What is Ovarian Cancer? Ovarian Cancer is cancer that forms in the tissue of the ovary. There are many different types, but the most common are: -Ovarian Epithelial Carcinoma; begins in the cells of the surface of the ovaries.(90%) - Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Cancer that begins in the egg cells. -Stromal; Cancer that developes on the connective tissue that holds the ovary together and produces most of the female hormones. (malignant and stromal make up about 10%)
Genetic Mutation: Inherited Ovarian Cancer can be genetic. Having a family history of it increases your risk. 5 to 10% of Ovarian Cancer cases are hereditary. Can happen when there is a genetic mutation of the BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes. There is also a syndrome called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, which is a gene mutation that increases risk of uterine lining, stomach, colon, and ovarian cancer. The younger a first degree relative is that has ovarian cancer, the higher the risk of the inheritor to produce the cancer. Can be inherited on both the mother and the father’s side of the family.
Genetic Mutation: Environmental Although Ovarian Cancer is inherited, it can also be caused by environmental factors like: Infertility & infertility drugs- Being infertile or taking drugs for ovulation and NOT getting pregnant. Estrogen Replacement Therapy-This increases doubles risk after 10 years of doing therapy, and after twenty years the risk doubles again. Hormone Replacement Therapy- use of hormones like estrogen and progesterone increase risk. Obesity in adulthood- Significantly overweight or having a poor diet make risk higher. Talcum Powder- Talc powder or sanitary napkins that contain carcinogen applied directly to genital area also increases risk.
Oncogenes and Tumor-suppressors Oncogenes and Tumor-suppressor genes that have a critical role in normal cell growth and regulation that are genetically altered can cause Ovarian Cancer The genes most affected in families with a history of Ovarian Cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2. Genetic mutation or the over use of the three following oncogenes have been thought and frequently obsereved in Ovarian Cancer: HER-2/nue, c-myc, and K-ras The suppressor Gene p53
Gene Location Ovarian cancer can be located by the genetic mutation of the genes BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 BRCA are tumor suppressor genes and produce certain proteins that are supposed to prevent cells from growing abnormally.
Ovarian Cancer Symptoms Usually Ovarian Cancer symptoms aren’t specific and can often be mistaken for more common things like digestive or bladder disorder. It is common for a woman to be misdiagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome before actually being diagnosed with cancer. When there are symptoms, they are constant and gradually get worse. some might include the following: Abdominal pressure, swelling, or bloating Urinary urgency or burning with no infection Pelvic discomfort or pain Persistent indigestion, gas, or nausea Changes in bladder and bowel habits Persistent lack of energy Low back pain Changes in menstration.
Ovarian Cancer Treatments There are many different kinds of treatments available, depends on certain factors, like the stage and size of the tumors, your age, general health, and if you want to have kids. Surgery-Is the most common. The surgeon tries to remove as much of the tumor as possible. This may include removing ovaries, cervix, fallopian tubes, and surrounding lymphnodes. Other surgeries just ease symptoms and pain. Chemotherapy- Uses anti-cancer drugs to kill off remaining cancer cells. Chemo is commonly used after surgery to kills cancer cells that weren’t removed. Radiation Therapy- Uses high energy rays to kill or shrink ovarian cancer cells through a machine on the outside of a person’s body. The main goal is to reduce pain symptoms. Biotherapy/Immunotherapy- Boosts the body’s immune system to fight the disease.
Ovarian Cancer Preventions Not all risk factors can be prevented, but the ones that can be, like environmental risk factors are called protective factors, which include: Changing lifestyle and eating habits Avoiding use of things that are known to cause cancer Taking medicines to treat precancerous conditions or to keep cancer from starting.
Works Cited Parrin, Jean. "Major Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes Involved in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer." Web. 10 Oct. 2010. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10675491>. "Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic Medical Information and Tools for Healthy Living - MayoClinic.com. 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 10 Oct. 2010. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ovarian-cancer/DS00293/DSECTION=symptoms>. "Ovarian Cancer Treatment & Staging Information." CTCA Cancer Treatment Hospitals: Centers Offering Innovative Care. Web. 11 Oct. 2010. http://www.cancercenter.com/landing-pages/ovarian-cancer/?source=GOOGLEMW&channel=paid search&c=paid treatment:Exact&ef_id=1812:3:s_49b0be80e74c706ae9188c35c566ffb0_4342453101:TLJyWwqoEGMAAGwlyE4AACiw:20101011021139 Cancer, By Preventing. "Ovarian Cancer Prevention - National Cancer Institute." National Cancer Institute - Comprehensive Cancer Information. Web. 11 Oct. 2010. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/ovarian/Patient>. "Definition of Ovarian Cancer - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms." National Cancer Institute - Comprehensive Cancer Information. Web. 11 Oct. 2010. <http://www.cancer.gov/dictionary/?CdrID=445074>.