1. ONLINE PRIVACY<br />How and why we should teach the risks and tools associated with online privacy and social networking<br />By<br /><ul><li>Dan Mauller
2. Leslie Westerberg
3. Mike Hominick
4. Julia Bryan-Diehl</li></ul>Fall 2009<br />
5. Presentation<br /><ul><li>In this presentation, we will discuss:</li></ul>The history of privacy and online social networking<br />Perceptions of privacy<br />Privacy risks and consequences<br />Tools for teaching privacy<br />
6. A Brief History of Online Social Networking<br />
7. What is Online Social Networking?<br /><ul><li>Construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system
8. Articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection
9. View and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site</li></li></ul><li>1945: Memex<br /><ul><li>First mention of personal computer
10. “Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready-made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified.”
11. Predicted many kinds of technology invented such as the Internet the World Wide Web and Wikipedia</li></li></ul><li>1962: Advanced Research Project Agency<br /><ul><li>Resulted in the creation of commercial time-sharing systems
12. Ultimately led to the internet
13. “There has to be some way of facilitating communication among people without bringing them together in one place.”</li></ul> - Dr. J.C.R. Licklider<br />
14. 1960’s-1970’s: Electronic Mail <br /><ul><li>1965 - First email system was MAILBOX, used at MIT
15. Email could only be used to send messages to various users of the same computer.
16. With computer internetworking, electronic mail required an address just like the postal system
17. 1972 – Ray Tomlinson is credited with inventing email </li></li></ul><li>1980’s: Bulletin Board Systems<br /><ul><li>Online meeting places
18. Allowed users to communicate with a central system
19. Could download files or games (many times including pirated software) and post messages to other users. </li></li></ul><li>BBS: FidoNet<br />How to set up an account:<br /><ul><li>Gain a basic understanding of Fidonet and your software. Download the POLICY4.ZIP document from a nearby FidoNet BBS. Read this thoroughly.
20. Then read it again. Do the same with your software's documentation. You will also need a current copy of the FidonetNodelist.
21. Set up your BBS. Make sure it operates correctly, to the best of your knowledge.
22. Follow, to the letter, the procedure outlined in POLICY4 for joining Fidonet. The request *MUST* come in as a Netmail message. This shows the NC that your system is indeed capable of exchanging mail -- the basic requirement for membership. Do NOT request a node number in a LOCAL message on your NC's system, it will only delay the process, and may even be simply ignored.
23. Be patient. It may take up to 2 weeks for your request to be fully processed and appear in the Nodelist. Remember that your NC may not be able to contact you at all until your address becomes official. </li></li></ul><li>1989 through Early 1990’s: America Online<br /><ul><li>At it’s peak, had over 30 million members
24. Began as forum to play video games and track high scores
25. Created concept of chat rooms </li></li></ul><li>1997: Sixdegrees<br /><ul><li>Many consider this the first social networking site
26. Allowed users to create profiles
27. List their Friends
28. Surf the Friends lists</li></li></ul><li>2002: Friendster<br /><ul><li>Friends of Friends meet
29. Send invitations, messages, blog
30. “One of the biggest disappointments in Internet history”</li></li></ul><li>2003: MySpace<br /><ul><li>Began to promote independent music and the socialite scene across the globe
31. Personalized Pages
32. Significant drop in usage in United States</li></li></ul><li>2003: Linkedin<br /><ul><li>Networking
33. Make “connections”
34. Over 30 million business people are members</li></li></ul><li>2005: YouTube<br /><ul><li>Share videos
35. Censored and criticized for content
36. “Embodies and promotes democracy”</li></li></ul><li>2004: Facebook<br /><ul><li>Needed school email to join
37. Personalized profiles
38. Corporations are advertising on site
39. Controversies over personal data control</li></li></ul><li>2006: Twitter<br /><ul><li>Contacts stay in touch
45. “…may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship.” </li></ul>Do concerns outweigh appeal?<br />
46. Addressing Privacy Concerns<br />Issues must be addressed as online social networking reaches a larger audience.<br />
47. Defining Online Privacy<br />
48. Privacy is NOT solitude<br /><ul><li>Essentially meaningless in the context of Social Networks
49. Teens want to be connected 24/7</li></li></ul><li>Is privacy anonymity?<br /><ul><li>Anonymity precludes the need for privacy</li></ul> but…<br /><ul><li>Can you be sure you’re anonymous online?</li></li></ul><li>What about secrecy?<br /><ul><li>Remember – once posted, information is in the public sphere
50. Best way to keep a secret: Don’t share it!</li></li></ul><li>Underlying Issue: Control<br /><ul><li>You have NO control over the information others share…even if it’s about you!
