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His 122 ch 27 new deal america
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His 122 ch 27 new deal america

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  • Opposite to Hoover, who had opposed any direct federal assistance to the needy, FDR would bypass the states to directly aid those in need. The Civilian Conservation Corps was created to provide jobs for unmarried males aged eighteen to twenty-five. They would plant trees and do assorted construction projects. When plans to provide money to the states through the Federal Emergency Relief Administration failed, FDR bypassed them. Thus the alphabet agencies of the New Deal were formed. By paying people once they completed jobs instead of the unemployed, FDR hoped to prevent a generation of idlers on the government dole.
  • Federal relief programs Civilian Conservation Corps enrollees in 1933, on a break from work. Directed by army officers and foresters, the CCC adhered to a semi-military discipline.
  • The Agriculture Adjustment Act of 1933 sought to raise the prices of crops and herds by paying farmers to reduce their production. After World War I, when government subsidies to plant more were discontinued, the farmers found themselves in debt with a surplus of crops. The overproduction of land and then the rapid decline in prices forced many farmers to neglect their fields. Coupled with a vast drought in the Central Plains of the United States, this led to the dust bowl, in which thousands to pounds of topsoil was gathered by winds and swept as far away as Washington, D.C. It would not be until the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was added that attempts to contain the dust bowl were initiated. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) dealt with economic recovery and public works projects. The Public Works Administration, created by the NIRA, built buildings, roads, flood control systems, and other improvements to the internal infrastructure. Another part of the act, the National Recovery Administration, worked to stabilize businesses by regulating wages and prices and establishing workplace standards.
  • “The Spirit of the New Deal” In this cartoon, employer and employee agree to cooperate in the spirit of unity that inspired the National Recovery Administration.
  • Norris Dam The massive dam in Tennessee, completed in 1936, was essential to the TVA’s effort to expand power production.
  • The Tennessee Valley Authority brought electrical power and jobs to the interior of the United States. It would build dams capable of generating cheap electricity and would provide electrical lines to rural homesteads.
  • What was the Tennessee Valley Authority? Why did Congress create it? How did it transform the Tennessee Valley?
  • Dust storm approaching, 1930s When a dust storm blew in, it brought utter darkness, as well as the sand and grit that soon covered every surface, both indoors and out.
  • FDR’s New Deal failed to address longstanding patterns of racism and segregation in the South. He feared that to do so would alienate his southern supporters in Congress and the New Deal would crumble. The requirement of the Agricultural Adjustment Act to plow under lands affected African American tenant farmers the worst, as their lands were the first that farmers would allow to go fallow. During the turbulence in Mexico of the 1910s, thousands of Hispanics had immigrated north and were now denied access to government programs because of their lack of citizenship. Many states deported the illegal immigrants. During the New Deal, African Americans gained legal victories in the Supreme Court concerning their civil rights. Although they would not be all-encompassing, they would set the foundation for future legislation in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • As much as the populism of the Gilded Age and the rampant consumerism of the Roaring Twenties affected the writers of their eras, so did the hardships of the thirties. John Steinbeck’s masterpiece, The Grapes of Wrath, illustrated the journey of displaced Oklahomans fleeing the dust bowl. By the time of the Great Depression, over 10 million families had a radio, which came to be the focus for family gatherings and news dissemination. FDR used this to his advantage in his fireside chats, in which he regularly broadcast his ideas for the New Deal to garner popular support for the programs. By the late 1920s, silent movies gave way to those with sound, and many made during this time avoided the harshness of people’s lives.
  • Many of FDR’s New Deal programs found themselves outside constitutional authority, and some, like the National Industrial Recovery Act, were killed for this violation by the Supreme Court. FDR would find the greatest problem to fulfilling his plans to end the Great Depression in an unexpected area, the judicial branch of the federal government. FDR’s Second New Deal would address labor and unemployment issues. A new agency created under Harry Hopkins, the Works Progress Administration (WPA), replaced the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), which had concentrated on improving the nation’s infrastructure.
  • The NIRA’s requirement that every worker had the right to join a union was quickly picked up by unions and translated by opportunistic union leaders as “the president wants you to join a union.” As a result, union membership during the New Deal exploded. After almost ten years of depression and almost four years of the New Deal, the economy began to show signs of recovery. To control inflation, FDR ordered cuts in government spending to wean the American people off federal pay. However, the opposite from what FDR intended to happen occurred when the stock market entered a slump and 4 million more people found themselves unemployed.

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 27
  • 2. Presidential Election of 1932 Roosevelt/ Garner (D) E.C. 472, Popular Vote: 22,818,740 57.4; 57.4 Hoover/Curtis (R) E.C. 59, Popular Vote : 1 15,760,425 39.6; % 39.6
  • 3. 1932 Inaugural Address http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MX_v0z xM23Q
  • 4. Questions  What is the biggest issue to conquer?  How does Roosevelt describe “fear”  Why would “fear” be a topic of a Presidential inaugural address?  What does the President suggest America needs?  Who or what does the President blame for the depression?  What action does he urge Americans to take?
