Co Operative Learning


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Co Operative Learning

  1. 1. Cooperative & Collaborative Learning <ul><li>Ideas for Effective Classroom Practice </li></ul>
  2. 2. Cooperative Learning in the Physics Classroom <ul><li>The presentation is based upon the model provided by Johnson, D., Johnson, R. & Holubec, E. (1988). Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Several other models exist, but the above model is perhaps the most applicable to physics teaching. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cooperative Learning v. Other forms of Learning <ul><li>Cooperative learning is just one form of classroom/student learning structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized (criterion-based grading system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive (norm-based grading system) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning is perhaps the most important of the three types of learning situations, yet it is the least used (<20% time). </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning cf. cooperative learning. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cooperative Learning: Definitions & Traits <ul><li>Cooperation -- working together to accomplish shared goals </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning -- the instructional use of small groups wherein students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning </li></ul><ul><li>Common Elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shared learning goals -- desired future state in which the students demonstrate as a group and individually a mastery of the subject studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goal structure -- specifies the ways in which students will interact with each other and the teacher during the instructional session </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Not all group learning is cooperative learning. <ul><li>groups arguing over divisive conflicts and power struggles </li></ul><ul><li>a member sits quietly, too shy to participate </li></ul><ul><li>one member does the work, while the other members talk about sports </li></ul><ul><li>no one does the work because the one who normally works the hardest doesn’t want to be a sucker </li></ul><ul><li>a more talented member may come up with all the answers, dictate to the group, or work separately, ignoring other group members </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effective Cooperation <ul><li>does not occur by chance. </li></ul><ul><li>occurs when the essential components structured within each cooperative lesson are ensured. </li></ul><ul><li>can not be based on the assumption that all students possess good social and learning skills. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Together: Essential Components
  8. 8. P ositive Interdependence <ul><li>Students have two responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learn the assigned material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that all members of the group learn the material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each student should see his or her work as benefiting each student’s effort is essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each student makes unique contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interdependence occurs when students cannot succeed unless their group members also succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring interdependence: common goal, joint rewards, divided resources, complimentary roles </li></ul>
  9. 9. I ndividual Accountability <ul><li>Teacher must assess how much effort each member is contributing to the group’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must provide feedback to groups and individual students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must help groups avoid redundant efforts by members. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must ensure that every member is responsible for the final outcome. </li></ul>
  10. 10. G roup Processing <ul><li>n.b: At the end of the process, students reflect to determine which member actions were helpful and which were harmful. </li></ul><ul><li>Students then make decisions about which actions to continue, change, or delete. </li></ul><ul><li>Such processing allows groups to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on maintaining good working relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learn cooperative skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide feedback on member participation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think at a metacognitive level as well as cognitive level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>celebrate success of the group. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. S ocial Skills <ul><li>Students must get to know and trust one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Students must communicate accurately and unambiguously. </li></ul><ul><li>Students must accept and support each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Students must resolve conflicts constructively. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Face -to-Face Interaction <ul><li>Interaction occurs as a result of the positive interdependence. </li></ul><ul><li>To maximize opportunity for success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keep groups small (2 - 6 students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keep groups heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assist students with guidelines for interaction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>acceptance, support, trust, respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exchange of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What’s the difference? <ul><li>Cooperative Group Traditional Group </li></ul><ul><li>Positive interdependence No interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Individual accountability No individual accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous membership Homogeneous membership </li></ul><ul><li>Shared leadership One appointed leader </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible to each other Responsibly only for self </li></ul><ul><li>Task & maintenance emphasized Only task emphasized </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher observes & intervenes Teacher ignores groups </li></ul><ul><li>Group processing occurs No group processing </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual assistance Competitive </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Advisability of Using Cooperative & Collaborative Learning <ul><li>Works well with inquiry and constructivist approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports multiculturalism efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Assists with classroom discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for more than one “teacher.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cooperative & Collaborative Learning <ul><li>Cooperative/collaborative learning has the best and largest empirical base of any educational innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative processes have been shown to advance higher-level conceptual learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative/collaborative learning at the high school level is well worth exploring. </li></ul><ul><li>A fad (top down) or a trend (bottom up)? </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Working Example of C. L. <ul><li>View the UHS videotape relating to C. L. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the article, Nondirected Research Projects in Physics Coursework, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 34, March 1996, pp. 158 - 161. </li></ul><ul><li>Each student is free to write responses to questions provided under Cooperative Learning Lesson Analysis hyperlinked through Cooperative Learning in course syllabus. </li></ul>
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