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“Like human beings, all brands are born equal. The trick is to prove one isn’t. Branding is the art and science of identif...
Copyright © 2003, 2005, 2008, 2009Idris MooteeAll rights reserved. Published byIdea Couture Inc. No part of this publicati...
Contents:Introduction 4All About Brands 7Branding in a Postmodern Culture 39Strategic Perspectives of Branding 49Managing ...
IntroductionThis book is about only one thing: brands,branding and the only sustainable form ofleadership in an economy ru...
all about    brands6               7
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OVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE  ...
OVE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVEYOU         YOU   ...
a BRAND IS NOT…                                                                    a BRAND IS…A Trade Mark                ...
Brandshave almostbecomeideologies.16            17
“The art of marketing      is the art of brand      building. If you are not      a brand, you are a      commodity. Then ...
What is a Brand?                                                                                                          ...
1.               2.                                      The Customer                                                     ...
Brand                                                                     In a world predisposed to sameness, theretaxonom...
Too much                                                                          THE Most commonadvertising with too     ...
Why brands are in                                                                                                What is a...
What is a Brand?                                                                                                          ...
Mind over matter                                               Advantages built on emotional values and                   ...
products vs.brands                   A product is built                     in a factory.           A brand is built of tr...
Mind over matter                                                                                     Building strong      ...
branding     in a     postmodern     culture38            39
Branding In The Age                                                                                                       ...
distribution is nothing                                   content is everythingWhen distribution is trivial, unlimited and...
the personal brand                                                                                                        ...
Saving Your                                     Many B-school case studies have chronicled       Can social mediaZombie Br...
strategic     perspectives     of     branding48              49
“We have a surplus                          “We also have a surplus                                                       ...
Branding and                                                                                                              ...
Customer                                                         Fournier’s                                               ...
Rise and riseof the brandThe very technologies that make it faster,easier and cheaper to innovate alsohelp us to imitate. ...
Decision map for                                                                                                          ...
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  1. 1. “Like human beings, all brands are born equal. The trick is to prove one isn’t. Branding is the art and science of identifying and fulfilling human physical and emotional needs by capturing attention, imagination and emotion long enough to make money from it.”– Idris Mootee1 2
  2. 2. Copyright © 2003, 2005, 2008, 2009Idris MooteeAll rights reserved. Published byIdea Couture Inc. No part of this publicationmay be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, scanning, or otherwise, except aspermitted under Section 107, 108 of the1976 United States Copyright Act, withouteither the prior written permission ofthe Publisher. Request to the Publisherfor permission should be addressedto the Permission Department atpermission@ideacouture.com. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty:While the publisher and author haveused their best efforts in preparing thisbook, they make no representationsor warranties with respect to the accuracyor completeness of the contents of thisbook and specifically disclaim any impliedwarranties of merchantability or fitnessfor a particular purpose. The advice andstrategies contained herein may notbe suitable for your situation. You shouldconsult with a professional whereappropriate. Neither the publisher norauthor shall be liable for any loss ofprofit or any commercial damages, includingbut not limited to special, incidental,consequential, or other damages. A number of brand names and trademarksare mentioned and used in this bookare protected under copyright laws andinternational treaty provisions. Alltrademarks, services marks, trade names,logos and icons are proprietary to theirrespective owner. Their inclusion in thisbook is for the purpose of criticismand illustration only.60-Minute Brand Strategist –Limited EditionBook and cover design:Sali Tabacchi3 1
