His 122 chapters 19 20 fall 13


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  • Why was there a dramatic increase in sharecropping and tenancy in the late nineteenth century? Why did the South have more sharecroppers than other parts of the country? Why, in your opinion, was the rate of sharecropping low in the western territories of New Mexico and Arizona?
  • As the line of the “frontier” moved farther west, Native Americans who had been forced west by treaties and congressional decrees once again found Anglo settlers encroaching on land that bad been promised to them. Unwilling to move again, they attacked the immigrants as they passed through or attempted to settle their land. Perhaps the best known of the Indian Wars involved Lieutenant Colonel George Custer. Miners had been encroaching on the Black Hills of the Dakota territory in search of gold, violating the Black Hills Reservation of the Sioux. Custer and his detachment of 210 soldiers moved against a Sioux encampment only to find themselves surrounded by more than 2,500 warriors.
  • What was the Great Sioux War? What happened at Little Bighorn, and what were the consequences? Why were hundreds of Indians killed at Wounded Knee?
  • With the near-extinction of the buffalo came the rise of the cattle drive. The terminus for a cattle drive was whichever rail line was closest. As railways continued to extend west, the destinations of the cattle drives changed. As farmers continued to settle the plains, they began to mark their land with a new invention, barbed wire. Several hard winters and a period of drought led to the end of cattle drives, and the open range gave way to the closed.
  • The construction of Hoover Dam When completed in 1936, Hoover Dam was the world’s largest concrete structure.
  • The flow of population during this period switched from extending the frontier, as at the turn of the century, to retreating to the safety and security of cities. Technologies such as elevators, steam radiators, and less expensive steel allowed urban dwellers to live more compactly than ever before.
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  • Tandem tricycle In spite of the danger and discomfort of early bicycles, “wheeling” became a popular form of recreation and mode of transportation.
  • William James proposed the concept of pragmatism, that ideas gain their validity not from their inherent truth but instead from their social consequences and practical applications.
  • His 122 chapters 19 20 fall 13

    1. 1. CHAPTERS 19-20 The South and the West and the Emergence of Urban America
    2. 2. The New South  Plantation system gave way to tenant farming and sharecropping  Farmers worked land they did not own  Traded a percentage of annual yield for the right to work their share of land  Little cash available-most farmers lived in a perpetual state of debt  Some growth in manufacturing  Cotton still King  Railroad improved shipping crops to market
    3. 3. The Myth of the the New South
    4. 4. The Myth of the New South
    5. 5. The Myth of the New South
    6. 6. Plessy v. Ferguson and Jim Crow  Application of Constitutional Amendment to citizens  Civil Rights Law of 1865
    7. 7. Parties and Judges
    8. 8. The New West  The Migratory Stream  1870-1900: Americans settled more land in the U.S. than had been occupied before the Civil War  Settlers’ ethnicities  African-American Migration  Exodusters  Buffalo Soldiers: “colored” cavalry units
    9. 9. The New West
    10. 10. The New West  The Indian Wars  Lieutenant Colonel George Custer  Miners and Sioux territory
    11. 11. The New West
    12. 12. The New West  Cattle and Cowboys  Cattle drives ended at rail lines  The End of the Open Range  Barbed wire
    13. 13. The New West Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876 by Amos Bad Heart Bull
    14. 14. The New West  Range Wars  Conflicting claims and goals of farmers & ranchers  Ethnic prejudices  Farmers and the Land  Homestead Act of 1862  1900 Progressives encouraged water rights and dams
    15. 15. The New West Hoover Dam: when completed in 1936 –the world’s largest concrete structure
    16. 16. The New West  Pioneer Women  Same social rules as in the East  Hardships made life more egalitarian  Widows assumed control of land and independence that would not have been tolerated back home  The End of the Frontier  1890 Census showed no area remained where fewer than 2 people per square mile resided
    17. 17. Women in the West
    18. 18. America’s Move to Town  Explosive Urban Growth  1860-1910 population growth: 6 million to 44 million  Majority lived in Urban areas
    19. 19. America’s Move to Town
    20. 20. America’s Move to Town
    21. 21. America’s Move to Town
    22. 22. America’s Move to Town  The Allure and Problems of the Cities  Unregulated urban growth created problems in sanitation, health and morale  Mortality rates  Cholera, yellow fever and typhoid
    23. 23. Immigration Steerage Deck on the S.S. Pennland, 1893.
    24. 24. Immigration Registration Room at Ellis Island: 29 questions, “are you a polygamist?”
    25. 25. Immigration  Immigration Restriction  Immigrant communities  Nativist groups  Immigrants dangerous  Worked for substandard wages  Religious prejudice  Congress  Overturned Chester Arthur’s veto of the Chinese Exclusion Act  Federal law limiting immigration on the basis of race and class
    26. 26. Popular Culture  A Reading Public  Newspapers  Openly partisan  Vaudeville  Variety show: comedy, music, dance  Saloon Culture  Social club for poor  Women segregated in smaller rooms
    27. 27. Popular Culture
    28. 28. Popular Culture  Outdoor Recreation  Relieved congestion of urban life  New York’s Central Park established in 1858  Bicycle: 1870’s  Working Women and Leisure  Church organizations  Small groups
    29. 29. Popular Culture Wheeling
    30. 30. Popular Culture  Spectator Sports  Football, Basketball, Baseball  White players only  African Americans in separate leagues  Urban base in large cities
    31. 31. Popular Culture Steeplechase Park: Coney Island, NY
    32. 32. Popular Culture Baseball Card: 1887
    33. 33. Education and Social Thought  The Spread of Public Education  Prior to Civil War  Education in private academies often centered around a religious denomination  Post Civil War  Vocational training  Morrill Act of 1862: Land Grant Colleges--30,000 Acres per representative to teach agriculture and mechanics  Vocational Training & “Americanize” Immigrants
    34. 34. Education and Social Thought
    35. 35. Education and Social Thought  Pragmatism  William James: ideas gain validity from their social consequences and practical applications
    36. 36. Social Darwinism  Application by of Darwin’s theory to social issues  Man’s better characteristics could be passed on  Man can manipulate society so that best men thrive