MONER SHUSHRUSHAY RABINDRA SANGEET/RABINDRASANGEET IN PSYCHOTHERAPY Dr. D. Dutta Roy, Ph.D. (Psy.) Psychology Research Uni...
Rabindrasangeet is a journey to Whole or completeness
CONSCIOUSNESS PARADIGM Outer Layer: -Missing -Anomalies Inner Layer -Vividness -Orderliness -Complexity <ul><li>Inner Core...
A Journey <ul><li>Rabindrasangeet is a journey from outer layer to inner core through inner layer of consciousness. </li><...
Characteristics of 3 layers <ul><li>The outer layer or Murta : What we sense through our five sensory organs; It is tangib...
Playing in the outer layer  <ul><li>“ Ami keboli swapan karechi bapan batase- </li></ul><ul><li>Tai akashkusum karinu chay...
First stage of the journey <ul><li>Outer layer properties suddenly find the existence of inner layer; </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...
The Second stage  <ul><li>The journey is not very smooth. Lot of ideas are broken, built and rebuilt. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Mixing with inner core/Saraswat layer <ul><li>“ Amar poran jaha chay tumi tai, tumi tai Go toma chhara ar e jogote mor keh...
<ul><li>Association among the layers occurs following the principles of perceptual organization suggested by the Gestalt s...
Principles of Perceptual organization  <ul><li>Figure and Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity ...
Searching Principle : Growth of inquisitiveness Feeling of scattered impulses,needs etc. Searching cues Does it give  mean...
Faulty evolution
Assumption of Mental Illness   <ul><li>Faulty evolution of layers causes mental illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Fault occurs du...
Faulty learning  <ul><li>“ Swapnamadir neshay mesha e unmattata jagay dehe mone eki bipul byatha” (substance abuse) </li><...
Introspection  <ul><li>“ Keno jamini na jete” </li></ul><ul><li>“  Keno sara din dhire dhire  </li></ul><ul><li>balu niye ...
Adjusting self <ul><li>“ Amar ekti katha banshi jane,  </li></ul><ul><li>banshii jane.  </li></ul><ul><li>Bhare railo buke...
Case Study 1: Where all fail, Rabindrasangeet acts
Response control of OCD <ul><li>A woman of 52 years old came to me with complaint of  OCD to dirt. Patient reported her in...
Patient’s behaviour  <ul><li>Very inhibitive; </li></ul><ul><li>Hand clasping tightly; </li></ul><ul><li>Strong resistance...
Analysis of patient  <ul><li>Patient is searching for dirt in the outer layer. </li></ul><ul><li>In the inner layer, dirt ...
Analysis of family <ul><li>Repeated soaping consumes more water; </li></ul><ul><li>Family assumes that it is unreasonable ...
Therpeautic analysis <ul><li>Target: Preventing clasping hands; </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness model: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Session-1 <ul><li>In the  first session , patient was highly inhibitive to reveal herself. Due to difficulty in rapport es...
Session-2 <ul><li>In the 2nd session after 6 days, the client sang with me same song by standing. She moved her hands abov...
Session-3 <ul><li>In the 3rd sitting, patient reported that she alone practiced two songs  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Ekt...
Case Study 2: Geetbitan as Projective test.
The Variables  Agent Host Environment
Dynamics of latent variables  Initial E X P R E S S I O n Middle Terminal A E H H H
Johari Window INVESTIGATOR C L I E N T Known Known Unknown Unknown OPEN DARK BLIND FAÇADE  Rabindrasangeet
Exploring techniques  <ul><li>FACADE </li></ul><ul><li>DARK </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT OB...
Probability for variable exploration Structured Unstructured High prob. Low prob
Projective test <ul><li>Individual projects own feelings, conflict and desires on others; </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists ...
Theories of hierarchy  <ul><li>Individual by singing, listening develops hierarchy of songs; </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy d...
Analysis of Projection <ul><li>A neurotic depressed patient came to me with complaints of suicidal desires. She was co-ope...
<ul><li>Finally, she sang the first rank song (Ananda dhara bohiche bhubane). I followed her in singing.I have noticed tha...
Case Study 3: Self-understanding
Complaints  <ul><li>Over learning  </li></ul><ul><li>Poor academic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Apprehension of danger </...
Analysis of client  <ul><li>Layer dynamics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer (Murta) : Perceiving the book; </li></ul></u...