51. You CAN control the information YOU share (and access to it!)</li></li></ul><li>Don’t I Have a Right to Privacy?<br />The constitution only guarantees freedom from governmental intrusion<br />
52. Something to Know About…<br />Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006<br /><ul><li>Intended to Protect Children
53. Could require libraries to block access to Social Networking Sites
54. PROBLEM : Too Broadly Defined
56. Educational Sites</li></ul>“We know that the best way to protect children is to teach them to guard their privacy and make wise choices. “ -Former ALA President Michael Gorman<br />
57. Teens and Privacy<br />
58. Good news!<br /><ul><li>According to Pew (2007):
59. 66% of teens use privacy controls to limit access to their personal information
60. Only 6% make public their first and last names (first name + photo is the norm)</li></li></ul><li>However…<br />Teens Think It’s Always OK to Share Publicly:<br /><ul><li>Their age
61. Their e-mail address
62. Personal Photos</li></ul>Teens Think It’s Never OK to Share Publicly:<br /><ul><li>Their home address
63. Their home phone number
64. Their Social Security number</li></li></ul><li>Teens Think It’s Sometimes OK to Share Publicly:<br /><ul><li>Their cell phone number
65. The town they live in
66. The school they attend
67. Their Zip Code</li></li></ul><li>Bottom Line:<br /><ul><li>Only you can decide what level of privacy you are comfortable with – know the risks!
68. Think about how you want to control your personal information before you share it
69. “Don’t talk to strangers” is useless advice in an online context
70. Remember: Social Sites are considered PUBLIC space
71. Learn how to use the tools that give you control</li></li></ul><li>Social Networking and Privacy Risks<br />
72. Why should we care about the risks?<br /><ul><li>“Opting out” of social networking and the Internet in general is not the solution!
73. Participation in social networking sites has become almost “automatic”
74. We should be aware of what we are posting on sites because our intent IS to share this information
75. But with who?
76. A lot is at stake!</li></li></ul><li>What do you want to “risk” being seen?<br /><ul><li>On most sites, the privacy default is set to allow the maximum number of people to see your profile
77. On Facebook, by leaving your settings to the default your profile can be seen by your entire network
78. Average percentage of entire Facebook community = 0.5%
79. On MySpace – it is ENTIRE MySpace community
80. Despite these statistics, many users don’t utilize the privacy settings</li></li></ul><li>What is it you’re sharing?<br /><ul><li>Full Name
98. So, who’s paying attention anyways?<br /><ul><li>Prospective employers
99. Prospective colleges
102. Campus community
104. Police Officers
105. Student Affairs Professionals
106. People who could do damaging things?</li></li></ul><li>Are you being watched?<br /><ul><li>Maybe?
107. Students at George Washington U thought campus police were monitoring their Facebook activity
108. Decided to advertise that they were having a “keg party” using Facebook
109. Police DID show up to the “keg party”
110. The keg party consisted of a group of students eating cupcakes with the word “beer” written on them
111. Confirmed their belief that university and police officials WERE monitoring their activity!</li></li></ul><li>Who are we affecting when we post other people’s information?<br /><ul><li>How many of you have heard of the “Star Wars Kid”?