  • 5. The Galloping Snail, Detroit News, March, 1933
  • 6. New Deal America  Relief Measures  Hoover opposed any direct federal assistance to individual Americans in need.  Roosevelt bypassed states to directly aid individual Americans.     Civilian Conservation Corps: jobs for unmarried men 18-25 Plant trees, construction projects Work = pay; directed by army officers; semi-military discipline Like Hoover, he hoped to avoid creating a generation on the “dole”
  • 7. Regulatory Efforts  Agricultural Assistance  Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933  Sought to raise prices by paying farmers and ranchers to reduce production  Reviving Industrial Growth  National Industrial Recovery Act   Public Works Administration built buildings, roads and flood control systems, greatly improving infrastructure National Recovery Administration: standardize wages and prices
  • 8. Regulatory Efforts  Regional Planning  Tennessee Valley Authority   Electrical power and jobs Dams/cheap electricity/electric power lines to rural homesteads
  • 9. The Dust Bowl
  • 10. Causes of the Dust Bowl  Irresponsible use of technology  Technological advances in farm equipment sold to farmers to increase acreage and yield  Between 1925 and 1930 more than 5 million acres of previously unused farmland was plowed  Failure to recognize the natural ecology of the land  Tall prairie grasses necessary to combat erosion  As grasses were destroyed to make way for wheat fields, natural balance of the land was also destroyed  Wheat and cleared fields enabled erosion of topsoil as drought increased  War & Market failures  Wheat was overproduced by American farmers to make up for underproduction in Europe  As wheat prices plummeted during the early years of the Great Depression farmers planted more wheat hoping that quantity would compensate for low prices  Climate Change  Increased temperatures  Drought  Dust Storms increased from 14 in 1932 to 40 in 1933
  • 11. http://town.hall.org/radio/HarperAudio/021 694_harp_ITH.html
  • 12. Minorities and the New Deal  African Americans  FDR’s New Deal did not address longstanding patterns of racism and segregation in the South  FDR feared that to do so would alienate Southern Democratic congressmen  Agricultural Adjustment Act  African American tenant farmers hurt when AAA required farmland to go fallow because white landowners targeted farmland leased by African Americans to be plowed under first.  FHA refused to guarantee mortgages purchased by African Americans in white neighborhoods  Mexican immigrants & Hispanic Americans    CA, NM, CO, TX, AZ and many Midwestern states Hispanic people required to prove citizenship and denied New Deal benefits when they could not do so Hispanics deported: 500,000 Mexican parents and American-born children deported by 1935 (Texas: 250,000)  Native Americans  Indian Reorganization Act  Permitted Native American tribes to revise constitutions  Restored some land lost in the Dawes Act  Women could vote and hold office
  • 13. Court Cases and Civil Rights Laws  Grovey v. Townsend (1935) upheld the Texas Democrats white primaries  “Scottsboro Boys” trials (1931 – 1937)  Last defendant left Alabama in 1943  “Let justice be done, though the heavens may fall."  Effective assistance of counsel  Questions of “white” only juries  Who should be tried as an adult  Right to a speedy trial  Questioning victims of rape
  • 14. Culture in the Thirties  Literature and the Depression  The Grapes of Wrath  Popular Culture  Mass communication   Roosevelt’s fireside chats Newsreels  Movies  Westerns  Shirley Temple  Marx Brothers  Musicals
  • 15. The Second New Deal  Supreme Court Opposition  Many New Deal programs ruled unconstitutional  “Nine Old Men”  “Packing” the Court  The Second New Deal (1935–1936)  Works Progress Administration replaced Federal Emergency Relief Administration  Wagner Act (Fair Labor Standards Act)  Social Security
  • 16. Wagner Act  Prohibited employers from interfering with union activities  Workers permitted to bargain through Union chosen by workers  Required a minimum wage
  • 17. Social Security Act of 1935  Stipend paid to aged, disabled, widows  Payroll tax on employees and a matching payroll tax on employers
  • 18. Revenue Act of 1935  Wealth Tax  Raised income taxes on persons making more than $50,000 ($50,000 in today’s dollars would be $847, 457.63  Progressive tax could tax up to 75% of income of $5,000,000. ($84,745,762.71 today).  “Soak the Rich” tax  Rich people were against it  Inflation Calculator http://inflationdata.com/Inflation/Inflation_Calculat ors/Inflation_Rate_Calculator.asp
  • 19. 1936 Election FDR (D) E.C. 523 Popular Vote : 27,752,648 (60.8%) Alfred Landon (R) E.C. 8 Popular Vote: 16,681,862 (36.5%)
  • 20. Roosevelt’s Second Term  A New Direction for Unions  Union membership soared  A Slumping Economy  To slow economic growth and minimize inflation FDR cut government spending on social programs  Stock Market slumped  4 million workers laid off
  • 21. Grumbling Among Southern Democrats  FDR had courted African American voters to help win     election of 1936 Southern Democrats opposed any attempts to reform segregation or encourage social equality Southern Democrats stayed home in the midterm elections of 1938 and Republicans took control of the House of Representatives Dissatisfaction among Southern Democrats would erupt during Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration with the Equal Employment Act and the Voting Rights Act Richard Nixon would use the “Southern Strategy” of luring Southern Democrats to the Republican party in his successful election campaigns in 1968 and 1972