His 122 ch 28 the second world war part 1


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  • Weimar Germany
    Shackled with the infamous “war guilt” clause, Germany emerged from the Great War a beaten nation. A revolution swept the nation in November 1918 and a new government was established at Weimar. However, the Weimar Republic faced nearly insurmountable problems right from the start. Economic disorder and social unrest, as well as the feeling of humiliation and betrayal, produced an environment that made it possible for Adolf Hitler, the tramp from Vienna turned Führer (leader), to capture Germany with the hope of creating a thousand-year Third Reich. 
  • The 1930s: Challenges to the Peace
    The Second World War was Hitler’s war. When Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany through legal channels in January 1933, Europe was on the verge of facing its greatest threat. Germany was both demoralized and debilitated by Versailles; it was overcome by inflation and massive unemployment. Hitler and the Nazi Party promised regeneration. With the memories of the Great War foremost in their minds, Britain and France stood down and appeased Hitler as he reoccupied the Ruhr, annexed Austria, and marched his troops into the Sudetenland. In the meantime, Hitler’s storm troopers paraded through the streets of every town in Germany, with loudspeakers blaring the Nazi ideology of racial hatred, Aryan supremacy, and the master race. Hitler, the Führer, had come to deliver them from the humiliation that was Versailles and into the thousand-year Third Reich. 
  • Congress authorized the Office of Price Administration in 1942 to set limits on prices to prevent inflation and price gouging. Businesses and workers did not like these limits, but whenever a group went out on strike, the government took control of their companies and sent them back to work.

    Although FDR had won by a landslide in 1940, the 1942 election pushed Congress toward control by the Republicans. Now Congress would abolish most of the New Deal programs.
  • His 122 ch 28 the second world war part 1

    1. 1. THE SECOND WORLD WAR Chapter 28
    2. 2. Introduction  Threats to the balance of power  A conflict among nations, peoples, and ideals  The new methods of warfare  The Holocaust and the atomic bomb
    3. 3. From Isolation to Intervention  Following WWI, successive U.S. administrations backed away from intervention in foreign countries
    4. 4. Foreign Crises  Russia Lenin 1918 Stalin 1924  Italy and Germany Benito Mussolini became leader of Italy in 1922 Adolph Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933
    5. 5. Lenin and Stalin
    6. 6. The Soviet Union under Stalin  Stalin succeeded to power after Lenin died in 1924  Collectivization Local party and police officials forced peasants to join collective farms Peasant resistance: sixteen hundred large-scale rebellions between 1929 and 1933
    7. 7. The Soviet Union under Stalin  Collectivization The famine (1932–1933)  The human cost was 3–5 million lives  The Bolsheviks retained grain reserves  Grain reserves sold overseas for currency  Stockpiled in the event of war
    8. 8. The Soviet Union under Stalin  The Five-Year Plans The human cost  Large-scale projects carried out with prison labor  The Gulag system  By 1940, 3.6 million people were incarcerated by the regime  (7.1 Million people incarcerated in the U.S. in 2008)
    9. 9. The Soviet Union under Stalin  The Great Terror (1937–1938) One million dead—1.5 million to the Gulag The elimination of Stalin’s enemies, real or imagined Purged the old Bolsheviks  Stalin wanted to eliminate any disagreement with his personal views about Communism Staged show trials
    10. 10. The Emergence of Fascism in Italy  In the aftermath of WWI A democracy in distress Seven hundred thousand dead, $15 billion debt Territorial disputes