112. Seen by millions and millions of viewers</li></ul>Not just ourselves!<br />Have you seen me?<br />
113. What happened to him?<br /><ul><li>People remixed the video of him with special effects and Star Wars music, “mashed” it with other movies
114. Appeared in a video game and on several TV shows
115. Since, the (then) 15-year-old kid has:
116. Dropped out of school
117. Gone to counseling
118. More or less disappeared</li></li></ul><li>Whose reputation are you ruining?<br /><ul><li>What employees post during the work day and what they post about their company are things they SHOULD be aware they will be held accountable for
119. What are companies doing?
120. Social media policies
121. Companies like IBM developing extensive policies – must be signed and read each year
122. Outlines that you must be upfront about your identity and position at IBM when blogging and what constitutes “suitable behavior” on social media sites (such as Twitter and Facebook)</li></li></ul><li>How about our own reputation being at stake?<br /><ul><li>We usually take pride in our reputation
123. We rely on it for a number of things
124. Whether someone wants to befriend us
125. How we are received by others
126. Whether someone wants to date us
127. Whether to hire someone
128. Whether to undertake a business deal</li></li></ul><li>So, what can happen when OUR reputation gets damaged?<br /><ul><li>We can get fired!
129. Please, excuse this language:</li></li></ul><li>“Facebook fired”<br />Yes, it’s even in Urban Dictionary!<br />
130. “Don’t let Twitter get you fired in 140 characters or less”<br /><ul><li>Connor Riley, a 22-year-old Masters degree student at the University of California (Berkeley) wrote on Twitter:
131. “Cisco just offered me a job! Now I have to weigh the utility of a fatty paycheck against the daily commute to San Jose and hating the work.”
132. Cisco employee Tim Levad wrote on Twitter:
133. “Who is the hiring manager? I'm sure they would love to know that you will hate the work. We here at Cisco are versed in the Web.”</li></ul>She said…<br />He said…<br />
134. So what happened?<br /><ul><li>This exchange now known as the “Cisco fatty” incident
135. Riley wrote an apology post on her personal blog
136. Turned down the job offer…
137. …which may have been rescinded anyways</li></ul>“Cisco Fatty”<br />Don’t let your Twitter account kick you in the butt!<br />
138. Or, people can just not take us seriously…<br />Do you remember this guy?<br />
139. Jon Favreau<br /><ul><li>President Obama’s speechwriter throughout his campaign for president
140. Tagged in a photo on Facebook
141. One of his friends posted photo on a website for a total of TWO hours
142. Which was TWO hours too many to be leaked across the world…
143. Still Obama’s chief speechwriter
144. He took down all photos but one on his Facebook profile
145. Apologized profusely to Clinton and her team</li></li></ul><li>Employers Not Taking Us Seriously…<br /><ul><li>A substantial proportion of employers are screening social networking sites before they hire a prospective employee
146. 35% of employers have not hired someone because of something they found online</li></li></ul><li>So…who else is paying attention?<br /><ul><li>We don’t even know!
147. Nearly 4 in 10 Facebook and Twitter users have posted specifics on holiday plans or statuses on holiday getaways
148. Increases risk of break-in
149. Posting even your birthday on Facebook can allow others to “predict” your SSN
150. In new study, researchers were able to predict SSN of recently born with 60% accuracy (of 1000 tries)
151. Can be used to steal identity and/or open credit cards in someone’s name</li></li></ul><li>Tools and Methods for Protecting your Online Image<br />
152. You CAN protect your online privacy and reputation with just a few simple steps<br />
153. Facebook<br /><ul><li>Adjust your Privacy Settings
154. Read the fine print on all those applications and quizzes
155. Consider using separate Facebook profiles for your professional and social life
156. Be mindful about what you post</li></li></ul><li>flickr<br /><ul><li>Adjust your Privacy and Permissions settings, your Profile privacy, and your account search options
157. Consider licensing your photos under a Creative Commons license
158. Again, be careful about what you share</li></li></ul><li>Google<br /><ul><li>Google yourself and seewhatpopsup
159. Contact the site's webmaster to see if you can have unwanted information removed
160. Consider signing up for an online monitoring service such as ReputationDefender.com</li></li></ul><li>Twitter<br /><ul><li>Twitter is generally considered a fairly public platform, but there are still steps that you can take to make your content more private if you prefer:
161. Protect your Tweets
162. Hide your location information
163. One more time: be mindful about what you post</li></li></ul><li>And in general…<br /><ul><li>Always be sure to readthefineprint before signing up for a new online tool
164. Check regularly for new or altered online content- BE VIGILANT!</li></ul> Finally (all together now): Be mindful about what you post or share!<br />
165. Citations<br /><ul><li>Barnes, Susan B. “A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States.” First Monday 11.9 (2006). http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_9/barnes/index.html. 8 Dec. 2009.