  3. 3. Contents:Introduction 4All About Brands 7Branding in a Postmodern Culture 39Strategic Perspectives of Branding 49Managing Brand Meaning 79Brand Leadership 119Luxury Brand Marketing 1332 3
  4. 4. IntroductionThis book is about only one thing: brands,branding and the only sustainable form ofleadership in an economy ruled by ideas –brand innovation and leadership. Its been 8 years since 60-minute BrandStrategist was first published as a book.Adapted from slides I used in my AdvancedBranding Seminar, the first edition wastranslated and published in several languages,including Japanese, Chinese and German.Dr. Morgan Gerard collaborates with me todevelop this limited edition, updatedand abridged version by popular demand.We decided to select a few of the book’schapters that deliver the essence of theconcepts. These concepts and techniquesare used by the world’s most successfuland valuable brands. But you’ll rarely, if ever,read much about these concepts inbusiness magazines. Why? Simply put,they’re trade secrets. Well-wieldedbranding tools and techniques are powerful,competitive weapons used to win thehearts and minds of customers. Time andagain, they help defeat the competition.Consider what follows a battle plan designedto inspire, act as a reminder, function asa tool kit and be drawn upon as a referencethat should sit on every marketing andbrand executive’s desk.Idris Mootee, CEOIdea Couture Inc.4 5
  5. 5. all about brands6 7
  6. 6. LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOUWhat is a brand? I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEIn a world where brands rule, products YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOUare no longer bundles of functionalcharacteristics but rather means to provideand enhance customer experiences.Thanks to the internet and wireless tech- I I I I I I I I I I I Inologies, information is so abundant LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOUthat consumers are overloaded. They havemore information than they can digest,use, need or even want. Product proliferation creates so many I I I I I I I I I I I Ichoices that it diminishes our ability to LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEdifferentiate or choose what we truly value. YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOUBrands help us choose. They are invaluabletools that help us break through clutter tomake choices based on our experience ofand satisfaction with products or services. I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU8 9 I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE
  7. 7. OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I YOU I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU ME YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU 10 11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE
  8. 8. OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I OVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE I LOVE “ There will be aYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU time using a “In technocratic and colorless logo will be the worst thing I YOU times, brands bring warmth, I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE ME, LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE familiarity and trust.”YOU TOO YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU – Peter Brabeck, Nestle in the world.” I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE – Bill Bernbach,YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU Founder DDB We’re a long long way from that day. I I I I I I I I I I I I The truth is that people like brands. They OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE not only simplify choices and guaranteeYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU quality, but they also add fun and interest, provide aspirations and dreams. Some people love them like children, which might explain why I personally know of a 4-year I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE old boy named Nike, an 8-year old namedYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU Ferrari and a 12-year old girl named Hermès. I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU LOGO I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I OVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVEYOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU 12 13 I I I I I I I I I I I IOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE
