Closing the 2-Sigma Gap
Eight Strategies to Replicate
One-to-One Tutoring
in Blended Learning
David W. Denton
David A. Wic...
Closing the 2 Sigma Gap
Definitions
(Bloom, 1984)
Effects
(Bloom, 1984)
How can instructors replicate
characteristics of one-to-one tutoring in
blended learning courses?
Variables for Considerat...
Eight Strategies
Improving instructional materials
1 Quantity of Instruction
2 Cues and Explanations
Enhancing peer intera...
Improving Instructional Materials
1 Quantity of instruction
2 Cues and explanations
1 Quantity of Instruction
The amount of guidance, preparation, & coaching provided to students in a course
Blended learnin...
Improving Quantity of Instruction
Online resources showing what or how
Face time to coach students through application
Lin...
2 Cues and Explanations
Information or questions shared by instructor or
students to help scaffold understanding
Improving Cues and Explanations
Instructional decision-making tree
Face time to understand nonverbal
expressions
Asynchron...
Enhancing Peer Interactions
3 Cooperative learning
4 Class environment
3 Cooperative Learning
Use of small groups so that students work
together to maximize their own and each others'
learning
...
Cognitive Presence
(Rourke, Anderson, Garrison, & Archer, 2001)
Collaborate on
Deliverable
(Charter, Essay, or
Presentatio...
Improving Cooperative Learning
1. Choose an appropriate small group project
2. Identify suitable collaborative tools
3. In...
4 Class Environment
Communication
Characteristics of an Effective LMS
(Elias, 2010; Higgins et al., 2005)
Improving Communication through
LMS Organization
Equitable use
All content online
Simple and intuitive
Interface
Navigatio...
Simple and Intuitive
Organize content
Labels
Considering Student Differences
5 Tutorial instruction
6 Feedback
5 Tutorial Instruction
Individualized instruction that supports regular
classroom instruction
Improving Tutorial Instruction
Replace or enhance lectures with short, interactive online tutorials
Provide background mat...
6 Feedback
Information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher,
peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding
aspects of one...
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Performance criteria, direction for improving
Opportunity for corrections
Efficient,...
Improving Feedback
Developed
Conversational tone
Opening or closing comment
Support comments throughout
Avoids identifying...
Engaging Higher Mental Processes
7 Metacognitive training
8 Goals
7 Metacognitive Training
Metacognition - engaging higher mental processes involves metacognitive
and cognitive dimensions
...
Kinds of Metacognitive Knowledge
Strategy
Task
How, when, why, where to
apply strategy
Self
Learner awareness of
strengths...
Improving Metacognitive Training
Students engaging in blended learning struggle with managing
time, prioritizing activitie...
8 Goals
Goal - the end toward which effort is directed
Outcome - something that follows as a result
Objective - an aim, go...
Characteristics of Goals
Fact, idea, principle, capability, skill, concept,
technique, value, feeling
Specific
Self-assess...
Improving Goals
Reflective Writing
1. Citation of goal
2. Presentation of evidence
3. Assertion of evidence-competence
4. ...
Eight Strategies
Improving instructional materials
1 Quantity of Instruction
2 Cues and Explanations
Enhancing peer intera...
References
Abdulla, D. (2012). Attitudes of college students enrolled in 2-year health care programs towards online learni...
