To tackle audience, you will need:•To know a certain amount oftheory – look over check list andlearn•To know some case study textsthat you can use to illustrate yourideas (FHM cover/ Beyoncé video/ Four Lions/ SlumdogMillionaire?)
In the exam, you will getone 30-mark question onaudience.This could be QuestionTwo, in which case it willbe split into three shorterquestions. An example canbe seen on the next slide…
• Use marks allocated as a guide – 1 mark per minute?• Analyse question carefully to understand the exact requirements• Use own case study samples for (c) – 2 or 3 texts
If the audience question in Question 3, it will probably look something like this:• As this is worth 30 marks, it should be longer and more developed than even your 2 (c) response and should take about 35 minutes to plan and write.• You will need to refer to at least 2/3 different case studies.
So, what sort of things can they ask you? • Identify and describe an audience • Look at how a text constructs an audience • Look at how a text positions its audience • How a text appeals to an audience • How different audience can respond differently to different texts
IDENTIFY/ DESCRIBE AN AUDIENCE:This involves describing the audience as accurately as youcan, using:DEMOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTORS (GRASS)andPSYCHOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTORS (Young and Rubicam)andANY OTHER DISTINGUISHING FEATURESBe as accurate a you can and offer some reasons/evidence foryour choices.
Suggest TWOaudiences for this filmand give reasons foryour choices.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JerVr
Other considerations :•Know why media producers need to know their targetaudience•Know the strengths and weaknesses of seeing wholegroups of people as reacting in a similar way to each other•Understand situated culture as a way of explaining howpeople belonging to the same group may well react quitedifferently to certain texts and group reactions lesspredictable.
CONSTRUCTING AN AUDIENCE:This refers to the fact that most texts create a strongsense of who their audience is – the actual text projectsclues as to what sort of person their reader is.Key questions: what type of person reads/ views this –how do we know this? What tells us?
Other considerations :•Do these ideologies about the reader reflect howthe reader actually is or do they try and shape thereader and force them to live up to these ideas? Amirror or a dictator?•Which of these is a matter for more concern?•Does it make any difference if the audience isactive or passive? Why/ not?•Reception theory? Pick’n’Mix Theory?
Positioning An Audience:This refers to how we are placed in relation to a text,how it wants us to see and respond to the text.
This can involve:•Which characters we are made to like/ dislike•How we are made to feel about an issue•Whether we see through a character’s eyes (1stperson) or kept as a detached observer (3rd person) –how involved are we?•How we choose to respond to the text’s ideologies –Reception Theory
How do these two extracts position us?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKgDjUG8vs8&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2Oa8Q7RV78&feature=related
Issues Arising:•Are we passive or active?•Do we have to accept the positioning we are offeredor can we resist it?•Reception Theory/ Encoding- Decoding Model.
What is thePreferred and whatthe OppositionalReading here?Proving thatresistance is notfutile!
How are webeingpositionedhere and howcan we resistthispositioning?
Appealing to an Audience:This refers to how texts appeal/attract or target their audience.Why do texts have to includetechniques and media languageelements that appeal to theiraudience?
Common methods of appealing to an audience:•Offer them an image they can relate to/ identify with or aspire tobe like – makes it easy to feel an interest in the text•Use media language features that they are likely to enjoy•Use well-worn patterns audiences know and love – patterns ofgenre, narrative and representation – but maybe adding in a newtwist•Use techniques to hook them at the start – enigmas, setting upexpectations
How does this trailer target its intended audience? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IZUWkgh Remember: when using your own case studies, always identify who the target audience is before outlining techniques used to appeal!
You can also consider how a text can appeal toseveral audiences at once – it offers different thingsto different people.Key ideas:•Polysemy•Reception Theory•Uses and Gratifications Theory
Identify twoaudiences here andexplain how theymight get differentthings out of thistext/ read itdifferently.
Different Audiences, Different ResponsesDifferent groups ofpeople often can and doreact differently to thesame text.What can explain this?
• Different backgrounds may well offer a different way of looking at things – although, even within a group, their may not be a uniform response (older and younger Asian viewers may well react differently to Four Lions/ notions of situated culture)• Polysemy – media texts are made of signs and these often carry multiple meanings – Encoding- Decoding Model suggests different people may take different understandings• Reception Theory/ the Active Audience – we are free to take our own stance on a media text.
Think of two different groups of people who mightrespond differently to this ad – how might they differand why?
How has the Tory party read this text differently – whatmakes this possible?
Writing an answer to an essay question:•Start with a short intro – explain what key terms mean e.g.audience positioning•Plan what points you want to make – try and use theory andterminology where you can•Think how to illustrate your points with examples from texts– you need to cover 2/3 different texts from at least 2different media; make sure they are detailed and specific.•Write each point up – be time aware•Conclusion – sum up key points and ensure you offer aconsidered answer/ comment on the task/ question thatreflects what you have written.
Revision Ideas:•Learn all theories and understand them – writerevision cards or test each other•Know what the five key question areas are and whatthe terms mean/ what issues they give rise to•Apply these to your case study texts•Apply them to some new texts you can find yourselfor do some more work on the ones in this PP•Look over past questions and plan/ write answers –stick to the time limits