  9. 9. a BRAND IS NOT… a BRAND IS…A Trade Mark point of view(These are legal properties.) Branding is a strategic point of view, not a select set of marketing activities.A Mission Statement(This is a reminder.) customer value Branding is central to creating customerA Logo or Slogan value, not just sound bites and images.(These are your signatures.) competitive advantageA Product or Service Branding is a key tool for creating and(These are just the tangibles.) sustaining competitive advantages.Advertising engineered(They deliver your messages.) Brand strategies must be “engineered” into the strategic planning process. alive Brands get their identity from meanings. Products and services are the blood of a brand. Your organizational culture and standards for action are the heartbeat. logic and emotion Branding is part science and part art. ITEM WORKING ITEM WORKING IN ISOLATION IN ISOLATION A BRAND IS MORE THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS. ITEM WORKING ITEM WORKING IN ISOLATION IN ISOLATION14 15
  10. 10. Brandshave almostbecomeideologies.16 17
  11. 11. “The art of marketing is the art of brand building. If you are not a brand, you are a commodity. Then price is everything and the low-cost producer is the only winner.” – Philip Kotler, Kellogg18 19
  12. 12. What is a Brand? To plan for one year,“A brand is the ‘personification of a product, service, or even entire company.’ grow sales. Like any person, a brand has a physical To plan for three years,‘body’: in P&G’s case, the products and/or services it provides. Also, like a person, a brand has a name, a personality, character and a reputation. Like a person, you can respect, like grow channel. and even love a brand. You can think of it as a deep personal friend, or merely an acquaintance. You can view it as dependable To plan for decades, or undependable; principled or opportunistic; caring or capricious. Just as grow a brand. you like to be around certain people and not others, so also do you like to be with certain brands and not others. Also, like a person, a brand must mature and change its product over time. But its character, and core beliefs shouldn’t change. Neither should its fundamental personality and outlook on life. People have character…so do brands. A persons character flows from his/her integrity: the ability to deliver under pressure, the willingness to do what is right rather than what is expedient. You judge a person’s character by his/her past performance and the way he/she thinks and acts in both good times, and especially bad. The same are true of brands.”– Robert Blanchard, former P&G executive BRAND CHANNEL SALES VALUE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 YEARS20 21
  13. 13. 1. 2. The Customer SatisfactionWhat is the What is our core Treadmilldeep need that competence? Daniel Kahneman of Princeton describes the Customer Satisfaction Treadmill.we satisfy? What are we The more we make, the more we spend, the more we want. The faster we get it, the faster we want it. The more convenientWhat is our really good at? it becomes, the more we realize just how convenient it could be. The moreraison d’être? our unreasonable demands are met, the more unreasonable they become. METAPHYSICAL NEEDS EXPERIENTAL NEEDS SYMBOLIC NEEDS FUNCTIONAL NEEDS22 23
  14. 14. Brand In a world predisposed to sameness, theretaxonomies are few things in life more satisfying than building brands that disrupt predisposition. Brands move market share. Brands move advertising award judges. Brands move culture. Some do all. Brand has meaning beyond functionality that exists in peoples minds. Part art, part science, brand is the difference between a bottle of soda and a bottle of Coke, a computer and an iMac, a cup of coffee and a cup of Starbucks, a car and a Mercedes, a designer’s hand bag and a Hermès Birkin. Brand is the intangible yet visceral impact of a persons subjective experience with the product, the personal memories and cultural associations that orbit around it. Brands are also about messages – strong, exciting, distinct, authentic messages that tell people who you are, what you think and why you do what you do. Brands that focus on their meanings and values rather than functions. Brands that Brands that are tightly identified have almost become with the product product- product or range of products independent Brands that focus largely on their core functions and purposes24 25
  15. 15. Too much THE Most commonadvertising with too issues with brandinglittle meaning? Cannot justify the cost for brand re-positioning. Where’s the ROI? Management doesCUSTOMER VALUE not understand why we need to haveBRAND MEANING a brand strategy.BRAND ADVERTISINGCUSTOMER VALUEBRAND MEANINGBRAND ADVERTISING Management thinks branding is just another logo with a Sales and marketing new tag line. aren’t reading the same book, let alone the same page. Brand vision and company reality do not match.26 27
  16. 16. Why brands are in What is a Brand?trouble? Don’t make the mistake of letting brand image take over and become brand identity. It’s only part of the equation, not the answer. Brands are being Brands struggle mass-produced to find their in brand factories own identities There’s a movement of Too many me-too conservatism in brands and too brand investment. Many much me-too advertising.have gone from inspirational Many brands and daring to cautionary have lost their souls. and risk averse. CORPORATE INTERNAL STRATEGY BRANDING Everyone is looking for a save formula. Brand Strategy Brand Image BRAND CUSTOMER IDENTITY ENGAGEMENT Brands have lost Brands are worn their mystique from overuse Consumers understand As brand manuals gets how marketing works thicker and heavier, and they are brand savvy. you know you’re in trouble. Brand Be careful not to Instructional menus Attributes over-market a brand. replace imagination. Brand Associations28 29