    11. 11. The Emergence of Fascism in Italy  The rise of Mussolini (1883–1945) The Fascist platform (1919): universal suffrage, the eight-hour day, and tax on inheritance Fascist support  Gained respect of middle classes and landowners  Repressed radical movements of workers and peasants  Attacked socialists  Fifty thousand fascist militia marched on Rome on October 28, 1922
    12. 12. Mussolini at the march on Rome
    13. 13. The Emergence of Fascism in Italy  Italy under Mussolini Repression and censorship  Liberals and socialists considered enemies of the state Granted independence to papal residence in the Vatican City Roman Catholicism established as the state religion
    14. 14. Weimar Germany  November 9, 1918: Revolution Bloodless overthrow of the imperial government of Kaiser Wilhelm Social Democratic Party (SPD) announced a new German Republic The Kaiser abdicated
    15. 15. Social Democratic Party leader, Philip Scheiderman, announces creation of a German Republic on November 9, 1918
    16. 16. Weimar Germany  Problems Communists and independent socialists staged armed uprisings in Berlin Social Democrats tried to crush the uprisings The Freikorps  Former army officers fighting Bolsheviks, Poles, and communists  Fiercely right-wing anti-Marxist, anti-Semitic, and antiliberal
    17. 17. Weimar Germany  Problems Major changes introduced by unelected Council of People’s Commissioners  Introduced 8 hour workday, legalized labor unions, required re-hiring of WWI veterans; farm labor reforms; social welfare; national health insurance.  Conservatives opposed these measures and Communists thought they did not go far enough Elections not held until January 1919
    18. 18. Weimar Germany  Communists and independent socialists staged armed uprisings in Berlin during interim between Kaiser’s abdication and election  Social Democrats tried to crush the uprisings  The Freikorps  Former army officers fighting Bolsheviks, Poles, and communists  Fiercely right-wing anti-Marxist, anti-Semitic, and anti- liberal
    19. 19. Freikorps Communists
    20. 20. Weimar Germany  The Weimar coalition Socialists, Catholic centrists, and liberal democrats Parliamentary liberalism  Universal suffrage for men and women  Bill of rights
    21. 21. Why Did the Weimar Republic Fail?  Social, political, and economic crisis The humiliation of World War I & conservative propaganda  Argument that Germany “stabbed in the back” by socialists and Jews widely accepted among conservatives Versailles and reparations  $33 billion debt: impossible to repay Parliamentary system and proportional representation gave too much power to minority parties by necessitating governing coalitions in a deeply fractured country.
    22. 22. Why did the Weimar Republic Fail?  The failure of Weimar Global Economic Depression further weakened Weimar government  U.S. stock market crash  Unemployment  Peasants staged mass demonstrations  Government cut welfare benefits for veterans Opponents seized economic setbacks to undermine Weimar government
    23. 23. By 1930, the two best organized opposition parties were the Communist Party and the National Socialist German Worker’s (NAZI) Party
    24. 24. Hitler and the National Socialists  Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) Born in Austria, rejected by the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna in 1907 and 1908. Supported by orphan’s benefits and his mother. After her death, Hitler lived in a homeless shelter in 1909 and later in a hostel for poor laborers.  Apparently adopted Anti-Semitism, anti- Marxism, and pan-Slavism while in Vienna. Hitler moved to Munich in 1913. Viewed the outbreak of World War I as his liberation
    25. 25. Hitler and the National Socialists  Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) After the war, Hitler joined the German Workers’ Party  Refused to accept the November (1918) Resolution ending WWI  1920: German Workers Party reorganized into National Socialist Workers’ Party (Nazi)
    26. 26. Hitler and the National Socialists November 1923: Munich (Beer Hall) putsch  Along with other Nazi’s Hitler attempted a coup d’etat  Hitler imprisoned and Dictated Mein Kampf while in prison  Portrayed himself as the savior of the German people Weimar elections  1924: Nazis polled 6.6 percent of the vote