Closing The 2-Sigma Gap Eight Strategies to Replicate One-to-One Tutoring in Blended Learning
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Closing The 2-Sigma Gap Eight Strategies to Replicate One-to-One Tutoring in Blended Learning

  1. 1. Closing the 2-Sigma Gap Eight Strategies to Replicate One-to-One Tutoring in Blended Learning David W. Denton David A. Wicks Vicki Eveland Seattle Pacific University Sloan Consortium Blended Learning Conference, 2013
  2. 2. Closing the 2 Sigma Gap
  3. 3. Definitions (Bloom, 1984)
  4. 4. Effects (Bloom, 1984)
  5. 5. How can instructors replicate characteristics of one-to-one tutoring in blended learning courses? Variables for Consideration Improving instructional materials Enhancing peer interactions Considering student differences Engaging higher mental processes
  6. 6. Eight Strategies Improving instructional materials 1 Quantity of Instruction 2 Cues and Explanations Enhancing peer interactions 3 Cooperative Learning 4 Class Environment Considering student differences 5 Tutorial Instruction 6 Feedback Engaging higher mental processes 7 Metacognitive Training 8 Goals
  7. 7. Improving Instructional Materials 1 Quantity of instruction 2 Cues and explanations
  8. 8. 1 Quantity of Instruction The amount of guidance, preparation, & coaching provided to students in a course Blended learning offers the opportunity for increased quantity of instruction Better practices Concise organization of materials, management Differentiate between online and face-to-face components Realistic expectations regarding complexity of content Accountability, feedback, and reflection Metacognitive training (Abdullah, 2012; Nissen & Tea, 2012)
  9. 9. Improving Quantity of Instruction Online resources showing what or how Face time to coach students through application Linking students to additional resources Access to review material for particularly challenging content Providing resources and instruction for a student to access at convenience
  10. 10. 2 Cues and Explanations Information or questions shared by instructor or students to help scaffold understanding
  11. 11. Improving Cues and Explanations Instructional decision-making tree Face time to understand nonverbal expressions Asynchronous discussions to allow time to reflect prior to responding Web conference to understand nonverbal expressions if face time isn't available (Frey & Fisher, 2010)
  12. 12. Enhancing Peer Interactions 3 Cooperative learning 4 Class environment
  13. 13. 3 Cooperative Learning Use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each others' learning (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1991)
  14. 14. Cognitive Presence (Rourke, Anderson, Garrison, & Archer, 2001) Collaborate on Deliverable (Charter, Essay, or Presentation) Complete Deliverable, Reflect on process Review Collaborative Script Questions Post to Personal Area, Outline Collaborative Response
  15. 15. Improving Cooperative Learning 1. Choose an appropriate small group project 2. Identify suitable collaborative tools 3. Incorporate a collaborative script 4. Organize the project with phases for major milestones 5. Include specific deadlines for individual and group work 6. Form homogenous or heterogeneous teams 7. Provide training for technology and collaboration techniques 8. Assess evidence of individual-group participation after each phase (process) 9. Request student reflection on collaborative process after each phase 10. Assess deliverables or products after each phase (product) (Wicks, Lumpe, Denton, 2012)
  16. 16. 4 Class Environment Communication Characteristics of an Effective LMS (Elias, 2010; Higgins et al., 2005)
  17. 17. Improving Communication through LMS Organization Equitable use All content online Simple and intuitive Interface Navigation Tolerance for error Edit posts Resubmission Instructional climate Regular email contact Individual consultation
  18. 18. Simple and Intuitive Organize content Labels
  19. 19. Considering Student Differences 5 Tutorial instruction 6 Feedback
  20. 20. 5 Tutorial Instruction Individualized instruction that supports regular classroom instruction
  21. 21. Improving Tutorial Instruction Replace or enhance lectures with short, interactive online tutorials Provide background material, example problems, problem-solving opportunities Supply immediate automated feedback Include face-to-face tutorials using PIM (Garrison & Vaughan, 2011)
  22. 22. 6 Feedback Information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding (Hattie & Timperley 2007)
  23. 23. Characteristics of Effective Feedback Performance criteria, direction for improving Opportunity for corrections Efficient, timely delivery Customized Developed
  24. 24. Improving Feedback Developed Conversational tone Opening or closing comment Support comments throughout Avoids identifying same error Beyond brief comments "good" (McGrath, Taylor, & Pychyl, 2011)
  25. 25. Engaging Higher Mental Processes 7 Metacognitive training 8 Goals