  17. 17. What is a Brand? What is a brand?A brand is an intangible asset that resides in Today you may have a name and a The trust-based, value-producingpeople’s hearts and minds. It’s defined by trademark, but it will take time (and much relationship called a brand is proof that thethe expectations people have about tangible more) before you have a brand. Brand company is organizationally aligned toand intangible benefits that are developed building is the creation and management of repeat the process and sustain the values.over time by communications and, more inward cash flow with brand equity as the Find and establish your niche. Clarify yourimportantly, by actions! To build a successful savings account. Managing brand is about distinct ability to make an impact.brand means doing the following four things: how marketers and consumers collaborate Determine the desired relationship to create meanings. Brand building is not an between your customers/prospects and1. Making a promise option. ROI is only relevant when considering your product.2. Communicating your promise Create intangible, emotional bonds alternative marketing programs. Brand3. Keeping your promise4. Strengthening your promise equity is a big elephant: looking at financial through every customer interaction. returns alone is unacceptable. You must Like people, brand requires a name, aThe tangible aspect of your brand is a understand the whole beast. personality, a character and a reputation.promise. What do you do best? What’s the Brand management is a crucial elementpayoff? What can your consumer count of corporate strategy rather than solelyon? This promise becomes an intrinsic part a marketing function. It helps a companyof your marketing message. In order break away from the pack in creatingfor you to own it, you must communicate shareholder value. Brand strategy is thestrategically and creatively across a viable expression of business strategy.broad media mix. Both your internal andexternal audiences must be true believersof the promise. And the only way tomake them truly believe is to be true aboutthe promise. 1. Making a promise 2. Communicating your promise BRAND STRATEGY CORPORATE STRATEGY 3. Keeping your promise 4. Strengthening your promise30 31
  18. 18. Mind over matter Advantages built on emotional values and brand meanings (e.g. Levis, Nike, Starbucks,Psychological differences may seem Coca-Cola, Harley-Davison, Apple, Sony)insubstantial, but in terms of sustainability, are often the most durable.they are often more resilient thanfunctional differences. Intangible emotional associations aredifficult to copy:Once an emotional territoryis occupied by a well knownbrand, it is more difficultto displace than a brand witha functional claim. Personality Trust Timeless Unique32 33
  19. 19. products vs.brands A product is built in a factory. A brand is built of trust and relationships A product is an object. A brand is a personality. A product is sold by a merchant. A brand is bought by a customer. A product is easily copied by a competitor. A brand is unique. A product is quickly A great brand is timeless. outdated.34 35
  20. 20. Mind over matter Building strong brandsWithout the brand, Apple would havebeen dead. The power of the brand kept Branding is often confused with anthem alive during the mid-1990s when advertising campaign or a corporate identity.their products were lackluster. The brand Companies are still turning to brandingbought them time until they came out as a panacea. Equally problematic are thewith the next runaway hit – the iMac. self-proclaimed branding experts happy For Apple, the brand is always bigger than to sell you pricey snake oil. In novice hands,the product. It is an ideology, a value set. branding becomes a way to obfuscateApple is about imagination, innovation and relative sameness or make promises thatindividualism. can’t be fulfilled, instead of communicating It’s not just about advertising or visual relevant uniqueness and building trustidentity. Brands must be built 360 degrees. and credibility.Branding means that collateral information,meaning, association and value has beenspiced into the very DNA of the brand. Thishas two core components: label and fable.Label refers to all visual elements, packagingand taglines. Fables are the extrinsic aspectof branding attached from the outsideand most often from customer experiences,advertising, corporate trust and customerrelationships. The brand is the totality of whatthe customer experiences: the look andfeel of your office, your community reputation,your awning and signage, your sales andcustomer service people, the way you handlebusiness conflicts and customer complaints. INNOVATION Three key requirements for building strong brands: IMAGINATION 1. Trust between brand and consumer 2. Common identity between brand and consumer 3. Point of difference between brands in a set INDIVIDUALISM36 37
