One reason why coalition armies were so successful in Yugoslavia, Iraq, and Afghanistan in the 1990s and after, is because of the groundwork created in NATO in the Cold War.
Now called North American Aerospace Defence. -created by Canada and US in 1957 Radar stations set up to detect Soviet planes Both US and Soviet had long distance bombers that carried nuclear weapons ICBM could be launched from Soviet and land in US or Canada in half hour - 3 radar lines constructed in Canada’s north Mostly financed by US, and mostly US people working at stations
The USA found the rocket plant at the end of the war – they shipped much technology back to the USA. The German scientists went to the USA and worked on the Saturn V rockets that NASA sent to the moon.
DEW- was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada , with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska , in addition to the Faroe Islands , Greenland , and Iceland . It was set up to detect incoming Soviet bombers during the Cold War , and provide early warning of a land based invasion. Mid-Canada Line- was a line of radar stations across the &quot;middle&quot; of Canada to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America. It was built to supplement the less-advanced Pinetree Line , which was located further south. The majority of Mid-Canada Line stations were used only briefly from the late 1950s to the mid-1960s, as the attack threat changed from bombers to ICBMs ; the early warning role passed almost entirely to the more capable DEW Line further north Pinetree- as a series of radar stations located across the northern United States and southern Canada at about the 50th parallel north , along with a number of other stations located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Run by NORAD (after its creation), over half were manned by United States Air Force personnel with the balance operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force . The line was the first coordinated system for early detection of a Soviet bomber attack on North America , but the early 1950s radar technology quickly became outdated and the line was in full operation only for a short time.
Worry of intercepting over Canadian cities with planes vs using missiles further north = 1957 decision to scrap Arrow and build DEW Line.
Metaphoric Doomsday Clock started by scientists in 1947 at 23:53. Farthest = 17 minutes to midnight (1991 after StaRT) / Closest = 3 minutes to midnight (1953 when both USA and USSR tested thermo-nuclear devices within nine months of one another. As of 2010, it’s back to 6 minutes. The Cuban Crisis did not shift the clock but the world perception is that it brought us closer to midnight than other events.
On a warm night in June 1964, a C-124 Globemaster transport belonging to the United States Air Force (USAF) landed at Royal Canadian Air Force Station Zweibrucken in West Germany – Gave CF 104s their first nukes – small – about the size of Hiroshima bombs – others 13 times as powerful. HONEST JOHN surface to surface – able to take nukes
Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle- collection of nuclear weapons carried on a single intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) or a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). Using a MIRV warhead, a single launched missile can strike several targets, or fewer targets redundantly. By contrast a unitary warhead is a single warhead on a single missile.
Bottom left: shooting a piece of Lexan at aluminum using kinetic energy from a light gas gun with a velocity of 23,000 ft/sec (almost 30 times the speed of a rifle bullet). Bottom right: SDI sensory equipment being sent on a Delta Star rocket. Top right: many criticized SDI as the stuff of science fiction. They said it was too expensive. The idea was repackaged by George W Bush following 911. Strategic Defense Initiative ( SDI ) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983  to use ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles . The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD)
Mr. Marshall's Cold War PPT
J. Marshall 2011 Canada & the Cold War 1945 to 1991: Effects on Our Autonomy
The map of post-war Europe: 1949 NATO SOVIET UNION
<ul><li>The Superpowers knew that a war between themselves was impossible so they used brinkmanship and proxy wars to exercise their competition. </li></ul>The genie was out of the bottle…
Igor Gozenko: 1945 <ul><li>Soviet embassy cipher clerk </li></ul><ul><li>Spy ring in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Game-on! </li></ul>
Crisis in Europe: Berlin Blockade <ul><li>Jun 1948 – May 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Brinkmanship </li></ul>
Apr 4, 1949 : Canada signs North Atlantic Treaty <ul><li>The UN has become "frozen in futility and divided by dissension.” </li></ul><ul><li>Minister of Foreign Affairs, Louis St Laurent, summer, 1947 </li></ul>
Canada’s role in NATO <ul><li>Demobilization after the war </li></ul><ul><li> we quickly shrank back to a small military power. </li></ul><ul><li>We committed to provide in western Germany: two fighter squadrons + an army brigade </li></ul><ul><li>We prepared to fight a blitzkrieg-style mechanized war in western Europe against the Soviets who had an ENORMOUS army . </li></ul>
What would the Cold War look like if it ever heated up ?
Other Soviet-era threats: <ul><li>BERLIN BLOCKADE,1948 - 49; </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPORT FOR THE NORTH IN KOREA, 1950 - 53; </li></ul><ul><li>REVOLT IN HUNGARY,1956; </li></ul><ul><li>BERLIN WALL, 1961; </li></ul><ul><li>CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, 1961; </li></ul><ul><li>DEPLOYED SPIES; </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPED A NUCLEAR ARSENAL/ICBMs ; </li></ul><ul><li>“ TESTED” NATO DEFENSES </li></ul><ul><li> ex. OVER-FLIGHTS/SUBS </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
Multinational Training <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment/standards </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics/strategy </li></ul><ul><li>The future of international participation </li></ul>
NORAD <ul><li>North American Air Defence Command </li></ul>
Hitler’s V engeance Weapons <ul><li>First “cruise missile” </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliation for bombing raids </li></ul><ul><li>NASA’s forebear </li></ul>V1 Rocket Plane V2 Ballistic Missile Werner von Braun Doodle Bug
more missiles (+ more dudes) more bombers & MIRVs
<ul><li>In the 80s, Cruise tests at Cold Lake were a political hot-potato for Cdn PMs. </li></ul>Cruise Missiles fly under RADAR and so cannot be detected: an example of non-traditional Western technology (not included in SALT 2)
When did Cda stand up to the USA? When did it acquiesce? NATO We Disagreed S.D.I. (Star Wars) Cuba/P.R. of China Vietnam Cuban missile crisis NORAD / DEW Line Cruise missile tests Bomarc vs. Arrow Accepting nukes We Agreed 50s 90s 80s 60s 70s Autonomy:
Unarmed Cruise Missile Tests: Cold Lake Weapons Testing Range
Summary:Post-War Defence <ul><li>Why would these be included in a unit on Canadian autonomy ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare NORAD to the BCATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What nationality is NATO’s top general? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What nationality is NORAD’s top general? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEW Line staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defence projects/contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear warheads on Cdn fighters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruise missile testing in Canada in the 80s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign policy/defence policy </li></ul></ul>
Post-War Defense Paragraph <ul><li>How was Canada’s autonomy affected by post-war defense issues? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please note that after fighting so hard in the first half of the 20th century to gain autonomy, we seem to have willingly surrendered some of it to the USA though our participation in NATO and NORAD. Was the trade-off worth it? </li></ul></ul>
Fun Quiz: 1. Define NATO: <ul><li>What does the acronym stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>When was it introduced? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the program about? </li></ul>2. How was Germany governed immediately after the Second World War and how did that change the map of Europe?