Research methodology


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Research methodology

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY1.- Research : a way of thinkingResearch : a way of examining your practiceApplication of researchDefinitions of researchCharacteristics of researchTypes of research Application ObjectivesParadigms of research2.- The research process: a quick glanceThe research process: an eight step modelSteps in planning a research study Step 1.- Formulating a research problem Step 2 .- Conceptualizing a research design Step 3.- Constructing an instrument for data collection Step 4.- Selecting a sample Step 5.- writing a research proposalSteps in conducting a study Step 6.- collecting data Step 7.- processing data Step 8.- Writing a research reportSTEP I.- FORMULATING A RESEARCH PROBLEM3.- Reviewing the literature Place of literature review in research Bring clarity and focus to your research problem Improve your methodology Broaden your knowledge base in your research area Contextualize your findings Procedure for reviewing the literature Search for existing literature Review the literature selected Develop a theoretical framework Develop a conceptual framework Writing up the literature reviewed
  2. 2. 4.- Formulating a research problem The research problem The importance of formulating a research problem Sources of research problems Considerations in selecting a research problem Steps in the formulation of a research problem The formulation of objectives Establishing operational definitions5.- Identifying variables The definition of a variable The difference between a concept and a variable Concepts, indicators and variables. Types of variable From the viewpoint of causation From the viewpoint of the study design From the viewpoint of the unit of measurement Types of measurement scale The nominal or classificatory scale The ordinal or ranking scale The interval scale The ratio scale6.- Constructing hypotheses The definition of a hypothesis The functions of a hypothesis The characteristics of a hypothesis Types of hypothesis Errors in testing a hypothesisSTEP II.- CONCEPTUALISING A RESEARCH DESIGN7.- The research design The definition of a research design The functions of a research design8.- Selecting a study design Study designs based on the number of contacts The cross-sectional study design The longitudinal study design
  3. 3. Study designs based on the reference period The retrospective study design The retrospective study design The retrospective-prospective study design Study designs based on the nature of the investigation The experimental study designs Others –some commonly used study designs Action research Feminist research The cross over comparative experimental design etcSTEP III.- CONSTRUCTING AN INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION9.- Selecting a method of data collection Methods of data collection Collecting data using primary sources Observation Types of observation Problems with using observation as a method of data collection Situations in which observation can be made The recording of observation The interview Unstructured interviews Structured interview The questionnaire Choosing between an interview schedule and a questionnaire Different ways of administering a questionnaire The contents of the covering letter Advantages of a questionnaire Disadvantages of a questionnaire Advantages of the interview Disadvantages of the interview Forms of question Advantages and disadvantages of open-ended questions Advantages and disadvantages of closed-ended questions Considerations in formulating questions The construction of a research instrument
  4. 4. Asking personal and sensitive questions The order of questions Prerequisites for data collection Collecting data using secondary sources Problems with using data from secondary sources10.- Collecting data using attitudinal scales Functions of attitudinal scales Difficulties in developing an attitudinal scale Types of attitudinal scale The summated rating or Scale scale The equal-appearing interval or Thurstone scale The cumulative or Guttman scale The relationship between attitudinal and measurement scales11.- Establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument The concept of validity Types of validity Face and content validity Concurrent and predictive validity Construct validity The concept of validity Types of validity Face and content validity Concurrent and predictive validity Construct validity The concept of reliability Factors affecting the reliability of a research instrument Methods of determining the reliability of an instrument External consistency procedures Internal consistency procedures