  21. 21. branding in a postmodern culture38 39
  22. 22. Branding In The Age TransformationOf Brand is a process,Transformation a performanceBrands are transforming themselves. As content is increasingly delivered via To make the story of a brand completeBeyond mere ads and products, they are personalized and self-scheduled social webs, and meaningful, it requires that all offinding new ways to get inside your viewers – not broadcasters – will decide the actors – customers and companies alikehome and be a part of your life as branded when, how, why and what is consumed. – successfully complete transitions fromcontent, branded entertainment, branded And they will dictate who they share that scene to scene and stage to stage. In today’sutilities and branded space. L’Equipe, the consumption with. script, those transitions read like this:Parisian based daily sports newspaper, The question is, What role should brandinvented the Tour de France for one simple play in this age of transformation?reason: to sell more newspapers, brandedcontent with a pinch of engagement. But customers are transforming brands,too. New cultural modes of performanceare emerging from new network-based socialbehaviors and conversations. With over50 million people able to share ideas, opinionsand experiences in a single online space– and generate billions of web pageimpressions every month – these behaviorsand conversations are creating a seismic Interruption is the stage Intrusion is the stage Engagement is the curtain call of thisshift in the traditional balance of power that where old scripts get between what was and what performance. A celebration of theonce existed between customers and shredded, rules get tossed will be. A wild zone of new new reality and the ideas and ritualscompanies. out the window and the ideas and new rituals, it is alive that brought it to life, brands that paradigms we lived by with uncertainty, excitement will occupy centre stage are those are revealed as obsolete. and expectation. This gestative that contribute the new ideas, help The Internet is our Inter- space where customers and facilitate the new rituals, meet the new ruption. It has forever companies create and explore needs and, ultimately, tell the best ruptured the old system brand futures is where we stories. Those who ignore this new of brand control and are right now. reality do so at their own peril. communication. INTERRUPTION INTRUSION ENGAGEMENT40 41
  23. 23. distribution is nothing content is everythingWhen distribution is trivial, unlimited and Great content – the kind that truly engagesavailable to all, marketing to a captive – helps customers tell a story, performaudience sitting on a couch in front of a box a part of their life, communicate meaning tois a thing of the past. In fact, this kind of others and be all that they can be. It is,old-world marketing has become adversarial quite simply, cultural.to customers. Having adapted to the In the past, the clearest demonstration ofmedia-fragmented and always-on new content (and brands) as cultural was inreality, they seek value by searching, the subculture. Punks, mods, ravers, skaters,discovering and sharing their very personal church-goers, artists, bikers and othersbrand caches with peers – not waiting made commodities come to life throughfor you to interrupt them with unwanted performances like no other consumersmessaging. on earth. Today, because of the scope and Broadcasting is in trouble, and user- reach of social media, we are in an age ofgenerated videos are just the beginning. the post-subcultural. The Hipster, a mash-upThe social-casting of YouTube will of subcultural traditions, has become theevolve and, in the process, so too will emblem of insider-ness made accessible toconsumer behavior. Instead of passivity, all with the Internet.the experience flow of tomorrow will Just as subculturalists were the creativebe characterized by immediacy, flexibility, class of brand dissemination, modification,portability, permeability, fluidity, alteration and transformation, so now areinteractivity, mashability and ownerability. the millions of people around the world who, With the emergence and convergence through social media, have access to insiderof the mobile phone, the Internet and knowledges, practices, experiences,location-based-systems, consumers also performances and collaborative communities.have immediate access to co-workers, This occurs through YouTube, Flickr,friends and family members. Between Twitter, Facebook and the thousands of online contentgetting used to and being born into advice, support, co-creation and retaila connected age, they are naturally and portals. The relentless virtualization of socialincreasingly drawing on participation life, the marketing of niche-interactions,in various networks for information, the sharing of experiences and the out-assistance, support and recommendations. sourcing of work means that less and less of Creating great products, services and our daily lives are produced and consumedcontent is paramount. Content? Yes, at home. Rather, we are performingcontent. An integral part of any product or ourselves more in public, more collabor-service and their related experiences, atively and more than every throughcustomers will consume only what’s relevant the kinds of very social networks that onceto them, what best serves them, and what existed solely in subcultures.truly entertains them – not what is marketedto them by you through repetition. Engagingthem will require branded experiencesrich in content that strengthen contextualinvolvement and consumer connection.Within such experiences, the density andintensity of polysemic, multi-origin,co-created and fragmented communicationwill make Baudrillard’s hyper-reality seemas antiquated as TV.42 43