    27. 27. Beer Hall Putsch Defendants
    28. 28. Proportional Representation and the Parliamentary System  Parliamentary System: Political parties offer a slate of candidates  Voters elect a party not individual candidates  Many parties may participate in parliamentary elections  Each party receives seats in parliament equal to the proportional number of votes it received in the election  If no one party gets 51% or more, the party with the most seats has an opportunity to form a coalition with other parties. The leader of the party with the most votes is usually the Prime Minister  Parliamentary system differs from U.S. system where voters elect a candidate
    29. 29. How did Hitler come to power? 1930 election  Nazis won 107 of 577 seats in the Reichstag  No party gained a majority  Conservative Party attempted for form a coalition government with the Nazis who refused to support a coalition government unless Hitler was Chancellor (Prime Minister)  Nazi refusal to join the coalition caused the failure of the conservative coalition government requiring new elections  Street battles between Nazis and Communists
    30. 30. How did Hitler come to power?  July 1932 elections Nazi party became the largest party in the Reichstag (Parliament) but did not have a majority Two largest parties were Hindenburg’s Conservative party and Nazi party  Nazi party refused to join any coalition unless Hitler was made Chancellor  Conservatives refused to name Hitler Chancellor  Stalemate resulted in caretaker government  Street battles continue between Communists and Nazis  Government paralyzed and cannot perform basic functions  Economic situation worsens
    31. 31. How did Hitler come to power?  November 1932 elections Nazi Party lost significant seats but still the largest party Communist Party and National Conservative German National Party increased seats significantly Hindenberg finally agreed form a government with Hitler as Chancellor  Nazis appointed to major posts in the government
    32. 32. How did Nazis Consolidate Power?  Hitler as chancellor January 1933: Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor February 27, 1933: Reichstag set on fire by Dutch anarchist  Hitler suspended civil rights March 5, 1933: New elections  Hitler granted unlimited power for four years  Hitler proclaimed the Third Reich
    33. 33. Hitler and Hindenberg January 1933. Hindenberg believed that Hitler could be Controlled by Conservatives
    34. 34. The Reichstag Fire, 27 February, 1933.
    35. 35. How did Nazis consolidate power?  Nazi Germany A one-party state  Hitler’s first acts sharply limited freedom of the press and enabled the cabinet to issue decrees without the consent or approval of the Reichstag.  Reichstag Fire Decree suspended all civil liberties guaranteed by the German constitution.  Widespread arrests of known or suspected opponents of the Nazi party—mainly outspoken liberals and Communists. Opposition tactics  Storm troopers (SA)—used to maintain party discipline  June 30, 1934: Night of the Long Knives purged SA not believed to be loyal to Hitler personally.
    36. 36. Hitler and the National Socialists  Nazi Germany Support  Played off fears of communism  Spoke a language of national pride  Hitler as the symbol of a strong, revitalized Germany (the Führer cult)  The recovery of German national glory
    37. 37. Nazis and German Racism  Nazi racism Nazi racism inherited from nineteenth-century social Darwinism  Nations and people struggle for survival  Superior peoples strengthen themselves through struggle Anti-Semitism  Joined by nationalist anti-Jewish theory: The Jew as outsider to the German nation  An “international Jewish conspiracy” based in part on Protocols of the Elders of Zion – a conspiracy theory claiming that International Jewish leaders were intent on taking over the world.  Protocols of the Elders of Zion thought to be created in 1903 by the Tsar’s Security police.
