Chap2 5e u v2 - theory


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  • The good part about a liquid cooling system is that the CPU temperature remains constant no matter how much usage the CPU is experiencing. This is not the case with heat sinks and fans. A similar, but expensive cooling technology is phasechange cooling (also known as vapor cooling).
  • Air flow should be through the computer and over the motherboard to provide cooling for the motherboard components.
  • Chap2 5e u v2 - theory

    1. 1. Chapter 2 On the Motherboard The Complete A+ Guide to PC Repair 5/e Update
    2. 2. <ul><li>To recognize binary unit measurement </li></ul><ul><li>To define terminology associated with the motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>To describe the difference between the internal and external bus </li></ul><ul><li>To define and explain the purpose of pipelines </li></ul><ul><li>To explain how data is processed by 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit and 128-bit processors </li></ul><ul><li>To explain how multi-core processors are placed in a system unit </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the difference between L1, L2 and L3 Cache </li></ul><ul><li>To define explain the purpose of a Multiplier </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the purpose of Clock signals. </li></ul><ul><li>To define and explain the purpose of jumpers. </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the meaning of several jumper settings </li></ul>Chapter Objectives
    3. 3. <ul><li>To explain the purpose of various cooling systems: fans, heat sinks, cooling liquid </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the procedure for installing processors </li></ul><ul><li>To define and explain the meaning of overclocking </li></ul><ul><li>To define and explain the meaning of throttling </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the meaning of Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) standards </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the meaning of PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) standards </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the meaning of PCI-X standards </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the meaning of PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect-Express) standards </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the purpose of chipsets and identify the make and model </li></ul><ul><li>To define the meaning of Form factor as it relates to motherboards </li></ul>Chapter Objectives
    4. 4. Byte Table
    5. 5. <ul><li>Gigahertz - One gigahertz (1GHz) is one billion cycles per second. </li></ul><ul><li>Register size (word size) - The number of bits processed at one time by the processor. Counted in multiples of 8 bits, such as 8-, 16-, and 32-bit register size. Processors today have 64-bit or 128-bit register sizes. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Bus - Electronic lines to move the 1s and 0s inside the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelines – Separate internal buses for processing data simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>CPU – Central Processing Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplier - A number that is multiplied by the bus speed to determine the CPU speed. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Processor Basics Internal Data Bus External Data Bus
    8. 8. Processor Basics Internal and External Data Buses .
    9. 9. How data is transferred E.g. Dear Mom 8-bit CPU – One letter at a time 16-bit CPU – Two letters at a time 32-bit CPU – Four letters at a time 64–bit CPU – Eight letters at a time
    10. 10. Multi-core Processors Combines two processors in a single unit . Dual-core CPU Tri-core CPU Quad-core CPU Combines three processors in a single unit. Two dual-core processors on the same motherboard or two dual-core processors installed in a single unit. Another way to speed up operations is to have two or more processors.
    11. 11. Cache Cache memory that is located inside the CPU. L1 (Level one) cache L2 cache Cache memory that is inside the CPU housing but not part of the CPU, also known as on-die cache . Cache memory located in the CPU housing or on the motherboard. L3 cache Cache - A fast type of memory designed to increase the speed of microprocessor operations.
    12. 12. Cache <ul><li>Data that the CPU needs to operate is found in either: </li></ul><ul><li>Cache – fastest and most accessible </li></ul><ul><li>RAM (main memory on the motherboard) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard drive – slowest and least accessible </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU normally checks Cache first for instructions </li></ul><ul><li>If instructions is not in Cache, it looks in RAM </li></ul><ul><li>If instructions is not in RAM, it checks the hard-drive and transfer the instructions from the hard-drive to RAM or Cache </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Clock Signals - Generated by the motherboard and used to control the transfer of 1s and 0s to CPU. Clock signals go as fast as 200, 266, 333 MHz(millions of cycles per second) </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Jumper - Small metal connector with a plastic cover used to connect two metal pins together. Configuring the jumpers on a motherboard will change the settings on that board. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Enabled
    16. 16. Disabled
    17. 17. Enabled and Disabled
    18. 18. <ul><li>Throttling – Reducing the speed of the processor. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Processor Cooling
    20. 20. Heat Sinks
    21. 21. Processor Cooling Correct Air Flow
    22. 22. Processor Cooling Incorrect Air Flow
    23. 23. Installing Processors Computer is off and unplugged. Use antistatic wrist strap and attach to a ground on computer. Remove old processor by lifting ZIF socket retaining lever. Insert CPU into socket (fits only one way). Configure motherboard by jumpers or BIOS software configuration (refer to manual for exact steps). Always hold the CPU by the edges to avoid bending or touching the pins underneath.
    24. 24. Overclocking Processors In order to overclock, you must have the motherboard documentation to determine whether the system board supports different CPU speeds and different multipliers. Overclocking Is changing the front side bus speed and/or multiplier to boost CPU and system speed. This can cause damage to the CPU, motherboard, or other components.
    25. 25. ISA (Industry Standard Architecture <ul><li>ISA (Industry Standard Architecture ) – The oldest expansion slot, is configured in 8-Bit and 16-Bit slots. </li></ul>
    26. 26. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect <ul><li>PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) – The previously popular expansion slot. PCI comes in four varieties: 32-bit 33MHz, 32-bit 66MHz and 64-bit 33MHz. </li></ul><ul><li>Another standard is the </li></ul><ul><li>PCI-X which can operate at 66MHz, 133MHz, 266MHz, 533MHz and 1066MHz. </li></ul>
    27. 27. PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect-Express
    28. 28. Chipsets Chipsets are the principle chips on the motherboard that work in conjunction with the processor and allow specific features. Chipsets control…
    29. 29. Chipsets
    30. 30. Types of Motherboards
    31. 31. For your extension reading
    32. 32. Upgrading and Replacing Motherboards <ul><li>There are several issues to be taken into account when upgrading a motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapter types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chipsets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future upgrade-ability </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Motherboard Troubleshooting
    34. 34. Intel Processors
    35. 35. AMD Processors
    36. 36. Soft Skills—Active Listening <ul><li>Active listening is participating in a conversation where you focus on what the customer is saying—in other words, listening more than talking. For a technician, active listening has the following benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to gather data and symptoms quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to build customer rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Improves your understanding of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to solve the problem quicker because you understand the problem better </li></ul><ul><li>Provides mutual understanding between you and your customer </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a means of having a positive, engaged conversation rather than having a negative, </li></ul><ul><li>confrontational encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the customer rather than the technician </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an environment where the customer might be more forthcoming with information </li></ul><ul><li>related to the problem </li></ul>
    37. 37. Questions???