  24. 24. the personal brand What is the problem? “We spent eightIn the age of the Personal Brand, “We hired a brand consultant Many companies are simply not ready tocommoditization is permeating every aspect and developed a great deal with or anticipate identity obsolescenceof daily life. Style, taste, identity and like they anticipate the obsolescence of months and a brand strategy. Our adindividuality have become central to what agency went on to create products or business models. Despite thewe expect from our experiences in and produce an ad best efforts of management teams, manyhealth care, learning, dating, news, clothing,food, travel, home furnishings, com- lot of money on campaign that far exceeded our capability to deliver can’t adapt to shifts in the competitive environment because the required brand-munication, sports, entertainment, sexuality,spirituality, birth, marriage, babies and a brand strategy the brand promise. We ended up with disappointed driven adaptive response is inconsistent with the company’s core identity. Any brandburials. Twenty years ago, in the socialmainstream, this wasn’t the case. Sub- and all that’s customers, internal conflicts and brand credibility exercise will only widen the gap between the brand and the corporate core identity.culturalists were particularly picky abouttheir purchases, but the average changed is the erosion.” – CEO, Telco logo and tagline.”consumer had a less refined sense ofassembling their self through productsand services. Today, instant communication has – CEO, Financial Services Companyblown the doors clear off of the old-worldmedia and advertising industry. Tastegurus, micro-brands, blogs, chatters,Friends, Tweeters, citizen journalists andthe searchability of style have foreverchanged the how, what, where, whenand why of consumption. In the newfree-for-all of ideas, opinions, reviews andexperiences, individuals with greateraccess to information strive to define anddisplay their Personal Brand, niche isthe norm, cool is hyper-commoditized andbranding becomes as much a bottom-upphenomenon for customers as a top-downpriority for companies One result is that we have becomedesperate to socialize the profane. Distracted Brandsby the pace of change, unfulfilled in ourpersonal lives and feeling disempowered byour work, many of us turn to celebrities,rock stars, designers and brands to cultivatemore meaning in life. But when work isempowering and life is meaningful, interestand engagement in high-consumptionlifestyles will wane. De-marketing will happen.Until then, a brand’s role is to help tocreate meanings in everyday life through “I want to be cool.”commodities. Consumers44 45
  25. 25. Saving Your Many B-school case studies have chronicled Can social mediaZombie Brands brands brought back from the dead. But save the for every success, there are hundreds of Zombie Brands?Zombie Brands, Dinosaurs Brands, Ghost failures: companies that tried to revitalizeBrands or Graveyard Brands are what old brands by hiring new agencies and The Social Media Generation haspeople used to call brands that customers throwing endless amounts of money into phenomenal influence over the fate ofhave either completely abandoned or advertising in hopes of rebuilding, even brands. Active, mobile and vocal,that are simply hanging on by a thread, when there wasnt a relevant product, service they share the joys, angers and frustrationsusually at a Dollar Store or at Costco or sound strategy behind the initial move. of their daily experiences with anybodyin a totally unrelated product category. How bad is your situation? Here are the three and everybody. In doing so, their digitalSome have gone through unsuccessful most common scenarios: connectivity becomes the web that weavesrevitalization efforts, others exist only in Brand Communities. Separated byemerging markets, a few have simply their geography but bound by their lovelost relevance in their core market place(Xerox, Oldsmobile) to be used casually My brand is sick. of a particular brand, citizens of these communities can be identified by fouron products totally outside their product Market changes direction and the brand core markers:category (Teac, RCA, Polaroid etc.). become irrelevant. Everyone (advertising, • Shared interests product design, promotions) used to • Shared valuesIf you happen to own a Zombie Brand, understand what the brand means and they • Shared ritualswhat can you do? all stick to it, believing it connects to • Shared purposes something larger and