Environmental challenges 1

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  • 1. Environmental Challenges
  • 2. Population and ResourcesNearly 80 million person population increase each year, mostly in developing world= strained resources and systems
  • 3. Developed WorldNearly 85% of earth’s resources are consumed by 20% of the world’s population
  • 4. Global WarmingGlobal warming= increase in global temperatures abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide concentrated in the atmosphere
  • 5. The recent temperature trend is accompanied by a similar, highly-correlated upward trend in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Is it due to human activity?The "Keeling Curve" of CO2 concentrations as measured at the Mauna Loa Observatoryin Hawaii.Source: http://www.research.noaa.gov/spotlite/archive/images/jimomedal_graph.gif
  • 6. Normal CO2 Levels Short Wave and Long Wave Radiation1) Sun emits rays called short-wave radiation (light rays)2) Short wave radiation is either absorbed into the earth’s surface or reflected back into space
  • 7. High CO2 Levels
  • 8. Consequences• Canada’s Arctic regions’ sea ice is shrinking• Warmer weather= forest fires & Prairie droughts• British Columbia- salmon survival decreased by 1/3 since early 1990s• Polar bear depletion
  • 9. Kyoto ProtocolDecember 1997- 180 countries - agreement among industrialized nations to reduce emission of six greenhouse gasesCanada- agreed to cut emissions 5.2% (1990 levels) by 2012US- withdrew in 2001 (US was responsible for 25% worldwide emissions)= big setback for Kyoto Protocol
  • 10. Ozone DepletionOzone layer=naturally occurring protective shield in the stratosphere, 25 km+ into spaceJob= absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sunprotects humans, plants, and animals
  • 11. Ozone Gaps and HolesGaps and holes= harmful raysHow? Scientists think it’s due to human activity
  • 12. CFCsChlorofluorocarbons= danger gas that chemically bonds to the ozone layer and eat away at the o.l.
  • 13. Where do you find CFCs?
  • 14. Consequences?• Skin cancer• Altered ocean ecosystems fishing tourism, logging• Harmful to flora and fauna of Canada’s north
  • 15. Montreal Protocol1987- Montreal Protocol- industrial nations agreed to cut use of CFCs
  • 16. Acid RainSO2and NOx carried long distances by strong winds deposited in acidic rain, snow, fog, dust
  • 17. Deposition Effects
  • 18. Effects
  • 19. Cda vs USA?• 2/3 of CDA’s caused by INDUSTRY• 2/3 of USA’s from ELECTRICAL UTILITIES
  • 20. Consequences• Eastern Canada, the Alps, the Appalachians, the US, and Japan• Animals and plants• Ecosystems• Corrodes steel• Lung capacity
  • 21. Acid Rain Regime• Lower emissions fossil fuels• 1990- Clean Air Act- tradeable permits• 1991- Air Quality Accord-US and Canada• 1993-emissions reduced by 30%
  • 22. Environmental Awareness1962- Rachel Carson- Silent Spring1987- UN Commission on the State of the Environment asked people of the developed world to reduce resource consumption & develop a sustainability lifestyle1992- Earth Summit- Agenda 21 (encourage development of a sustainable world economy)1992- World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity- earth stewardship
  • 23. However…There has been little progress by governments and corporationImplementation=Losses