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    Dacota sunflower Dacota sunflower Document Transcript

    • Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis Deliverable 4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsPlease refer to this report as follows:Reurings, M.C.B., Papadimitriou, E., Vis, M.A. & Yannis, G. (2010). FunctionalSpecification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews, Deliverable 4.3 of theEC FP7 project DaCoTA.Grant agreement No TREN / FP7 / TR / 233659 /"DaCoTA"Theme: Sustainable Surface Transport: Collaborative projectProject Coordinator:Professor Pete Thomas, Vehicle Safety Research Centre, ESRILoughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UKProject Start date: 01/01/2010 Duration 30 monthsOrganisation name of lead contractor for this deliverable:IBSRReport Author(s):Reurings, M.C.B., Vis, M.A. (SWOV), Yannis, G. (NTUA)Due date of deliverable dd/mm/yyyy Submission date: dd/mm/yyyyProject co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework ProgrammeDissemination LevelPU PublicProject co-financed by the European Commission, Directorate-General Transport and Energy
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive summary................................................................................................41. Introduction..........................................................................................................5 1.1. Background.................................................................................................................. 5 1.2. Data Browser Tool....................................................................................................... 5 1.3. Country Overviews....................................................................................................... 6 1.4. What is a functional specification?..............................................................................6 1.5. Report outline.............................................................................................................. 72. Available data.......................................................................................................8 2.1. Crash data................................................................................................................... 8 2.2. Exposure data.............................................................................................................. 9 2.3. Data on SPIs.............................................................................................................. 103. Data browser tool..............................................................................................12 3.1. Objectives.................................................................................................................. 12 3.2. Target groups............................................................................................................. 12 3.3. Specifications............................................................................................................. 12 3.3.1. Easy access........................................................................................................ 12 3.3.2. Interactive data.................................................................................................... 13 3.3.3. Meta-data............................................................................................................ 13 3.4. Tool set up................................................................................................................. 13 3.5. Available technology.................................................................................................. 14 3.5.1. Contents management system: Wiki...................................................................14 3.5.2. Cognos Powerplay on the web............................................................................15 3.5.3. The PC-Axis family.............................................................................................. 164. Country overviews.............................................................................................18 4.1. Objectives.................................................................................................................. 18 4.2. Structure of the country overviews: the SUNflower methodology..............................18 4.3. Detailed outline and contents....................................................................................20 4.3.1. Structure and Culture......................................................................................... 20 4.3.2. Programmes and measures...............................................................................21 4.3.3. Road Safety Performance Indicators...................................................................22 4.3.4. Road safety outcomes......................................................................................... 22 4.3.5. Social Costs......................................................................................................... 24 4.3.6. Synthesis............................................................................................................. 24 4.4. Templates and format...............................................................................................25 4.5. Prototype of country overview and next steps...........................................................25
    • 5. Next steps.......................................................................................................... 27 References............................................................................................................ 28Annex A. Specifications for country overviews..................................................29 A.1 Structure and Culture................................................................................................. 29 A.2 Programmes and measures.......................................................................................29 A.3 Road Safety Performance Indicators..........................................................................29 A.4 Outcomes................................................................................................................... 30 A.5 Social Cost................................................................................................................. 31 A.6 Synthesis.................................................................................................................... 31Annex B. Example of Country Overview for Greece...........................................32
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsEXECUTIVE SUMMARYdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 4