more enduring. But1. Invest and attempt to revitalize it2. Milk it one day they woke up and realized there The commercial, mass‐mediated ethos in3. Position it for the emerging market was a big disconnect. Your brand is stuck in which Brand Communities are situated4. Sell it for whatever it’s worth the past. Your brand is IRREVELANT. affects their character and structure and5. Dump it gives rise to their particularities. From a brand and marketing perspective, this is theConsumers with special relationships toZombie Brands often have sentimental My brand is most disruptive trend. It means that Social Media, not advertising, has become dying.reasons for continuing to make purchases the conduit for communication and thator for giving them a second chance. But customers are the collective source of truththe cost and risk of bringing a brand back for brands. Given the right new content,to life is enormous. If this is your choice, The brand is becoming boring. It doesn’t the Brand Community is a possible cure formake sure the decision to do so is based create excitement for customers or even the Zombie Brand.on sound logic. If you run a large portfolio, employees anymore. Younger consumersthe questions will be: Which brands are think of it as their parents’ brand. Thisworth the revitalization effort? And Why? is common with brands that have been successful and achieved market leadership. In fact, it’s often the result of being too successful. Your successful past has made you lazy. Your brand lacks customer ENGAGEMENT. My Brand Has No Vital Signs. You’ve ignore your brand for too long or simply let it ride to expiry. Every drop of energy and goodwill has been squeezed out. It has lost its power to capture your customers (or even your own) imagination. Your brand is a shell of existence. It has been reduced to nothing more than a LOGO.46 47
  26. 26. strategic perspectives of branding48 49
  27. 27. “We have a surplus “We also have a surplus The average consumer is exposed to as many as 30,000 messages per day, of of similar companies, of similar brands, which more than 3,000 are branded. Many studies indicate that less than 10% of prime time ads have clear positioning. employing similar having similar attributes, Between 1999 and 2000, the number of new packaged goods introduced people, with similar with similar marketing increased by more than 20%, the largest increase in a decade. Most of these educational back- messages and were “me-too” products destined to be lost in the crowd and to reduce some grounds, working slogans, coming up brands to a near-commodity status. In a world where brands abound, in similar jobs, coming with similar brand competition is increasingly intense and the speed of competitive responses is ever shorter. The race is on to rise above the up with similar ideas, claims, with similar throng of brands and secure customer loyalty. But all too often, companies fall into producing similar quality, selling at similar the trap of thinking short-term, being overly ambitious or lacking a brand strategy. things, with similar prices. Welcome to prices and similar the Surplus Economy!” quality.” – Idris Mootee– Kjell Nordstrom and Jonas Ridderstrale, Funky Business best practices + strategic outsourcing + Enterprise Resource Management =? Not only are brands similar, even the companies are now more or less the same or nearly identical50 51
  28. 28. Branding and Economic evolutionMcDonaldization In the Surplus Economy, the marketingMcDonaldization is everywhere. Individualism technology is often oriented towards battle is a battle of the brands – aand diversity are replaced by efficiency greater control and more consistent quality. competition for brand dominance.and social control. It is the process by which The great source of uncertainty and Companies will recognize that brands arethe principles of the fast food restaurant unpredictability in a rationalizing system is a company’s most valuable assetsdominate more and more sectors of our people — either the people who work and recognize that it is more importantsociety throughout the world. within those systems or the people who are to own markets than factories. McDonald’s has 30,000 restaurants in served. Branding advertising is used to The only way to own markets is to own121 countries, 60% of which are outside the put the human elements back. The warm market-dominant brands. The brandUSA. Shopping centers are everywhere and smiling faces in TV commercials battlefields expand beyond advertisingand the shops and merchandize are mostly are intended to convince customers about media and be fought on many grounds.the same. This trend is visible in many “calculability” over “individuality”.other businesses from toys, auto-repair, “(calculability) involves an emphasis on things that canconvenient stores, consumer electronics to be calculated, counted, quantified. Quantification refers tobooks and general merchandize. The a tendency to emphasize quantity rather than quality. This leads to a sense that quality is equal to a certain, usually“control” and “system” components are key. (but not always) large quantity of things.”Replacement of human by non-human The Battle of Brands SURPLUS ECONOMY INFORMATION ECONOMY SERVICE ECONOMY INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY VALUE TIME52 53