Session  <ul><li>Requesting him to sing any song of Tagore; </li></ul><ul><li>He selected “Jadi tare nai chini go se ki am...
Some postulates based on Case studies <ul><li>Man searches for feeling of completeness or harmony among all the impulses o...
<ul><li>Following the principles of pattern perception (Figure-ground, similarity, Proximity or contiguity, Closure, Area,...
<ul><li>In therapy using Rabindrasangeet, therapist should analyze the consciousness layer dynamics for the unreasonable b...
Future researches (for Bengali Lit) <ul><li>Exploring songs related to different properties of outer, inner and innercore ...
Future researches (for Psychologists) <ul><li>How are the three layers associated ? Can we explain the associations in ter...
Acknowledgement <ul><li>Subir Bose, Sudipta, Susmita of Srijon o Gunjan, Orkut </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Sahana Roy, Dept. App...
References <ul><li>Dutta Roy,D.(2006). Development of picture drawing test to assess consciousness layers of tribal childr...
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Rabindrasangeet, Psychotherapy, Consciousness, Integral psychology

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    sansaar more mahamohaghore chilo sada ghire saghana
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Rabindrasangeet, Psychotherapy, Consciousness, Integral psychology

  1. 1. MONER SHUSHRUSHAY RABINDRA SANGEET/RABINDRASANGEET IN PSYCHOTHERAPY Dr. D. Dutta Roy, Ph.D. (Psy.) Psychology Research Unit INDIAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Kolkata – 700 108 International Conference on Bengali Literature organized by the Department of Bengali, West Bengal State University, Barasat, North 24 pgs., W.B. Date: 13.3.2009
  2. 2. Rabindrasangeet is a journey to Whole or completeness
  3. 3. CONSCIOUSNESS PARADIGM Outer Layer: -Missing -Anomalies Inner Layer -Vividness -Orderliness -Complexity <ul><li>Inner Core Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony with Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanliness </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Journey <ul><li>Rabindrasangeet is a journey from outer layer to inner core through inner layer of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Chokher aloy dekhechilem chokher bahire&quot;; (outer layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Antare aaj dekhbo, jakhan alok nahi re&quot; (inner layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Dharay jakhan dao na dhara hriday takhan tomay bhara, ekhon tomar apan aloy tomay chahi re&quot; (innercore layer) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of 3 layers <ul><li>The outer layer or Murta : What we sense through our five sensory organs; It is tangible and measurable. </li></ul><ul><li>The inner layer or the Raaga : The meaning carried by the sensory stimuli. It is attached with emotion; It is apperception. It can be measured through quasi continuous scale. It is mixed with error variance. </li></ul><ul><li>The inner core layer or Saraswat layer : The feeling of harmony, the existence of truth, the feeling of white; It is partially measured by the quasi continuous scale and projective tests. It is free from error variance. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Playing in the outer layer <ul><li>“ Ami keboli swapan karechi bapan batase- </li></ul><ul><li>Tai akashkusum karinu chayan hatashe </li></ul><ul><li>Chayar matan milay dharani, kul nahi pay ashar tarani, </li></ul><ul><li>Manaspratima bhasia beray akashe” </li></ul>“ Emni karei jay jadi din jak na, Mon ureche uruk na re mele diye ganer pakhna”
  7. 7. First stage of the journey <ul><li>Outer layer properties suddenly find the existence of inner layer; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Amar hiyar majhe lukiye chile </li></ul><ul><li>Dekhte ami pai ni, tomay dekhte ami pai ni. </li></ul><ul><li>Bahir-pane chokh melechi, amar hriday-pane chai ni…..” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ami jwalbo na “ </li></ul><ul><li>Ja chilo kalo-dhalo tomar range ranga holo. </li></ul><ul><li>Jemon rangabaran tomar charan tar sane aar bhed n ralo. </li></ul><ul><li>Ranga holo basan-bhushan, ranga holo shyan-swapan </li></ul><ul><li>Holo kemon dekh re, jemon ranga kamal talomolo. “ </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Second stage <ul><li>The journey is not very smooth. Lot of ideas are broken, built and rebuilt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tomay niye khelechilem khelar gharete khelar putul bhenge geche pralayy jhaarete Thak tabe sei kebol khela, hok -na ekhon praner mela- tarer bina bhanglo, hriday-binay gahi re. &quot; </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mixing with inner core/Saraswat layer <ul><li>“ Amar poran jaha chay tumi tai, tumi tai Go toma chhara ar e jogote mor keho nai, keho nai Go. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumi sukh jodi nahi pao, jao sukher sondhane jao ami tomare peyechhi hridhoymajhe, ar kichhu nahi chai go. </li></ul><ul><li>Ami tomar birohe rohibo bileen, tomate koribo baas dhirgho dibos dhirgho rojoni, dirgho borosh-maas.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Association among the layers occurs following the principles of perceptual organization suggested by the Gestalt schools followed by principles of searching. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Principles of Perceptual organization <ul><li>Figure and Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity or contiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul><ul><li>Area </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetry </li></ul>
  12. 12. Searching Principle : Growth of inquisitiveness Feeling of scattered impulses,needs etc. Searching cues Does it give meaningful pattern ? N Y “ Tomay Natun kare pabo bole harai khane khane .”