    38. 38. Nazi Racism  Nazi racism April 1933: New racial laws excluded Jews from public office 1935 Nuremberg Decrees  Deprived Jews of citizenship (determined by bloodline) November 1938: Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)
    39. 39. Still Image from Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph of the Will (1935), a Film about a Nazi Party Rally in Nuremberg, Germany, 1934
    40. 40. Nazi Boycott of Jewish Shops in Berlin, 1933
    41. 41. Hitler and the National Socialists  National socialism and fascism Both arose in the interwar period as responses to war and revolution Intensely nationalistic Opposed parliamentary government and democracy
    42. 42. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade”  An atmosphere of fear and apprehension Aggression as a challenge to civilization Avoiding another war
    43. 43. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade”  Appeasement Assumptions in Europe and the U.S.  The outbreak of another world war was unthinkable  Fascist states were a bulwark against Soviet communism Ends—how to maintain Europe’s balance of power?  Soviets the greater threat, so accommodate Hitler  U.S. Isolationism Nye Committee 1934-1936  Formed in the U.S. Senate to investigate the Munitions industry profits from WWI  Headed by Senator Gerald Nye of North Dakota (R)  Questioned U.S. entered WWI because the munitions industry profited by selling arms to both sides  Claimed that bankers pressured Woodrow Wilson to enter WWI to preserve their loans
    44. 44. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade”  The League of Nations Japanese invasion of China turned into an invasion of the whole country  The Rape of Nanjing (1937)  The League expressed shock but did nothing Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935  Avenging the defeat of 1896  League imposed sanctions on Italy but without enforcement
    45. 45. Spanish Civil War  The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) A weak republican government could not overcome opposition Extreme right-wing military officers rebelled Francisco Franco (r. 1936–1975) Hitler and Mussolini sent in troops and tested new weapons; war was a dress rehearsal  Saw the war as a test of the West’s determination to resist fascism
    46. 46. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade”  The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) The Soviets sided with the troops fighting for the Spanish Republic Britain and France failed to act decisively, America stayed out of the dispute April 1937: The destruction of Guernica Hitler’s lessons  Britain, France, and the Soviet Union would have a hard time containing fascism  Britain and France would do anything to avoid another war
    47. 47. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade”  German rearmament and the politics of appeasement The unification of all ethnic Germans Reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936 The annexation of Austria (1938) Hitler declared his intention to occupy the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)  Neville Chamberlain  Believed Germany could not commit to a sustained war
    48. 48. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade”  German rearmament and the politics of appeasement Munich: September 29, 1938  Daladier (France), Chamberlain, Mussolini, and Hitler met (Soviet Union excluded)  France and Britain agree to German expansion into Czechoslovakia  Chamberlain proclaimed “peace in our time”  March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia  Persuaded public of the futility of appeasement  What is appeasement?
    49. 49. The 1930s – The “Dishonest Decade”  German rearmament and the politics of appeasement Stalin’s response  Feared the West might strike a deal with Hitler  August 1939: the Nazi-Soviet (Hitler-Stalin) pact of nonaggression  Stalin promised a share of Poland, Finland, and the Baltic States
    50. 50. The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France  Poland The Blitzkrieg (lightning war) Soviet troops invaded from the East Poland fell in four weeks
    51. 51.  Statements and treaties which outlaw war are ineffectual to stop war  Appeasement = trading land for commitments to “Peace”  Isolationism  Hitler believed that Britain, France and the U.S. lacked the moral will to fight  Stalin believed that Britain, France and the U.S. were unwilling to fight and could not be counted upon should the USSR be attacked by Germany What Were the Lessons from the Dishonest Decade?
    52. 52. The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France  Scandinavia—Germans took Denmark in one day (spring 1940)  The fall of France French army overwhelmed by the German advance French army poorly organized
    53. 53. The Outbreak of Hostilities and the Fall of France  The fall of France Mid-June 1940: the Germans reached Paris June 20, 1940: French surrendered  Germans occupied northern France  Southern France fell under the Vichy regime, headed by Marshall Pétain The Free French movement