  26. 26. 7 Metacognitive Training Metacognition - engaging higher mental processes involves metacognitive and cognitive dimensions Metacognition focuses on the active participation of the individual in his or her thinking process (Stewart and Landine 1995)
  27. 27. Kinds of Metacognitive Knowledge Strategy Task How, when, why, where to apply strategy Self Learner awareness of strengths and weaknesses
  28. 28. Improving Metacognitive Training Students engaging in blended learning struggle with managing time, prioritizing activities, and organizing learning materials so they may need explicit training in all of the areas of metacognitive knowledge (Yang, 2012)
  29. 29. 8 Goals Goal - the end toward which effort is directed Outcome - something that follows as a result Objective - an aim, goal, or end of action
  30. 30. Characteristics of Goals Fact, idea, principle, capability, skill, concept, technique, value, feeling Specific Self-assess Evidence
  31. 31. Improving Goals Reflective Writing 1. Citation of goal 2. Presentation of evidence 3. Assertion of evidence-competence 4. Summary of what was learned 5. Identification of future steps (Guldberg & Pilkington, 2007)
  32. 32. Eight Strategies Improving instructional materials 1 Quantity of Instruction 2 Cues and Explanations Enhancing peer interactions 3 Cooperative Learning 4 Class Environment Considering student differences 5 Tutorial Instruction 6 Feedback Engaging higher mental processes 7 Metacognitive Training 8 Goals
  33. 33. References Abdulla, D. (2012). Attitudes of college students enrolled in 2-year health care programs towards online learning. Computers & Education, 59(4), 1215-1223. Bloom, B. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher 13(6), 4-16. Cowan, J. E. (2012). Strategies for developing a community of practice: Nine years of lessons learned in a hybrid technology education master's program. Techtrends, 56(1), 12-18. Elisa, T. Universal instructional design principles for Moodle. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11(2), 110-124. Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2010). Identifying instructional moves during guided learning. The Reading Teacher, 64(2) Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2011). Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework, Principles, and Guidelines. Wiley Publishing. Guldberg, K. & Pilkington, R. (2007). Tutor roles in facilitating reflection on practice through online discussion. Educational Technology and Society 10(1), 61-72. Hattie, J. & Timperley, N. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. doi: 10.3102/003465430298487 Hew, K., & Cheung, W. (2012). Students' use of asynchronous voice discussion in a blended-learning environment: A study of two undergraduate classes. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 10(4), 360-367. Higgins, S., et al. (2005). The impact of school environments: A literature review. The Centre for Learning and Teaching School of Education, Communication and Language Science. University of Newcastle. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R. T., and Smith, K. A. (1991). Cooperative learning: Increasing college faculty instructional productivity. ASHE-ERIC Report on Higher Education. Washington, DC: George Washington University. Kim, J. (2012). A study on learners' perceptional typology and relationships among the learner's types, characteristics, and academic achievement in a blended e- education environment. Computers & Education, 59(2), 304-315. McGrath, A. L., Taylor, A., & Pychyl, T. A. (2011). Writing helpful feedback: The influence of feedback type on students’ perceptions and writing performance. Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2(2), 1-16. Nissen, E., & Tea, E. (2012). Going blended: New challenges for second generation L2 tutors. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25(2), 145-163. Office of Educational Technology (2013). Expanding evidence approaches for learning in a digital world. United Stated Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/edblogs/technology/files/2012/12/Expanding_Evidence_Approaches_DRAFT.pdf Rourke, L., Anderson, T. Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (2001). Assessing social presence in asynchronous, text-based computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14(3), 51-70. Stewart, J., & Landine, J. (1995). Study skills from a metacognitive perspective. Guidance & Counseling, 11(1), 16-20. Strauss, V. (September, 2012). Three fears about blended learning. The Washington Post. Wicks, D., Lumpe, A., Denton, D. (2012). Ten Strategies to Enhance Collaborative Learning in an Online Course. 18th Annual Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning. Orlando, FL. Wilson, G., & Randall, M. (2012). The implementation and evaluation of a new learning space: A pilot study. Research in Learning Technology, 20(2), 1-17. Yang, Y. (2012). Blended learning for college students with English reading difficulties. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25(5), 393-410.

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