  13. 13. Faulty evolution
  14. 14. Assumption of Mental Illness <ul><li>Faulty evolution of layers causes mental illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Fault occurs due to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformity in 3 layers; (Physiological explanation: sensory limitation, Limbic system/thalamic region problem, Problem in nervous system). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty learning during the journey (conditioning by faulty reinforcement, faulty attribution). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Faulty learning <ul><li>“ Swapnamadir neshay mesha e unmattata jagay dehe mone eki bipul byatha” (substance abuse) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Keteche ekela biraher bela akashkusum chayane” (depression) </li></ul><ul><li>Jani tomar ajana nahi go ki ache amar mone.Ami gopan karite chai go, dhara pare du nayane. Ki bolite pache ki boli tai dure chale jai keboli. (Anx. Disorder) </li></ul><ul><li>Kandale tumi more bhalobasari ghaye- Nibir bedanate pulak lage gaye (Sadism of hysteric patient) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Introspection <ul><li>“ Keno jamini na jete” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Keno sara din dhire dhire </li></ul><ul><li>balu niye shudhu khelo tire. </li></ul><ul><li>Chale gelo bela, </li></ul><ul><li>rekhe miche khela….” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sakhi bohe gelo bela, shudhu hasikhela e ki aar bhalo lage” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adjusting self <ul><li>“ Amar ekti katha banshi jane, </li></ul><ul><li>banshii jane. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhare railo buker tala, </li></ul><ul><li>karo kache hoy ni bola, </li></ul><ul><li>kebol bole gelam </li></ul><ul><li>banshir kane kane ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ami bhoy karbo na bhoy karbo na” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jadi tor daak shune keu na ase tabe ekla chalo re” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Case Study 1: Where all fail, Rabindrasangeet acts
  19. 19. Response control of OCD <ul><li>A woman of 52 years old came to me with complaint of OCD to dirt. Patient reported her inability to control washing compulsion. For last 30 years, she regularly went to toilet for washing and cleaning hands. She always closed her hands tightly so that her hands would be completely cleaned. Before visit to me, she was treated by many psychiatrists and one psychologist. No notable changes are noticed except long time sleep. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Patient’s behaviour <ul><li>Very inhibitive; </li></ul><ul><li>Hand clasping tightly; </li></ul><ul><li>Strong resistance to open clasping; </li></ul><ul><li>Non-cooperative to participate; </li></ul><ul><li>Not able to administer any available psychological tests. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Analysis of patient <ul><li>Patient is searching for dirt in the outer layer. </li></ul><ul><li>In the inner layer, dirt is perceived as threatening; </li></ul><ul><li>Patient wants to move away from inner to inner core layer. For the same, she spends most of the time in worshipping the God and keeping cleanliness. </li></ul><ul><li>She is not happy with soaping hands as this can not help her to reach at the innercore layer of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>This results approach – avoidance conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>(Approaching to the soap in order to avoid dirt, again few soaping is not sufficient, so more soaping is required ). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Analysis of family <ul><li>Repeated soaping consumes more water; </li></ul><ul><li>Family assumes that it is unreasonable but patient assumes it as reasonable ; </li></ul><ul><li>Family member is not aware of consciousness dynamics playing inside the patient. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Therpeautic analysis <ul><li>Target: Preventing clasping hands; </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer (Murta) : Dirt perception; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer (Raaga): Dirt as threat; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innercore (Saraswat) : Feeling of cleanliness; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently, patient is moving around outer and inner layers only. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeautic target: Providing her Feeling of cleanliness. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrasangeet is non-dirt area; </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the song suitable for feeling of non-dirt area; </li></ul>