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews1.INTRODUCTION1.1.BackgroundThe DaCoTA project aims at further developing the data and information resources ofthe European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) to support road and vehicle safetypolicy-making. New approaches will be developed and implemented to gather,structure and apply policy-related safety data that can be incorporated within theObservatory. The data gathering is mainly the task of WP3 of the project. It is namelythis work package in which a road safety data warehouse will be developed, as acomprehensive and integrated system, making available all the existing data andinformation, necessary for the support of the decision making.The aim of WP4 is to bridge the gap between research and policy by bringingtogether policy makers needs and tangible tools. Using information available in otherwork packages (including the Data Warehouse of WP3) tools will be realised tosupport decision making. These tools are:• Data Browser Tool for data from WP3;• SUNflower country comparison and analysis tool (Country Overviews);• (updates of the) topical webtexts in the ERSO website.This reports focuses on the Data Browser Tool and the Country Overviews. Itdiscusses the functional specifications of both tools. In Section 1.4 it will be explainedwhat a functional specifications in general is. But first, the next two sections will givesome background on the Data Browser Tool and the Country Overviews.1.2.Data Browser ToolAs the name indicates, the Data Browser Tool is a tool which makes it possible forthe end-user of the system to browse through all the collected data, preferably in away that is easily understood. It will be part of the Data Warehouse, developed inWP3. This is a web-based system in which output of several work packages inDaCoTA will be put. The Data Warehouse will consist of four parts, namely:• Statistics (static data in the form of basic factsheets and annual statistical reports);• i-Data (interactive data);• Knowledge;• Tools. The i-Data is an interactive web-based system (and hence a Data Browser Tool) allowing easy on-line combination of various data contained in the Data Warehouse. These data consist of numbers (e.g. about crashes and exposure) and meta-data (information on these numbers), but not of for example webtexts or lists of measures. A schematic overview of the i-Data system is given in Figure 1.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 5
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsFigure 1. Schematic structure of the i-Data system, aka Data Browser Tool.1.3.Country OverviewsA Country Overview is a short document containing the following information on theroad safety situation in a country:• structure and culture (e.g. road safety programs, road safety authorities, user education, attitudes towards risk taking, climate and conditions);• programs and measures (e.g. national strategic plans and targets, speed management, driver training, quality of road design standards);• road safety performance indicators, as proposed and developed in SafetyNet;• outcomes (e.g. number of fatalities, fatalities per vehicle type);• social costs.Also a synthesis of the results is included in each Country Overview, ideally providingthe links between levels that may result in a complete picture on the countrys roadsafety level and the main causes and future challenges.By comparing these overviews, an end-user must immediately see on which levelsthe countries differ.1.4. What is a functional specification?In short, a functional specification in systems engineering and software developmentis the documentation that describes the requested behavior of a system, in our casethe Data Browser Tool or the Country Overviews. The documentation typicallydescribes what is needed by the system user as well as requested properties ofinputs and outputs (e.g. of the software system). A functional specification does notdefine the inner workings of the proposed system and it does not include thespecification how the system function will be implemented.A functional specification can be informal, in which case it can be considered as ablueprint or user manual from a developer point of view, or formal, in which case itdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 6
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviewshas a definite meaning defined in mathematical or programmatic terms. Thefunctional specifications in this report will be mostly informal.1.5.Report outline Before the functional specifications of the Data Browser Tool and the Country Overviews can be developed, it should be clear which data are available for browsing. This is the subject of Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 the Data Browser Tool will be discussed and the Country Overviews are the subject of 4. The report ends with a short description of the next steps to be taken.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 7
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews2.AVAILABLE DATAIn order to develop a suitable Data Browser Tool and to determine which informationshould be contained in the Country Overviews, it must be known which data will beavailable. Because the Data Warehouse of WP3 is the basis for both tools, thischapter will give an overview of the data that will be contained in this warehouse (asproposed at the moment).2.1.Crash dataThis section lists the proposed crash data by WP3-leader NTUA. Distinction is madebetween the crash, the involved vehicles and the resulting victims.Data about the crash:• day of the week;• hour;• month;• year;• crahs severity;• crash type;• collision type;• hit and run;• country;• region/province;• area type• junction or road segment;• motorway;• carriageway type;• number of lanes;• road markings;• road surface conditions;• speed limit;• junction type;• junction control;• number of vehicles involved;• number of persons involved;• number of pedestrians involved;• lighting conditions;• natural light;• street lights;• weather. Data about vehicles:• vehicle group;• vehicle type;dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 8
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews• vehicle age;• registration country;• manoeuvre vehicle or driver;• lighting; Data about victims:• age;• gender;• nationality;• injury severity;• person class;• car passenger type;• driving licence age;• movement pedestrian;• psychophysical circumstances;• security equipment;• alcohol test;• alcohol level.2.2.Exposure dataExposure data are data which should be taken into account when comparing roadsafety levels of e.g. countries, groups of people or roads. Exposure measures canroughly be classified into two groups:• Traffic estimates: road length, vehicle kilometres, fuel consumption, vehicle fleet;• Persons at risk estimates: person kilometres, population, number of trips, time in traffic, driver population.This categorisation is somewhat arbitrary and some measures can well beconsidered within the other category. For instance, often person kilometres arepreferred over vehicle kilometres when fatalities are to be compared, becausedifferences in vehicle occupancy rates may be captured by person kilometres (andnot by vehicle kilometres). However, when the subject of a study is the occupancyrate, a comparison based on vehicle kilometres may be more reasonable.Below the exposure data is listed, which is proposed to be part of the DataWarehouse:• vehicle kilometres per: • vehicle type; • road type; • area type; • year;• vehicle fleet per: • vehicle type; • age; • engine size; • region;• driver population per:dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 9
