Genre is a French word meaning type – a genre is, therefore, a type or category of media text (Burton, 2000) Media Studies we use it to categorise In media products which share similar characteristics e.g. similar music, narratives, characters, mise en scene etc. What different types or genres can you name in the following media? Film Television Music
are made up of typical patterns or Genres elements. Thesecharacteristics/typical elements make up the formula of a genre. They are called the genre’s CODES AND CONVENTIONS.
Genre conventions can consist ofrepeated:•Characters•Settings (time and place)•Narratives/ story sequences•Iconography (everything we can see andhear e.g. props)•Ideologies – the messages genresconvey(love conquers all/ good defeats evil)•Media Language
The genre ofthe film in theposter belowshould beobvious.However, whatfeatures orconventionstell you this?
What conventions does the previous postershare with the posters below? What can we learn from this?
Genre Task: We have learnt that it is possible to categorise texts into genres by analysing their generic conventions . Can you list the common conventions for these following genres Science Fiction Horror Super Hero Action
Itis sometimes even possible to identify the genre of a text though analysing the people involved in its creation. For example, in the 1980s/90s if you saw a movie poster featuring Arnold Schwarzenegger you could be reasonably sure that it was an action film.
Which film genres are the following peopleclosely associated with? Robert Pattinson
Note that TV has genres that can be definedby their codes and conventions too!
Reality TV conventions Strangers with conflicting personalities living together Humiliating tasks A diary room Nominations/evictions Audience votes Hidden cameras Twists Conflict People trapped together
And music! What genre is signalledbelow and what would you say are itsconventions?
Graham Burton (2000) “Genres are created through a process of repetition and recognition leading to anticipation and expectation.”
Genre & Expectation Asgenres become established audiences begin to have certain expectations Thereare certain things the audience anticipate being present and actively look forward to seeing.
Genre & Expectation These are all generic conventions that audiences would expect a gangster film to contain: car chases, guns, villains, violence, urban setting, mafia, family, honour, corruption, beautiful women, revenge
Why do We Like Genre?Genre texts are successful becauseAUDIENCES like their…Familiarity (like a warm blanket!) – we tendto stick to what we likeThey give us an informed choice – we knowwhat to expect and whether it is for us or notWe can predict some of the action andenjoy seeing if we are right or not
Why do We Like Genre?PRODUCERS of media texts like them as they.. Give them a blueprint or toolbox to use and experiment with – make developing the film easy Theyhave a proven popularity - so they can (almost always) guarantee some success – help select which films to make Theycan target their audience more easily - marketing campaigns etc…
In other words, genres help to minimiserisk.For the AUDIENCE they minimise therisk of us selecting something we won’tlike.For the PRODUCERS they minimise therisk of producing something that won’tsell/ make a profit.
Why Genres Aren’t Boring… Over time genres change. If you watch a Police drama from the 70s or 80 you might notice that it is quite different to police dramas on TV today. This is because all genre texts combine… “The familiar and the unexpected” (G.Burton 2000) They are the “same but different”(Nick Lacey 1999)
Repetition of the conventions could lead to boredom. To keep us interested producers offer us what we know with a twist. This doesn’t just happen over time, it happens usually with each new text in a genre… Thiskeeps fans of a genre interested – they get plenty of the expected conventions but also get something a little new, something they haven’t seen and which gives them a reason to watch the new text.
Can you identify what the genre is in eachclip and what it is that is slightly different tothe norm?
Television genres work likethis too…. TV is a sub-genre of Reality documentary. BigBrother began the craze in 2000. As soon as it proved successful, the formula was repeated over and over in different programmes. Each is a slight variation on the Big Brother formula. “The same but different”.
How are any of the following examplesvarying the formula? Celebrity Big Brother I’m a Celebrity, Get Me…. The Farm Escape America’s next top Model Strictly Come Dancing Dumped The Apprentice Come Dine with Me Survivor Shipwrecked Hell’s Kitchen
Hybrids Often,a way of offering the audience “the same but different” is by combining conventions of more than one genre. texts are called hybrids and are These becoming increasingly popular.
Hybrids Hybridscan be found in most media types. One example is The Only Way is Essex. TOWIEhas the conventions of a documentary, reality TV show and soap opera
What genres can you detect in thefollowing film hybrids?
Why do you think media producers mightlike to create hybrid genre texts? • It widens the potential audience • This widens the text’s popularity/ profit potential
Hybrids Whatgenres can be found in Attack the Block Attack the Block Trailer