  29. 29. Customer Fournier’s Customerrelationships approach: relationshipsMost businesses have a relationship with their customers Meet with consumers (hundreds of people over several Managing Customer Relationships hasthat is based solely on price. That is why so many years) to listen to their life stories, discover their interests become Managing Software Vendorcompanies are having difficulties maintaining their margins. and goals, and hear about the ups & downs of their Relationships. So, what went wrong?The challenge is to figure out how to extend those daily lives. Then ask each person to describe his/her Shouldn’t companies be putting their moneytransaction-based relationships to emotional-based “brand portfolio” and to explain why they choose the back into developing the “R” of “CRM”?relationships. Professor Susan Fournier at Harvard products they do. Marketers and “CRM” vendors setBusiness School has classified the relationships consumers Fournier drew out seven essential attributes of good unrealistically high expectations when theyhave with their brands into fifteen types ranging across brand relationship quality: talk about “relationships”. Shouldthe whole spectrum. They include: they be using a different word instead? “Traditionally, tactical marketing decisions –Committed Partnership Enslavement Interdependence Love and passion regarding packaging and advertising, forUsually long-term and Involuntary relationship Brand is inextricably Consumers feel affection/ instance – are made by different people orvoluntary relationship: a governed exclusively by the woven into consumers’ passion for the products departments. A holistic understandingman is so involved with partner’s wishes or desires: daily life and routine. and may experience of the relationship that consumers have withhis brand of bicycle that he a consumer is unhappy with separation anxiety if it’s a brand can give direction to a company’sbecomes an advocate the local cable provider but not available. marketing activities and result in a strongerof it, singing its praises to has no alternative source for bond between consumer and brand”his friends. the service. – Susan Fournier Harvard Business School Commitment Self-concept connection “A good relationship is an asset. We can Consumers stick with Using the brand helps invest in relationships, and we can borrow the product through good consumers address a from them. We all do it but almost never or bad times either in life issue, such as a need manage it. Yet a company’s most precious his or her life style or in the to belong or a fear of asset is its relationship with customers.” product’s life cycle. growing old. – Theodore Levitt Harvard Business School Intimacy Partner quality Consumers describe a Consumers seek certain sense of deep familiarity positive traits in the brand with the product and such as dependability, an understanding of its trust, worthiness, and attributes. accountability – the same qualities as one would look for in a best friend. Nostalgic attachment brand brings back memories either because it was used at an earlier time in life or because it was associated with loved ones54 55
  30. 30. Rise and riseof the brandThe very technologies that make it faster,easier and cheaper to innovate alsohelp us to imitate. The game switched frominnovation to imitation. The increasingdifficulty in differentiating between products,services and the speed with whichcompetitors take up innovations will onlyassist in the rise and rise of the brand.Many of our dreams and desires for a betterworld are no longer articulated by JohnKennedys or Martin Luther Kings, norgenerated through personal epiphanies –they are now the intellectual currency ofbrands. When brands connect to inspirationand epiphany – personal, collective orconjured by leaders – they enter into a realmimmune to imitation.56 57
  31. 31. Decision map for Decision map forbrand choices brand leveraging Does the brand currently serve strategically (size and profitability) important or attractive segments? Brand Leveraging Strategies Yes No Does the Are there brand qualify as any other strategic a Leadership reasons to retain Brand? the brand? Yes Yes No No Line Brand Extensions Extensions Does the brand have the Does it add Can the brand potential value to other be leveraged in to become a existing brands or new markets? Leadership businesses? Brand? Yes No No Yes Is there Horizontal Vertical Another Product Brand Are we willing Does it add Co-Branding a reason to keep Extension Extension Class Licensing or can we afford value to other or further develop to invest in existing brands or a brand in this the brand? businesses? category? No No Yes Yes No Yes Can the brand be extended as a product line? Yes No Yes Up from Down from Core Brand Core Brand NO DEVELOP BRAND KEEP LEADERSHIP INTO SPIN-OFF PRODUCT- ROLL-UP AS NICHE BRAND LEADERSHIP OR DIVEST LINE BRAnd BRAND58 59
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