  24. 24. Session-1 <ul><li>In the first session , patient was highly inhibitive to reveal herself. Due to difficulty in rapport establishment. I started singing - &quot;Ananda loke, mangala loke&quot; (moving to spiritual land). </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly, she started singing with me in very low voice; </li></ul><ul><li>I paid my attention to her and started moving the hands keeping with the rhythm and waves of the song loudly. She participated into my hand movement and sang the song loudly. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Session-2 <ul><li>In the 2nd session after 6 days, the client sang with me same song by standing. She moved her hands above head when she sang &quot; Grahataraka chandra tapana byakula drutabege&quot; (the planets, satellites are moving speedily). It is noted that her hands now completely opened. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Session-3 <ul><li>In the 3rd sitting, patient reported that she alone practiced two songs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Ektuku chona lage....&quot; (feeling light touch), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Eto din je bosechinu&quot; (waiting for long days) at home. Finally, she sang with me both songs alongwith Ananda loke, danced and she never closed her hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination : Patient herself is able to prevent stopping hand clasping. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Case Study 2: Geetbitan as Projective test.
  28. 28. The Variables Agent Host Environment
  29. 29. Dynamics of latent variables Initial E X P R E S S I O n Middle Terminal A E H H H
  30. 30. Johari Window INVESTIGATOR C L I E N T Known Known Unknown Unknown OPEN DARK BLIND FAÇADE Rabindrasangeet
  31. 31. Exploring techniques <ul><li>FACADE </li></ul><ul><li>DARK </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION </li></ul><ul><li>FREE ASSOCIATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MINING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAPPING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROFILING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSAL RELATIONS </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Probability for variable exploration Structured Unstructured High prob. Low prob
  33. 33. Projective test <ul><li>Individual projects own feelings, conflict and desires on others; </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists use several projective tests for analysis of projection of the patient. Some widely used tests are : Rorschach, TAT, Sentence completion test, Word association test etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They explore set of inner dynamics playing latent role in causation of mental illness by analyzing test responses. Later the findings are used for psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>When patient is non-cooperative, it becomes difficult to administer projective tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrasangeet acts there. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Theories of hierarchy <ul><li>Individual by singing, listening develops hierarchy of songs; </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy depends upon one’s understanding about capability of the song to achieve feeling of completeness. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy can be measured using rank order scale. Here is a study: </li></ul>
  35. 35. Analysis of Projection <ul><li>A neurotic depressed patient came to me with complaints of suicidal desires. She was co-operative. In stead of using common psychodiagnostic test, I used Geetbitan She was asked to select 10 songs from Geetbitan, the famous Book of songs composed by Rabindranath Tagore. </li></ul><ul><li>Patient selected following 10 songs: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Akash bhara surya tara 2. Aloker ei jharna dharay 3. Ananda dhara bahiche bhubane 4. Ananda loke mangala loke 5. Aji jato tara tabo 6. Amar mukti aloy aloy 7. Ami chini go chini 8. Aro aro prabhu aro aro 9. Alo amar alo ogo 10. E ki labonye punya </li></ul><ul><li>Next, I told her to rank them. Her rank was :First : 3, Second : 10, Third : 4 </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Finally, she sang the first rank song (Ananda dhara bohiche bhubane). I followed her in singing.I have noticed that each line of this song reflects her current mental state and it is interesting to note that the song also provides the answer as how to recover from such problems. </li></ul><ul><li>I have used that song for her psychological counseling.Therefore, I have developed following assumptions: 1. Geetbitan as Psychological test; 2. The words of Geetbitan advances knowledge of psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Anandadhara bahiche bhubane, dinarajani kato amritarasa uthali jay ananta gagane. </li></ul><ul><li>Pan kare rabi shashi anjali bhariya- sada dipta rahe akshyaya jyoti- nitya purna dhara jibone kirane. </li></ul><ul><li>Bosiya acho keno apanmone, swarthanimagana ki karane? </li></ul><ul><li>Chari dike dekho chahi hridaya prasari, khudra dukhosab tuchcha mani </li></ul><ul><li>Prem bhariya laho shunya jibone. “ </li></ul>
  37. 37. Case Study 3: Self-understanding
  38. 38. Complaints <ul><li>Over learning </li></ul><ul><li>Poor academic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Apprehension of danger </li></ul>