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews • age; • gender; • nationality;• population per: • age; • gender;• road length data per: • road type; • area type; • region;• person kilometres per: • age; • gender; • nationality; • driving experiene.2.3.Data on SPIsSafety performance indicators are the measures (indicators), reflecting thoseoperational conditions of the road traffic system, which influence the system’s safetyperformance (Hakkert, A.S, Gitelman, V. and Vis, M.A. (Eds.), 2007). The purpose ofsafety performance indicators is• to reflect the current safety conditions of a road traffic system;• to measure the influence of various safety interventions, but not the stage or level of application of particular measures,• to compare between different road traffic systems (e.g. countries, regions, et cetera).Following the recommendations of the ETSC report "Transport Safety PerformanceIndicators" (2001), seven problem areas were selected in SafetyNet (Hakkert, A.S,Gitelman, V. and Vis, M.A. (Eds.), 2007). They are:• alcohol and drug-use;• speeds;• protection systems;• daytime running lights (DRL);• vehicles;• roads;• trauma management.These are also the problem areas for which SPIs will be included in the DataWarehouse. The SPIs per area are stated below.Alcohol and drug-use• Proportion of drunk drivers in the traffic flow;• Number of alcohol/drug controls, et cetera.Speeds• Percentage of the total traffic of vehicles exceeding speed limit;dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 10
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews• Average speed, et cetera.Protection systems• Wearing rates of seat belts per population;• Usage rates of helmet and protective clothes per vehicle fleet;• Usage rates of child restraint systems per children population.Daytime running lights• Percentage of motor vehicles using head lights during daytime. Vehicles• Number of vehicles in the countrys fleet per vehicle type, and if possible information on make, model and year of registration.Roads• Network SPI: percentage of appropriate road category length per connection type;• Road design SPI: distribution of stars (1-4) per road category.Trauma Management• EMS medical staff per 10.000 inhabitants.• Number of road crash emergency calls per 10.000 inhabitants et cetera.Attitudes• Selected SARTRE Tables on attitudes data.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 11
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews3.DATA BROWSER TOOL3.1.ObjectivesThe aim of the Data Bowser Tool is disclose any macroscopic data that is collectedor gathered within the DaCoTA project. This includes the data as specified in Chapter2, and may include other data collected in DaCoTA.Here, data means numbers. When disclosing numbers, however, it is importantalso to provide information on issues like;• the definitions behind the numbers;• who collected the data;• how the data was collected;• the quality of the data;• how to use the data. Such information is termed meta-data. The Data Browser Tool also aims to provide the right amount of meta-data related to the data.3.2.Target groupsIn general, the Data Browser Tool is meant to serve any person who is interested inthe data that it discloses. More specifically, persons using the Data Browser Tool willbe those interested in road safety related data, interested in doing their own analysison basis of this data. This also means that a certain level of knowledgeability withroad safety data quality and with the performance of road safety data analyses isrequired. It is therefore expected that the users of the Data Browser Tool will consistof the following groups in order of descending likelihood:• researchers;• policy preparers;• press.3.3.SpecificationsBased on the stated objectives and the target groups, the Data Browser Tool shouldmeet several specifications:• the data should be easily accessible;• the data should be interactive;• if data are showed, the relevant meta-data should be showed as well.Each of these specifications will be discussed below.3.3.1. Easy accessIt should be clear immediately which data are available in the Data Browser Tool.This can, for example, be derived by giving a list of the available tables on theentrance page of the tool. For each of these tables the available variables should belisted. By just one click the user should go to the desired table (for example crashdata).dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 12
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews3.3.2. Interactive dataOnce the user arrived at the desired table (e.g. crash data), he should be able toquery the table. I.e., the user can choose which of the available variables in that tablehe wants to see, for example the type of crash, the month, the number of involvedvehicles. It should be easy to change the selection of variables and also to go back tothe main page (list of available tables).3.3.3. Meta-dataOnce a table is shown, the meta-data must be shown as well. It is important thatusers read more information about the data, in order to interpret them correctly. Themore detailed the showed data are, the more detailed the meta-data should be. Itshould also be possible to go to meta-data on some number (for example the numberof killed male drivers in Italy), by clicking on that number in the table. This requires avery ordered structure of the meta-data.3.4.Tool set upThis section shows the set-up of the Data Browser Tool, inspired by the givenspecifications in the preceding section. As mentioned, the Data Browser Tool willdisclose data and so-called meta-data. Two main groups of data can bedistinguished:• (Time-)series of multidimensional data;• Short single or two-dimensional list of data.The first group will be disclosed through a queryable database with a web-interface,the second group through either web texts or simple ASCII text or Excel files. Themeta-data will be provided in the form of factsheets or web texts.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 13
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsFigure 2. Schematic representation of the set-up of the Data Browser Tool.The general set-up is shown in Figure 2. A search for specific data would start in thegeneral data overview. This provides an overview of the available data types,according to the New Zealand target hierarchy (LTSA, 2000), as adapted for theSUNflower studies (Koornstra et al., 2002). By clicking one of the layers in thehierarchy, the user is lead to a detailed overview of the data for the data type of thatlevel. From this detailed overview, the user can either go directly to the data (Tables)or to the meta-data. Navigation between the data and the meta-data is also possible.3.5.Available technologyIn this section we will discuss which tools are already available which can be used tobuilt the Data Browser Tool. Because the Data Browser Tool does not only containdata (numbers), but also texts (meta-data), and is developed and maintained bymultiple partners, it is logical to use a contents management system (CMS) for theoverall tool. This will be elaborated on in Section 3.5.1. In this CMS other tools canbe used to actually show the data. Two possibilities will be discussed: CognosPowerplay (Section 3.5.2) and PC Axis (Section 3.5.3).3.5.1. Contents management system: WikiA content management system is a collection of procedures used to manage workflow in a collaborative environment. The general criteria which a CMS should meetare:• A large number of people can contribute to and share stored data;• Access to data is controlled, based on user roles, which define what information each user can view or edit;• The storage and retrieval of data is easy;• Repetitive duplicate input is reduced;• It improves the ease of report writing;• It improves the communication between users.A special and very popular type of a contents management system is a so calledwiki. A wiki is a website that allows the easy creation and editing of any number ofinterlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or aWYSIWYG text editor. Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are oftenused to create collaborative websites, such as the Data Warehouse.The first wiki was developed by Ward Cunningham. He describes the characteristicsas of a wiki as follows (Cunningham & Leuf, 2001):• It invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki web site, using only a plain-vanilla web browser without any extra add-ons;• It promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not;• A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 14
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsEspecially the second characteristic is important for the Data Browser Tool,containing data and meta-data.Figure 3. Example of a wiki for displaying the meta data in the Data Browser Tool.A wiki can be used as part of the front end of the Data Browser Tool to provide themeta data information. Furthermore, it can be used to provide comprehensiveoverviews of the available information on specific topics. Figure 3 shows an exampleof such an application of a wiki.3.5.2. Cognos Powerplay on the webCognos Powerplay is a tool which can be used for online analytical processing(OLAP). It draws information from relational databases to model and build so-calledcubes. Cubes are data sets that can contain tens of millions of consolidated rows ofdata and hundreds of thousands of categories (members). By easy clicking ordragging it is possible to show the data for several variables. SWOV uses CognosPowerplay on its website to open up road safety data. Figure 4 shows a screenshotof the SWOV website, showing Cognos Powerplay.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 15
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsFigure 4. Example of the Cognos Powerplay Data Browser Tool3.5.3. The PC-Axis familyAnother frequently used Data Browser Tool is part of the PC-Axis family. The PC-Axis family consists of a number of programs for the Windows and Internetenvironment used to present statistical information. It is mostly used by the statisticaloffices in different countries to let their users retrieve statistics. PC-Axis is the baseprogram in the family. It can be extended with:• PX-Map: a Windows program which allows you to view statistics on maps;• PX-Make: helps you to create PC-Axis files, by entering metadata and adding data from for instance an excel file;• PX-Edit: a tool for editing, manipulating and generating PC-Axis files, aimed to provide the maintainers of PC-Axis and PX-Web-based services with a fast easy- to-use expert tool;• PX-Web is a solution for the web, which works with PC-Axis files. PX-Web can also be a part of a solution with connection to SQL databases.These programs can be downloaded free of charge at http://www.pc-axis.scb.se/.As an example, Figure 5 shows a screenshot of the website of the Observatory forthe Greek Information Society, which also uses programs of the PC-Axis family.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 16
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsFigure 5. Example of the PC-Axis family.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 17
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews4.COUNTRY OVERVIEWS4.1.ObjectivesThe country overviews aim to create a representation of the road safety situation anddevelopment over time in a country, to enable detailed country comparisons and toallow benchmarking for several specific road safety indicators. More specifically, thecountry overviews should give policy makers the opportunity to evaluate the roadsafety situation in their country with respect to different key areas:• The outcomes of the road safety system i.e. the road accidents, the related casualties and the resulting social costs;• The behaviors that are considered to play an essential role in the creation of unsafe traffic situations (e.g. speeding, drink-driving, use of safety equipment et cetera), as well as other elements affecting the level of road safety in the country (e.g., quality of the road infrastructure, the vehicle fleet et cetera);• The road safety policies and measures implemented in the country, as well as the general context in which these measures have been established.Eventually, the country overviews should allow linking the actions taken or not takenby policy makers, to the operational level of road safety in the country, which in turndefines the magnitude of the road safety problem in the country, in terms ofaccidents, casualties and social costs.For that purpose, an appropriate framework for the analysis and integration of thevarious elements of the country overviews is selected, namely the footprintmethodology of the SUNflower projects. This methodology provides a well-specified,complete and concise structure for analyzing and linking the various components ofthe road safety system in a country. Within this structure, a detailed outline of thecontents of the country overviews is provided, in terms of data and informationrequired, the related national and international sources and the specific indicators tobe presented and analyzed. Furthermore, an appropriate format is proposed for thecountry overviews, through the creation of a related template. The processes for thedevelopment of the country overviews are specified, as well as the necessary datacollection processes. Finally, a prototype of the country overviews has beenproduced for Greece, to be used as a basis for the discussion for the finalization ofthe country overview template.4.2.Structure of the country overviews: the SUNflower methodologyThe assessment of road safety status in a country requires fundamentalunderstanding of traffic safety processes at different levels in the hierarchy of causesand effects. A safety pyramid model that describes a target hierarchy starting fromstructure and culture towards social costs was proved to be very efficient and mayserve as basis for this goal. It was developed in the first phase of the SUNflowerproject (Koornstra et al., 2002) and further elaborated in the SUNflower+6 project(Wegman et al., 2005).dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 18
