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Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention
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Introduction to Sensation, Perception and Attention

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This slide will help you to understand basic ideas about sensation, perception and attention.

This slide will help you to understand basic ideas about sensation, perception and attention.

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO SENSATION, PERCEPTION AND ATTENTION Dr. Debdulal Dutta Roy, Ph.D. (Psy.) Psychology Research Unit INDIAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Kolkata – 700108 Lecture at the PATC,Rabindrabharati university, Kolkata
  • 2. SENSATION
  • 3. What is sensation ? <ul><li>It is defined as just awareness of stimulus. It is the stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory information to the central nervous system (the spinal cord and brain). </li></ul><ul><li>Song: O ki elo, o ki elo na, bojha gelo na </li></ul>
  • 4. Attributes of sensation <ul><li>Quality : what distinguishes one sensation from another. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity: strength of the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Duration : how long the sensation lasts </li></ul><ul><li>Localization: </li></ul>
  • 5. Brain and sensation
  • 6. Visual organ
  • 7. Auditory organ
  • 8. Nose and tongue
  • 9. Skin
  • 10. Spinal cord
  • 11. Thresholds <ul><li>Song: “Eso eso amar ghare eso, amar ghare. Bahir hoye eso” </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory receptors are located in sensory organs. Stimulus detection depends upon stimulus intensity. Stimulus intensity should cross the threshold. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of thresholds - absolute, differential and terminal thresholds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute threshold refers to the weakest amount of a stimulus that can be distinguished from no stimulus at all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The level where in individual is able to make difference in magnitude of two stimuli is called difference threshold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal threshold refers to the very high intensity of stimulus, which is not able to detect by the individual. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performing art therapy should study threshold of stimulus in customizing intensity of music so that client can detect its presence without any difficulty. </li></ul>
  • 12. Signal detection theory <ul><li>Signal detection theory considers human aspect of sensation and perception. This theory views that the signal can be distinguished from background noise through the interaction of physical (stimulus intensity), biological (sensory receptors’ limitation or fatigue) and psychological factors (motivation, expectations and learning). Therefore Performing art therapist should pay attention to the above three in presentation of stimuli to client. </li></ul>
  • 13. Four conditions of signal detection
  • 14. PERCEPTION
  • 15. Have you heard any sound? Identify the sound and write
  • 16. Perception <ul><li>Perception is the brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual organizes perception according to certain principles of pattern perception. These are: </li></ul>
  • 17. Figure and ground <ul><li>We organize the perceptual field into stimuli that stand out(figure) and those that are left over (ground). </li></ul>
  • 18. Closure <ul><li>When individual sees a disconnected or incomplete figure, they fill in the spaces and see it as a complete figure. </li></ul>
  • 19. Proximity: <ul><li>When individual sees objects close to each other, they tend to group them together. </li></ul>
  • 20. Similarity <ul><li>the more similar objects are, the more likely we are to group them together </li></ul>
  • 21. Linear perspective <ul><li>The farther an object is from the viewer, the less space it takes up in the visual field. As an object recedes in the distance, parallel lines in the object converge. </li></ul>
  • 22. Texture gradient <ul><li>Texture becomes denser the farther away it from the viewer. </li></ul>
  • 23. Relative size <ul><li>Objects farther away create a smaller retinal image than those nearby. </li></ul>
  • 24. Interposition <ul><li>An object that partially conceals or overlaps another object is perceived as closer. </li></ul>
  • 25. ATTENTION
  • 26. Attention <ul><li>Attention is the amount of effort exerted in focusing on certain portions of an experience: ability to sustain a focus on one activity; ability to concentrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention is of two types based on effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active or concentration </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Focus Active attention Moderate Very high Passive attention Non-specific specific
  • 28. Focus in Vivo <ul><li>Think deeply some of the events happened in your life. You will be able to express all the incidents vividly because your focus of attention is in vivo. </li></ul>
  • 29. Attention specificity <ul><li>Non specific attention can be modified to specific through dance and movement therapy. </li></ul>
  • 30. Attention is developed through play therapy <ul><li>Follow client’s behaviour first and relate it to specific attention. </li></ul>
  • 31. Selective attention changes perception
  • 32. Attention difficulty can be controlled by movement therapy
  • 33. Attention difficulty <ul><li>using a 'behavioral approach' which you can divide into 5 steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully observe the circumstances of your child's unacceptable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to understand why your child behaves as he does. </li></ul><ul><li>Set a reasonable goal for improvement based on his immediate needs and his developmental level. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to work toward the goal in small steps, always rewarding 'good' behavior and making sure 'bad' behavior brings no pleasure, attention, or reward. </li></ul><ul><li>After the child's behavior has improved, gradually move toward a more natural (less planned) way of relating to him. </li></ul>
  • 34. Disturbances in attention : <ul><li>Distractibility: Inability to concentrate attention; attention drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli; </li></ul><ul><li>Selective inattention: Blocking out only those things that generate anxiety; </li></ul><ul><li>Hypervigilance: Excessive attention and focus on all internal and external stimuli secondary to paranoid stance. </li></ul>
  • 35. Signs of ADHD children <ul><li>Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>Six or more of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level. </li></ul>
  • 36. Signs of Attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder: <ul><li>Attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder:  </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4 th Edition – Test revision, 2001) are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Either (1) or (2) </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Six or more of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: </li></ul><ul><li>Inattention: </li></ul><ul><li>often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities; </li></ul><ul><li>often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities; </li></ul><ul><li>often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly; </li></ul><ul><li>often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions) </li></ul><ul><li>often has difficulties organizing tasks and activities </li></ul><ul><li>often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework) </li></ul><ul><li>often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books or tools) </li></ul><ul><li>is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>is often forgetful in daily activities </li></ul>
  • 37. Hyperactivity <ul><li>(2) six ( or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity – impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat </li></ul><ul><li>often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected </li></ul><ul><li>often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)] </li></ul><ul><li>often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly </li></ul><ul><li>is often “ on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor” </li></ul><ul><li>often talks excessively </li></ul>
  • 38. Impulsivity <ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>often blurs out answers before questions have been completed </li></ul><ul><li>often has difficulty awaiting turn </li></ul><ul><li>often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)   </li></ul><ul><li>Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school [or work] and at home) </li></ul><ul><li>There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., Mood disorder, Anxiety disorder, Dissociative Disorder or a Personality disorder). </li></ul>
  • 39. Types <ul><li>Combined: if both criteria A1 and A2 are met for the past 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly attentive: if criterion A1 is met but criterion A2 is not met for the past 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive type: if criterion A2 is met but criterion A1 is not met for the past 6 months. </li></ul>

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