Chinese Philosophy


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Chinese Philosophy

  1. 1. Chinese Philosophy Confucianism, Legalism, & Daoism Textbook pages 82-86
  2. 2. What is philosophy?• Philosophy: the study, or pursuit of, knowledge and wisdom• Philosopher: one who searches for knowledge and wisdom
  3. 3. Confucianism• Kongfuzi (Confucius)- Chinese philosopher, lived from approximately 551-479 B.C.E • Influenced by the political turmoil of the time • Believed that disorder was because rulers were not governing properly
  4. 4. Confucianism• People are basically good, but need training to behave well • Family (basics) • Assembled by society
  5. 5. Confucius- Five Virtues• Confucius identified five virtues and five relationships that were building blocks of harmonious society• Virtues: Rulers were 1) Honest expected to set 2) Upright an example of the five virtues 3) Conscientious 4) Charitable 5) loving
  6. 6. Confucius- Five Relationships• Confucius believed that everyone had duties & responsibilities• Five relationships: 1) father and son 2) ruler and subject 3) older and younger brothers 4) husband and wife 5) friend and friend
  7. 7. Five Relationships- ContinuedSuperior position Inferior positionstreat inferiors with owed superiorslove and kindness respect and obedience
  8. 8. Confucius• Conclusion: Confucius’ ideas based on ethics and morals• After death, honoured as one of China’s great teachers• Principles important to Chinese society
  9. 9. Legalism• Developed around same time as Confucianism• Hans Feizi- most prominent writer• Beliefs: • Government more important than people • Government should be strong, not virtuous • Humans, by nature, are greedy • Only way to orderly society= strict government and harsh punishment
  10. 10. Legalism • Chinese people followed Confucian ideas of government • Chinese criminal followed Legalist ideas What do you think this would mean?- Strict- Major crimes punished severely
  11. 11. Legalism- China’s Code of Laws• China’s first recorded code of laws- 400 B.C.E • What dynasty would this have been during?• Law had six sections, with laws on: 1) Theft 2) Violence 3) Detention 4) Arrest 5) Miscellaneous laws 6) General laws
  12. 12. Laws and Conviction• Accused had to prove innocence • Is this like Canadian law, today?• Five basic penalties:1) Death by strangulation or decapitation2) Exile3) Imprisonment4) Beating with a heavy stick5) Beating with a light stick-Collective punishment: families or villages could bepunished for the crime of one person
  13. 13. Daoism• Began during Warring States • What were the “Warring States?”• Laozi- Daoism based on this philosopher• Daoist goal to live in harmony with nature • “following the Dao” achieving harmony • Believed that this could be achieved by studying nature • Did not want to interfere with nature, upsetting nature order
  14. 14. Daoism• Doists- believed that nature’s harmony could be copied in human society • Didn’t like rules believe it was forcing people to act a certain way, instead of letting them behave naturally • Also opposed to money and education
  15. 15. Daoism and Immortality• Doists sought immortality • Following the Dao • Strengthening their Qi (life force) • Breathing properly • Taking proper medicines • Alchemists • Experimented with plants and metals in search of the elixir of life • Daoist experiments important discoveries in medicine and metallurgy