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsThe idea was to develop a framework, where a countrys performance is reflected bya multiple score of standardized key indicators, expressed as a snapshot in time oras a past picture over time. Moreover, the framework should include not only a fullpicture of all impacts of road crashes, but also their most relevant underlyingelements and processes for which causal relationships can be identified andunderstood. The understanding of causal relationships between indicators on thedifferent levels involved in the problem may eventually allow to classify causes andeffects in terms of social cost of road accidents. Social costs Number of killed and injured Safety performance indicators Safety measures and programmes Structure and cultureFigure 6. The SUNflower pyramid.The SUNflower pyramid comprises five distinct levels (see Figure 6). Each country’sperformance is indicative of local mentality (structure and culture - policy input) at thebottom level, as well as common practice (safety measures and programs - policyoutput), as result at level 2. Such a comparative analysis is facilitated by a group ofintermediate outcomes, illustrated by road safety performance indicators (RSPI) inissues like speeding, drinking and driving, et cetera at level 3; it also requires aconcise depiction of the road network and the main features of the vehicle fleet.These elements express the operational level of road safety in the country. Finaloutcomes expressed in terms of road accident casualties are then necessary tounderstand the scale of the examined issue. This type of information is found at level4, and is largely related to the indicators that describe the three components of aroad network (infrastructure, vehicle, road user). Ideally, the top of the pyramidshould include a sound estimate of the total social cost of road accidents in any area.It should in the end be possible to track a specific road safety aspect through alllevels of the pyramid. For example it should be possible to track high social costs of aparticular safety aspect down to casualty numbers, via operational conditions oftraffic, to a measure that has or has not yet been taken, and the social, political andcultural environment that it originates from. The other way around is valid as well. Forexample, a country that has implemented many safety measures should performrelatively well on the safety aspects that are related to these measures. Or, if this isnot the case, the reasons should be clear and also be reflected in the indicators. Forexample, it might be expected that in a country where a rather high BAC is permittedor where the police do not perform alcohol controls frequently, the percentage ofdrivers under influence of alcohol will be high, and associated with a high proportionof fatal crashes (Wegman et al., 2005).dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 19
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsConsequently, the SUNflower pyramid provides a framework for the analysis of acountrys performance, allowing not only to examine all aspects of the road safetyproblem, either at global or at detailed level, but also to link these aspects in theidentification of road safety causes and effects. For these reasons, the SUNflowerpyramid hierarchy is selected as a general structure for the DaCoTA countryoverviews.In the next section, the various levels of the pyramid are further analyzed in terms ofdata and information required and indicators to be presented. Particular emphasis isgiven in the final synthesis of the results, which serves as an integration of theinformation presented in the five levels, and allows not only for an overallassessment of countrys performance, but also for the identification of specific roadsafety problems and a series of respective countermeasures.4.3. Detailed outline and contentsIn this section, the proposed specifications for country overviews are presented, as adetailed outline of the structure and contents of the country overviews. This detailedoutline aims to serve as an overall guide for the development of the countryoverviews. It is underlined however that country-specific adjustments may benecessary, or even recommended. On the one hand, the implementation of thisoutline largely depends on data availability, so that specific elements of the outlinecan not be presented for a specific country. On the other hand, it would be mostuseful to focus on particular interesting aspects of the road safety problem of eachcountry, so that any available additional elements may be presented as well.4.3.1. Structure and CultureAs mentioned above, the first level of the SUNflower pyramid concerns structure andculture. This will be the first part of the country overview and would mainly includetext of estimated length of about 1-2 pages. The particular topics to be presented inthis part concern:• Road safety authorities: the authorities involved in road safety management in the country are presented, and the specific responsibilities of each authority are mentioned.• User education: information about driver training and licensing is presented, as well as information about traffic education, road user information et cetera.• Attitudes towards risk taking: information on road safety attitudes, compliance and behaviours is presented, in order to assess the overall road safety culture in the country.• Climate and conditions: specific features of the climate and overall conditions in the country, that may affect the level of road safety, are mentioned.• Any other issue may have an impact to the road safety structure and culture of the country.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 20
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsThe main sources of information for this section of the country overviews will beDaCoTA WP1 and WP3. In particular, information on road safety management andrelated structures are to be collected within DaCoTA WP1 - Policy, whereasinformation on attitudes, behaviours, education et cetera will be made availablethrough DaCoTA WP3 - Data Warehouse. As regards attitudinal and behaviouraldata, the results of the SARTRE 2 & 3 projects (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Riskin Europe) and later on of SARTRE 4 could be also exploited; the related links mayalso be established by DaCoTA WP3.4.3.2. Programmes and measuresThe second level of the SUNflower pyramid, corresponding to the second part of theDaCoTA country overview, concerns programmes and measures and aims topresent the main road safety strategies in each country, as well as the mostimportant individual measures implemented at national level. The section will mainlyinclude 1-2 pages of text, as well as a related Figure or Table, if available.First, the National Strategic Plans of the country will be presented, together with theirspecific targets, in order to highlight the history of road safety policy. The most recent/ current National Strategic Plan should be described in more detail. The adoption ofEuropean road safety targets should also be mentioned.Moreover, specific road safety measures and regulations are presented, especiallywith respect to the following key areas:• Speed management: including the existing speed limits per road type, the establishment of traffic calming / 30-zones in urban areas et cetera.• Seatbelt / helmet wearing laws: explaining whether and since when seatbelt and helmet wearing are compulsory for front / rear passengers et cetera. Measures or laws related to other road safety equipment (e.g. child restraint) are also presented.