166. Blakley, Bob. “What is Privacy, Really?” 12 September 2006. The Burton Group. http://podcast.burtongroup.com/ip/files/what_is_privacy_really.pdf 10 Dec 2009.
167. Brandenburg, Carly. "The Newest Way to Screen Job Applicants: A Social Networker's Nightmare." Federal Communications Law Journal 60.3 (2008): 597-626. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
168. Claburn, Thomas. "Social Security Number Prediction Makes Identity Theft Easy." InformationWeek (2009). Http://www.informationweek.com. 7 July 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/privacy/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=218400854>.
169. Couch, C. (2009). Fix Twitter and Facebook. Time Out Chicago Retrieved December 7,2009, from http://chicago.timeout.com/articles/features/81016/fix-twitter-and-facebook
170. Ensign, E. (2009). Facebook Quitters. Time Out Chicago. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://chicago.timeout.com/articles/features/81051/love-your-online-life-again
171. "Forty-five Percent of Employers Use Social Networking Sites to Research Job Candidates, CareerBuilder Survey Finds". CareerBuilder.com. CareerBuilder.com, 19 Aug. 2009. Web. 5 Dec. 2009 <http://www.careerbuilder.com/share/aboutus/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?id=pr519&sd=8%2f19%2f2009&ed=12%2f31%2f2009&siteid=cbpr&sc_cmp1=cb_pr519_>
172. George, Alison. "Things You Wouldn't Tell Your Mother." New Scientist 191.2569 (2006): 50-51. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
173. Gonsalves, Antone. "Social Networkers Risk More than Just Privacy." Information Week (2009). Information Week. 27 Aug. 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <http://www.informationweek.com/news/internet/social_network/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=219500360http://www.informationweek.com/news/internet/social_network/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=219500360>. </li></li></ul><li>Citations<br /><ul><li>Fidonet. (Full Date of publication). How to Join Fidonet. Fidonet.com. Retrieved November 20, 2009, from http://www.fidonet.org/old/genlinfo.html
174. Haythornthwaite, C. (1996). Social network analysis: An approach and set of techniques for the study of information exchange. Library and Information Science Research, 18(4), 323-342.
175. “How To Protect, Fix Your Online Reputation: Expert Explains Dangers Of Negative Web Postings, And Tells How To Avoid And Repair Them". CBS News.com: The Early Show. CBS Corporation, 10 Jan. 2009. Web. 5 Dec. 2009 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/01/10/earlyshow/main4711988.shtml
176. Huang, Phil "How You Can Protect Public Access Computers and Their Users." Computers in Libraries 27.5 (2007): 16-20. ERIC. EBSCO. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.
177. "Internet, communications and other technologies". Australian Government: Office of the Privacy Commissioner. Australian Government, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2009 http://www.privacy.gov.au/topics/technologies
178. Kamen, Al. "One More Question." The Washington Post. 4 Dec. 2008. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <http://voices.washingtonpost.com/44/2008/12/04/one_more_question.html>.
179. Kaste, Martin. "Is Your Facebook Profile As Private As You Think?". NPR.org: All Things Considered. National Public Radio, 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 5 Dec. 2009 <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=114187478&sc=emaf>
180. Kluth, Andreas. "The Perils of Sharing." Economist (2008): 28. Print.
181. Kranich, Nancy "Librarians and Teen Privacy in the Age of Social Networking." Knowledge Quest 36.(2007): 34-37. ERIC. EBSCO. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.