  39. 39. Analysis of client <ul><li>Layer dynamics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer (Murta) : Perceiving the book; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer (Raaga) : Book is perceived as source of completeness; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innercore (Saraswat) : Feeling of completeness; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reason for over learning: He tends to be complete being. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem lies on over study due to extrinsic reading motivation (reading to get other’s affection, recognition and to avoid punishment); </li></ul><ul><li>Target of change : Study for intrinsic motivation (reading to acquire and to apply knowledge, to develop mastery over reading); This helps man to be complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Case history : He can play tabla and can sing Rabindrasangeet. It is practiced in family. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Session <ul><li>Requesting him to sing any song of Tagore; </li></ul><ul><li>He selected “Jadi tare nai chini go se ki amay nebe chine ei naba falguner dine---- jani ne, jani ne”. </li></ul><ul><li>I asked if your book asked you the same what would be your answer ? </li></ul><ul><li>He: Jani ne (I do not know)….after brooding…he said that from today I would study the lesson to understand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Termination: Client is able to understand how to be complete. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Some postulates based on Case studies <ul><li>Man searches for feeling of completeness or harmony among all the impulses or desires scattered in consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration and conflict occurs when he is searching for harmony around the outer and inner layer of consciousness. His consciousness is guided by Maya (errors). </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Following the principles of pattern perception (Figure-ground, similarity, Proximity or contiguity, Closure, Area, Symmetry), man tends to organize the impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of incompleteness causes tension and prolonged tension leads to mental illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrasangeet therapy is not simple music therapy as it is not detached from the words. Here each word is very powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrasangeet therapy acts on both left and right hemispheres of the brain. It appears to me that when left hemisphere resists, right hemisphere stimulates it by the stimulation of Rabindrasangeet. Possibly due to this reason, current OCD patient performs well. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrasangeet provides feeling of positive well-being. It does not develop any feeling of guilt. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-realization comes through spontaneously through Rabindrasangeet. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>In therapy using Rabindrasangeet, therapist should analyze the consciousness layer dynamics for the unreasonable behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>The words of Geetbitan advances knowledge of psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>For both co-operative and non co-operative clients, analyst can use Rabindrasangeet to understand above layer dynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>By singing the songs and through realization, client sometimes get insight behind the complaints and sort out the path to innercore layer of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>To sum up, Rabindrasangeet is not the ultimate but acts as the supporting system for psychotherapy. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Future researches (for Bengali Lit) <ul><li>Exploring songs related to different properties of outer, inner and innercore layers; </li></ul><ul><li>How do they cause change in changing attitude towards self and to others across different age groups specially for pediatrics and geriatric groups ? </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the songs related to adjustment in crisis situation. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Future researches (for Psychologists) <ul><li>How are the three layers associated ? Can we explain the associations in terms of Gestalt theories of perception or learning ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people find inhibition to move towards saraswat layer ? Is it due to conditioning ? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we decondition man using performing art like Rabindrasangeet ? </li></ul><ul><li>Does Rabindrasangeet affect both hemisphere of the brain system as it is intermingled with words/ reason (left hemisphere) and music (right hemisphere) ? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  46. 46. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Subir Bose, Sudipta, Susmita of Srijon o Gunjan, Orkut </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Sahana Roy, Dept. Applied Psychology, C.U. , Kathak dancer </li></ul><ul><li>Available: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/ddroy/rabindrasangeet-psychotherapy-consciousness-integral-psychology </li></ul>
  47. 47. References <ul><li>Dutta Roy,D.(2006). Development of picture drawing test to assess consciousness layers of tribal children of Tripura, Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology ,Vol. 32, No. 1, 20-25 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (2004). Analysis of drawing of tribal children in Tripura to understand different patterns of consciousness levels. A Quarterly Research Journal on Tribal life and Culture, 13, 45,17-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (2008). Sustainable Reading Motivation. Pratyay, 3, 1, 6-12 </li></ul>
  48. 48. NAMASKAR

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