• Enforcement: the main enforcement schemes implemented in the country are presented, together with the related penalty levels. The countrys demerit point system, if available, is also briefly presented.• Driver training and licensing: the rules and processes related to driver training and licensing are presented, including compulsory training, age thresholds for licensing and periodical medical examination of particular groups of drivers.• Periodical technical inspections of vehicles, explaining whether, since when and for which vehicle categories they apply.• Quality of road design standards: national road design guidelines are presented, if available. Moreover, road infrastructure design and maintenance measures and programmes are described, including treatment of hazardous locations.• Awareness raising campaigns: the main campaigns launched in the country are described.• Specific traffic regulations: any additional important road safety measures or programmes, beyond the ones mentioned above, are also presented.• Any other safety measures and regulations, which are considered having an impact on road safety developments.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 21
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsThe main sources of information for this section of the country overviews will also beDaCoTA WP1 and WP3. In particular, information on road safety programmes andmeasures are to be collected within DaCoTA WP1 - Policy and DaCoTA WP3 - DataWarehouse. Additional related information may be sought from the EuropeanCommission, or from other national sources.4.3.3. Road Safety Performance IndicatorsThe third level of the SUNflower pyramid concerns RSPIs. This section of the countryoverview will be devoted to the presentation of the most updated RSPIs for eachcountry and is expected to take 2-3 pages, depending on data availability, andinclude 1-2 Tables or Figures with related national data and / or comparisons withother EU countries, for the most interesting results.The RSPIs examined are those defined within the SafetyNet project (Hakkert et al.,2007), covering the following areas, for which specific indicators have been proposedand tested:• Alcohol and drugs: the percentage of fatalities resulting from accidents involving at least one driver impaired by alcohol / drugs other than alcohol• Speed: the average speed either during daytime or during the night, the percentage of speed limit offenders.• Protective systems: daytime wearing rates of seat belts, daytime wearing rates of helmets, per position in the vehicle (front / rear)• Daytime running lights: the total usage rate of daytime running lights, the usage rate of daytime running lights per road type, the usage rate of daytime running lights per vehicle type.• Vehicles: vehicle fleet distribution by age, percentage of vehicle fleet tested by EuroNCAP, average EuroNCAP score of vehicle fleet, vehicle fleet composition• Roads: road design EuroRAP protection score• Trauma management: the number of EMS stations per 10,000 citizens, the number of EMS staff per 10,000 citizens, the average response time of EMS (min), the total number of trauma care beds per 10,000 citizens.The main sources of information for this section will be the SafetyNet WP3 reports onRSPIs, namely in Vis & Van Gent (2007) and Vis & Eksler (2008). It is noted,however, that these reports include data for the year 2006, and therefore the relatedRSPI values need to be updated. This is foreseen within DaCoTA WP3 - DataWarehouse. Additional related data may be sought within the SUNflower projectsreports, as well as from other national sources.4.3.4. Road safety outcomesThis section concerns the main part of the country overviews, where the road safetyoutcomes of the country will be analyzed in relation to road, vehicle and userdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 22
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviewscharacteristics. A number of Tables and Figures will be presented, together withcomments and explanations. It is underlined that only fatality figures should beanalyzed, given that these are the only road safety outcome for which a commondefinition exists (e.g. killed at 30 days from the accidents) and are thus the onlycomparable outcomes across European countries.Two separate sub-sections are proposed, one concerning the analysis of fatalitytrends over the last decades, i.e. for the period in which CARE data is available, andone concerning the analysis of selected indicators for year 2009, or for the lastavailable year. In any case, the variables and values used should be among theharmonized ones that are included in the CARE database, complying with commondefinitions across Europe.Moreover, the use of risk exposure data should be pursued, in order to analyzefatality rates rather than fatality counts. Given that the availability of risk exposuredata may vary in different countries, the best available exposure measure will beused in each country, according to the recommendations of the SafetyNet state-of-the-art report on risk exposure data (Yannis et al., 2005). In particular, vehicle- orperson-kilometres of travel should be used when available, otherwise vehicle fleet,road length and population can be alternatively used, according to the context of theanalysis.Concerning the analysis of fatality trends, the following topics are proposed:• Fatalities: the number of fatalities and the fatality rate per vehicle-kilometres, or per vehicle fleet, or per population is presented for the period 1991-2008.• Comparison with EU average: the evolution of the fatality rate (fatalities per population) is compared with the EU average over the examined period.• National forecasts: the results of the countrys national forecasting model may be included in this section, if possible. The models will be developed within DaCoTA WP4 - Decision Support.Moreover, concerning the analysis of fatality indicators, the following topics areproposed:• Fatality risk comparison with other EU countries: the fatality rate (fatalities per population) is compared to the fatality rate of other EU countries, as well as with the EU average.• Effects of area type and road type: the number of fatalities per area type (inside / outside urban areas) and per road type (motorway yes / no) are presented, as the rate of fatalities per road length, if possible. Alternatively, the proportion of fatalities per area type and road type is presented.• Effects of person class, age group and gender: the number of fatalities is analyzed per person class (driver, passenger, pedestrian). Moreover, fatality rates per age and gender, per person-kilometres or per population are examined.• Effects of vehicle type and vehicle age: the number of fatalities is analyzed per vehicle type (passenger car, moped, motorcycle, bicycle, truck, bus et cetera). Moreover, fatality rates per vehicle type and vehicle age are estimated, per vehicle-kilometres or per vehicle fleet.• Combined or other effects: indicators combining road, user or vehicle effects are examined e.g. fatality rates per person age and vehicle type. Moreover, additional information is provided, according to data availability, in order to highlight particular interesting road safety effects in each country e.g. alcohol related fatalities, weather effects et cetera.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 23