    54. 54. The Battle of Britain & the Beginnings of a Global War  The Battle of Britain (July 1940–June 1941) Forty thousand civilians dead Stalemate in the air British resistance
    55. 55. London during the Battle of Britain
    56. 56. Foreign Crises  Degrees of Neutrality Neutrality Acts prevented the U.S. from shipping key materials to aggressor nations
    57. 57. Degrees of Neutrality Selective Service Act of 1940  First peace-time conscription in U.S. history. Drafted men between 18 & 45 for one year  FDR’s request that term of service be extended beyond 1 year passed the House of Representatives by 1 vote on August 12, 1941 Lend-Lease Program  March 11, 1941  U.S. sent armaments to Great Britain, Free France, China and the USSR in return for leases on military bases around the world  Public Opinion  February 1941: Gallup 54% of Americans favored Lend-Lease without qualifications  22% (primarily among Republicans)opposed to any aid  Senate Vote: 49 Democrats and 10 Republicans voted in favor; 13 Democrats and 17 Republicans voted against  House vote: Democrats 238 to 25 in favor; Republicans 135 against, 24 in favor
    58. 58. Mothers urge defeat of the Lend-Lease program, kneel in prayer in front of the Capitol
    59. 59. FDR signs Selective Service Act into Law
    60. 60. The Storm in the Pacific  Japanese Aggression As Japan’s invasion of China became bogged down, Japan was forced to look to other Pacific Islands for natural resources As Japan became more aggressive, FDR limited exports of American goods to Japan  Oil, scrap, and iron shipments prohibited  Japan decided to eliminate U.S. Pacific fleet  The Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941  19 American ships sunk or disabled  2,400 people killed; 1700 wounded  FDR asked for a declaration of war against Japan on December 8  Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. on December 11
    61. 61. Doolittle Raid  April 18, 1942 Joint action by the Army and Navy to retaliate against Japan by bombing Japanese industrial centers on Japanese home islands Primary purpose: boost morale at home and hurt Japanese morale
    62. 62. Photos by Doolittle Raiders: http://www.doolittleraider.com/raid_photos.htm
    63. 63. Early U.S. Losses in the Pacific  Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong and Manila fell to Japanese in early 1942  Bataan Death March: April 8, 1942 Forcible transfer of 60,000- 80,000 American and Philipino POW’s following the 3 month battle of Bataan Peninsula 80 mile march Japanese atrocities Racism? General Homma tried and executed for war crimes in 1946
    64. 64. American public did not learn about the “Death March” until January 1944
    65. 65. Battles of Coral Sea and Midway  Coral Sea—May 4-8, 1942 Americans took more damage than Japanese Repulsed Japanese threat to Australia  Midway—June 4-7, 1942 U.S. had broken the Japanese code  Knew attack coming but not exactly where  Confirmed location by sending a false message 3 of 6 Japanese aircraft carriers that attacked Pearl Harbor destroyed at Midway  Cumulative effect of these two battles was turning point in Pacific theatre
    66. 66. Japanese carrier destroyed in Battle of Coral Sea
    67. 67. Photo by Kiyoshi Oniwa: Sinking of Hiryu
    68. 68. Mobilization at Home  Economic Controls Congress authorized office of Price Administration in 1942 to set wages and prices War Production Board Allowed for central control of industry from peacetime production to war production Congress forced FDR to sell war bonds to finance the war Did not raise taxes  Domestic Conservatism FDR won election of 1940 Midterm elections of 1942: Republicans regained many seats in Congress and attempted to abolish most New Deal Programs
    69. 69. Franklin D. Roosevelt E.C. 449 Popular: 27,243,218 Wendell Willkie E.C. 82 Popular: 22,334,940
    70. 70. African American Soldiers in WWII  Segregated units  Separate accommodations  Job opportunities  Tuskegee Airmen  Red Ball Express: African Americans drove 500,000 TONS of supplies to 1st and 3rd Armies’ advance through France  D-Day 1,700 African Americans in units in 1st Army at Omaha and Utah beaches
    71. 71. Double V Campaign  Victory at Home and Victory Abroad  Attitudes of white servicemen who saw the courage of African American servicemen  Latinos Southern farmers recruit Mexican workers for harvest time Zoot Suit Riots: series of riots in Los Angeles in 1943 between white U.S. servicemen stationed in California and Latino youths
    72. 72. Native Americans  Supported war effort 1/3 of all eligible Native Americans served Code Talkers
    73. 73. Japanese-American Internment  1942: 110,000 Japanese Americans
    74. 74. Name State Opened Max. Pop'n Manzanar California March 1942 10,046 Tule Lake California May 1942 18,789 Poston Arizona May 1942 17,814 Gila River Arizona July 1942 13,348 Granada Colorado August 1942 7,318 Heart Mountain Wyoming August 1942 10,767 Minidoka Idaho August 1942 9,397 Topaz Utah September 1942 8,130 Rohwer Arkansas September 1942 8,475 Jerome Arkansas October 1942 8,497