trans fat is made when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oil--a process called hydrogenation
The majority of trans fat is put into the products we eat
A small amount of trans fat is found naturally, primarily in dairy products, some meat, and other animal-based foods
Trans fat, like saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, raises the LDL cholesterol that increases your risk for CHD.
Americans consume on average 4 to 5 times as much saturated fat as trans fat in their diets
Companies have till January 2006 to include trans fats on the label
Major Food Sources of Trans Fat for American Adults (Average Daily Trans Fat Intake is 5.8 Grams or 2.6 Percent of Calories)
Cholesterol plaque causes thickening of the artery walls and narrowing of the arteries. Arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscles are called coronary arteries. When coronary arteries are narrowed, they are incapable of supplying enough blood and oxygen to the heart muscle during exertion. Lack of oxygen to the heart muscle causes chest pain, also formation of a blood clot in the artery can clause complete blockage of the artery, leading to death of heart muscle (heart attack).
VITAMIN A – helps keep skin clear and smooth. Keeps mucus membranes healthy, helps night blindness, and promotes growth. Sources – carrots, green & yellow fruits and veggies, liver, egg yolks, milk. Deficiencies – eyes become sensitive to light, skin becomes rough and chances of getting diseases increases.
VITAMIN D – promotes growth and helps with teeth and bones. Sources – egg yolk, liver, sardines, tuna, fish liver oil, milk. Deficiencies – Rickets (in children0 and bone abnormalities (in adults)
VITAMIN C – promotes healthy gums and tissues, helps mend broken bones, and fights infections. Sources – oranges, strawberries, citrus fruits, melons, tomatoes. Deficiencies – poor appetite, weight loss, soreness in joints, bleeding gums, bruising, and teeth loss (scurvy).
VITAMIN K – necessary for blood to clot normally. Sources – kale, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach.
VITAMIN E – works as an antioxidant. Sources – nuts, seeds, green leafy vegetables, wheat germ, and vegetables oils
FOLIC ACID – very important for pregnant women to have in their diet. The unborn baby needs the vitamin. Helps in the formation of red blood cells and neural tubes.
Sources – leafy green vegetables like kale and spinach, orange juice, and enriched grains (such as cereals).
Deficiencies – risk that their baby will be born with a serious neural tube defect (a defect involving incomplete development of the brain and spinal cord) e.g. Spina Bifida (an incomplete closure of the spinal cord and spinal column), Anencephaly (severe underdevelopment of the brain), and Encephalocele (when brain tissue protrudes out of the skin from an abnormal opening in the skull)
VITAMIN B-complex – promotes healthy gums and tissues, helps mend broken bones, and fights infections.
CALCIUM – builds bone and teeth, helps blood clot, and helps muscles and nerves to work. Sources – dairy and meat products. Deficiencies – osteoporsis (especially women)
IRON – combines w/ protein to make hemoglobin and helps cells use oxygen. Sources – liver, lean meats, leafy green vegetables, dried fruit. Deficiencies – anemia. Excesses – usually from pill form, and especially dangerous for young children if they eat iron pills can be fatal.
MAGNESIUM -- regulating the neuromuscular activity of the heart. Sources – whole grain breads and cerals, nuts, peanut butter, green leafy vegetables, seeds, tofu, fish. Deficiencies -- calcium depletion, heart spasms, nervousness, muscular excitability, confusion; kidney stones.
SODIUM – helps maintain fluid balance in body, muscle and nerve action, and regulate blood pressure. Sources – table salt and processed food.
ZINC – helps body make proteins, heal wounds, and form blood. Helps your body use carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Sources – Meat, liver, poultry, fish and shellfish, dairy products, dry beans and peas, peanuts. Deficiencies – prolonged healing wounds, white spots on finger nails, retarded growth, stretch marks, fatigue, decreased alertness, susceptibility to infections
COPPER – Helps iron make red blood cells, heart work properly, and keep bones, blood vessels, and nerves healthy. Sources – Whole-grain products, seafood, organ meats, dry beans and peas, nuts and seeds Deficiencies – weakness, impaired respiration, skin sores.
POTASSIUM – Helps maintain fluid balance in body, heartbeat, muscle and nerve action, and normal blood pressure. Sources – Fruits (bananas & oranges), vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, dry beans and peas, dairy products Deficiencies -- poor reflexes, nervous disorders, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, muscle damage
FLUORIDE – helps strengthen teeth and prevent cavities. Sources – in many communities, small amounts are added to the water supply to help improve dental health, toothpaste
There are more than 300,000 fast food restaurants in the US
Don’t assume it is healthy, look at the labels
Most menus for children are high in saturated and trans fats
By knowing what is in foods, you can make wise choices
Nutrition facts labels for most national chain fast-food restaurants is available on-line or at the store
SERVING SIZES ** Most Americans don’t eat normal serving sizes. They usually eat 2 – 3 serving sizes at one sitting. This is one reason why we consume more servings than what the Food Guide Pyramid recommends. If you followed the recommended servings per group and ate the right serving size, you would either maintain a healthy weight or lose weight in a healthy manner.