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsA final part of this section concerns the presentation of injury under-reporting levels inthe country. The results of related national studies should be presented, providing theestimated level of under-reporting for serious and slight road accident injuries. Giventhat the results of such national studies are unlikely to be fully comparable acrossEurope, it is important to provide any specific information concerning the features ofthe study, together with related references.Data sources for the road safety outcomes section of the country overview includethe CARE and Eurostat databases of the EC, as well as the national databases. It isnoted that the necessary data will be also collected within DaCoTA WP3 - DataWarehouse. As regards the national forecasts, these will be taken by DaCoTA WP4 -Decision Support, where the related national forecasting models will be developed.4.3.5. Social CostsThe top level of the SUNflower pyramid concerns the estimation of the social costsrelated to the road safety outcomes of each country. This section of the countryoverview is expected not to exceed 1 page, in which the estimated accident andfatality costs and the related calculation methods will be resented. A related Table orFigure may also be included.In particular, the following figures may be provided:• Estimated cost of fatality: this will be expressed as an estimate of the Value of Statistical Life (VoSL) in the country. This may be taken from related national studies e.g. willingness-to-pay surveys, or from international handbooks / recommendations. In each case, the main features of the estimation method need to be briefly presented. Additional information may concern the related costs of serious or slight casualties et cetera.• Total accident costs: on the basis of the VoSL and the other related components (i.e. generalised accident cost, material dammage cost), an estimate of the total yearly social costs attributable to the road safety problem may be provided.The national information on road accidents social costs will be collected withinDaCoTA WP3 - Data Warehouse, whereas other sources may be exploited as well,e.g. from the international literature.4.3.6. SynthesisIn this section of the country overview, a small synthesis (not exceeding 1 page) ofthe results of all levels of the pyramid is attempted, ideally providing the linksbetween levels that may result in a complete picture on the countrys road safetylevel and the main causes and effects.Ideally, the road safety actions taken in each country should be associated withspecific features of the operational level of road safety, in terms of road userdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 24
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviewsbehaviour, quality of the infrastructure, et cetera. These features should be in turnreflected to specific risk factors, identifiable from the analysis of road safetyoutcomes. For example, the effect of a programme of intensification of alcoholenforcement implemented in a country could be reflected on the number of both thealcohol violations recorded in that country and the alcohol-related casualties.Moreover, elements related to the overall road safety structure and culture in thatcountry should be reflected in both the behaviour of road users and the specific riskfactors identified. For example, the climate conditions of Mediterranean countries,combined with less efficient helmet use enforcement, could be combined with theincreased number of registered two-wheelers and their related increased accidentrisk.This synthesis is expected to be an added value of the country overviews, which willthus go beyond the presentation of descriptive information, to the interpretation andintegration of this information. Eventually, it should enable the identification of themain features and particularities of the road safety situation in a country, as well asthe definition of the main areas where future efforts should focus.4.4. Templates and formatThe proposed country overview will be largely based on the format of the Basic FactSheets developed in the SafetyNet project. A template was created on the basis ofthis format, adjusted to specific needs of the country overviews. The proposedtemplate is provided in Annex A.. In particular:• The SUNflower pyramid is included on the left panel of each section of the template, with the related level of the pyramid highlighted in different colour, indicating which component of the pyramid is analyzed in the specific section.• The DaCoTA logo and the European Commission logo are included at the bottom of each page.• As was the case in the SafetyNet Basic Fact Sheets, text-boxes with the main messages / findings of each section will be placed on the left panel of the template.• The format of the text, Figures, Tables et cetera will be very much similar to those of the Basic Fact Sheets of SafetyNet.Furthermore, data and information collection templates are developed withinDaCoTA WP3, for the collection of national data and information on variouscomponents of the country overviews, including programmes and measuresinformation, attitudinal and behavioural data, exposure data and RSPIs, social costsdata et cetera. These templates will allow for the collection of specific data andinformation in a standardized format and may be also used by other DaCoTA workpackages involved in the related activities, namely WP1 - Policy and WP4 - Decisionsupport.4.5. Prototype of country overview and next stepsOn the basis of both the proposed detailed outline and contents, and the relatedtemplate, a prototype of the country overviews was created for Greece.The prototype is quite rich in terms of the data and information included, as dataavailability and accessibility was quite satisfactory overall. Therefore, the prototypedacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 25
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviewsmay be considered as a representative example of a complete country overview.Moreover, during the creation of the prototype, particular emphasis was given on theestablishment of links between the various sections (i.e., the levels of the SUNflowerpyramid), demonstrating how the data and information can be linked from structureand culture to social costs providing an overall and substantiated picture of the roadsafety situation in the country.Nevertheless, it is expected that the same level of data availability, potential forinterpretation and integration may not be achieved for all countries. It is recognizedthat the drafting of the proposed synthesis presupposes some more in-depthknowledge of the national situation, which may not always be reflected in thepresentation of the national facts and figures. Within this framework, the assistanceof the National Experts group of the European Commission may be most valuable.Overall, the proposed specifications aim to serve as general guidelines for thedevelopment of interesting and useful country overviews. However, case-specificadjustments, as a result of data availability or other country-specific issues will beimplemented. In any case, this prototype may serve as a basis for furtherimprovement of the overall structure, contents and format of the country overviews.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 26