182. Lenhart, Amanda and Mary Madden. “Teens, Privacy & Online Social Networks: How teens manage their online identities and personal information in the age of MySpace.” Pew Internet and American Life Project (18 April 2007). 11 Dec 2009. http://www.atg.was.gov/uploadedFiles/Another/Office_Initiatives/Teens,Privacy%20and%20Social%20Networks.pdf</li></li></ul><li>Citations<br /><ul><li>Lorenz, Kate. "Employers are digging up your digital dirt". The Work Buzz. CareerBuilder.com, 19 Aug. 2009. Web. 5 Dec. 2009 <http://www.theworkbuzz.com/job-surveys/social-network/>
183. MacMillan, Douglas. "A Twitter Code of Conduct." BusinessWeek (2009): 26. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
184. Mangla, Ismat Sarah. "Fired for Facebook: Don't Let it Happen to You." CNN. 21 Apr. 2009. Web. 3 Dec. 2009. <http://www.cnn.com>.
185. McConnell, B. (2008). Social Networks from the 80’s to the 00’s. Gigaom Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://gigaom.com/2008/01/20/social-networks-from-the-80s-to-the-00s/
186. Mitrano, Tracy "A Wider World: Youth, Privacy, and Social Networking Technologies." EDUCAUSE Review 41.(2006): 16-18,. ERIC. EBSCO. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.
187. Nyce and Kahn (n.d.) Vannevar Bush and MemexThe World Wide Web: the Beginning and Now Retrieved November 16, 2009, fromhttp://www-personal.umich.edu/~mattkaz/history/memex3.html
188. O'Neill, Nick. "10 Privacy Settings Every Facebook User Should Know". All Facebook. n.p, 2 Feb. 09. Web. 5 Dec. 2009 http://www.allfacebook.com/2009/02/facebook-privacy/
190. Peter, I. (2004). History of Email. Net History. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/email.html
191. Popkin, Helen A.S. "Twitter Gets You Fired in 140 Characters or Less." MSNBC. 23 Mar. 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <http://www.msnbc.com>. </li></li></ul><li>Citations<br /><ul><li>"Rules and Tools for Protecting Personal Privacy Online". Online Privacy Alliance. Online Privacy Alliance, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2009 http://www.privacyalliance.org/resources/rulesntools.shtml
192. Schmidt, Cynthia Martin "The Library Media Specialist's Role in Teaching Online Safety." Library Media Connection 28.1 (2009): 10-13. ERIC. EBSCO. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.
193. Sheehan, Kim Bartel “How public opinion polls define and circumscribe online privacy.” First Monday 9.7 (2004). 8 Dec. 2009. http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1162/1082.
194. Solove, Daniel J. "The End of Privacy?" Scientific American 299.3 (2008): 100-06. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
195. Sydell, Laura. "Teens Take Advantage of Online Privacy Tools". NPR.org: All Things Considered. National Public Radio, 3 April 2008. Web. 5 Dec. 2009. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89355786>
196. Timm, Dianne M., and Carolyn J. Duven "Privacy and Social Networking Sites." New Directions for Student Services 124 (2008): 89-102. ERIC. EBSCO. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.
197. U.S. Department of Education “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).” 8 Dec. 2009. http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/index.html.
198. West, Heather. “Is Online Privacy a Generational Issue?” Pew Internet & American Life Project, October 1, 2009. 8 Dec. 2009. http://www.pewinternet.org/Media-Mentions/2009/Is-Online-Privacy-a-Generational-Issue.aspx.
199. Wikipedia (2009). YouTube. Wikipedia. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube
200. Yadav, Sid (2006). Facebook – The Complete Biography. Mashable: The Social Media Guide Retrieved November 20, 2009, from http://mashable.com/2006/08/25/facebook-profile/
201. Young Adult Library Serivices Association. “DOPA Information Packet: A Resource for Librarians and Library Workers.: 8 August 2006. 12 Dec. 2009 <http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/yalsa/profdev/DOPAInfoPacket.pdf></li></li></ul><li>Citations – Images <br /><ul><li>“Defining Online Privacy” - http://www.anniefox.com/parents/images/keep_out_sign.jpg
202. “Privacy is Not Solitude” -http://media.photobucket.com/image/loneliness/spectrojin/loneliness.gif