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews5.NEXT STEPSWithin DaCoTA, a Data Browser Tool and Country Overviews will be developed. Thisreport presented possible set-ups and functional aspects for these tools.Furthermore, for the Data Browser Tool, it discussed various technical solutionscurrently available.Before the development of the tools can be started, thorough discussions withpotential end-users of the tools and with the EC will have to take place on basis ofthe current report. The outcome of these discussions will be choices for the set-upand the technology to be used.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 27
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsREFERENCESCunningham, W. & Leuf, B. (2001). The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web.Addison-Wesley, Reading Massachusetts, USA.ETSC (2001): Transport Safety Performance Indicators. European Transport SafetyCouncil.Hakkert, A.S, Gitelman, V. and Vis, M.A. (Eds.) (2007) Road Safety PerformanceIndicators: Theory. Deliverable D3.6 of the EU FP6 project SafetyNet.Koornstra, M., Lynam, D., Nilsson, G., Noordzij, P., Petterson, H-E., Wegman, F. &Wouters, P. (2002). SUNflower; A comparative study of the development of roadsafety in Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. SWOV Institute for RoadSafety Research, Leidschendam, the Netherlands.Lejeune, P. et al. (2007). First classification of the EU member states on Risk andExposure Data. Deliverable D.2.2.2 of the EU FP6 project SafetyNet.LTSA (2000). Road safety strategy 2010; A consultation document. National roadsafety committee, Land Transport Safety Authority LTSA, Wellington, New Zealand.Hakkert, A.S, Gitelman, V. and Vis, M.A. (Eds.) (2007) Road Safety PerformanceIndicators: Theory. Deliverable D3.6 of the EU FP6 project SafetyNet.Vis, M.A. and Eksler, V. (Eds.) (2008) Road Safety Performance Indicators: UpdatedCountry Comparisons. Deliverable D3.11a of the EU FP6 project SafetyNet.Vis, M.A. and Van Gent, A.L. (Eds.) (2007) Road Safety Performance Indicators:Country Profiles. Deliverable D3.7b of the EU FP6 project SafetyNet.Yannis G., Papadimitriou E., Lejeune P., Treny V., Hemdorff S., Bergel R., HaddakM., Holló P., Cardoso J., Bijleveld F., Houwing S., Bjørnskau T. (2005). State of theart report on risk and exposure data. Deliverable D2.1 of the EU FP6 projectSafetyNet.Wegman, F., Eksler, V., Hayes, S., Lynam, D., Morsink, P. and Oppe, S. (2005).SUNflower: A comparative study of the development of road safety in theSUNflower+6 countries: Final Report. SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research,Leidschendam, the Netherlands.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 28
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsANNEX A. SPECIFICATIONS FORCOUNTRY OVERVIEWSA.1 Structure and Culture1-2 pages• Road safety authorities• User education• Attitudes towards risk taking• Climate and conditionsSources: DaCoTA WP1/ WP3, SARTRE projectA.2 Programmes and measures1- 2 pages, out of which1-3 paragraphs on National Strategic PlansPlus a description of most important programmes and measures• National Strategic Plans and targets• Speed management• Seatbelt / helmet wearing laws• Enforcement schemes / penalty levels, demerit point system• Driver training and licensing• Compulsory periodical technical inspections of vehicles• Quality of road design standards• Awareness raising campaigns• Specific traffic regulationsSource: DaCoTA WP1, EC, other national sourcesA.3 Road Safety Performance Indicators2 - 3 pages1 paragraph of text for each RSPI category1-2 Tables or Figures with national data and / or comparisons with other EUcountries, for the most interesting resultsdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 29
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews• Alcohol and drugs • The percentage of fatalities resulting from accidents involving at least one driver impaired by alcohol / drugs other than alcohol• Speed • The average speed either during daytime or during the night • The percentage of speed limit offenders.• Protective systems • Daytime wearing rates of seat belts • Daytime wearing rates of helmets• Daytime running lights • The total usage rate of daytime running lights • The usage rate of daytime running lights per road type • The usage rate of daytime running lights per vehicle type• Vehicles • Vehicle fleet distribution by age • Percentage of vehicle fleet tested by EuroNCAP • Average EuroNCAP score of vehicle fleet • Vehicle fleet composition• Roads • Road design EuroRAP protection score• Trauma management • The number of EMS stations per 10,000 citizens • The number of EMS staff per 10,000 citizens • Average response time of EMS (min) • The total number of trauma care beds per 10,000 citizensSource: SafetyNet WP3, DaCoTA WP3, SUNflower, other national sourcesA.4 OutcomesTables and Figures with comments and explanations• Trends 1991-2008 • Fatalities • Fatality risk - per population or per vehicle kilometres (if possible) • Comparison with other EU countries or with EU average • National forecasts (if possible)• Indicators • Fatality risk comparison with other EU countries and with EU average • Fatalities per area type (inside / outside urban areas) and road type (motorway yes / no) - per road length if possible • Fatalities per person class, age group and gender - per population or per vehicle kilometresdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 30
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviews • Fatalities per vehicle type and vehicle age - per number of registered vehicles or per vehicle-kilometres• Injury under-reporting levelsSource: CARE, Eurostat, DaCoTA WP3 / WP4, other national sourcesA.5 Social CostText on the estimated accident and fatality costs and the related calculation methods1 Table• Estimated cost of fatality• Total accident costsSource: DaCoTA WP3, other national sourcesA.6 SynthesisA synthesis of the results of all levels of the pyramid, ideally providing the linksbetween levels that may result in a complete picture on the countrys road safetylevel and the main causes and future challenges.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 31
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country OverviewsANNEX B. EXAMPLE OF COUNTRYOVERVIEW FOR GREECEThis annex contains an example of a Country Overview, for Greece. The exampleshows the type of information that could be included in a Country Overview andshows how the layout of the Country Overview can be used to enhance thereadability.dacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 32
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviewsdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 33
    • D4.3 Functional Specification of Data Browsing Tool and Country Overviewsdacotasunflower-130121074743-phpapp01.doc 34