Over half of the white men and a third of white women working
in industry were immigrants.
Socialism and Anarchism were popular in Eastern Europe as a
reaction to autocratic governments and wide disparities in
Nativists viewed immigrants as potential anarchists and
Demands for limits to immigration and laws limited number of
immigrants per country per year.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Self-described anarchists arrested in connection with a robbery
and murder of a pay master
Stolen money never recovered
Sacco and Vanzetti found guilty and executed
Chinese immigration limits vetoed by President Arthur but
Congress overturned his veto
Grew beyond the South
View that the Bible should be taken literally
Scientific scholarship that contradicted literal fundamental
interpretation of the Bible should not be considered
Darwinism on Trial
Scopes Trial in Tennessee
Tennessee outlawed the teaching of evolution in schools (Butler
Scopes a substitute teacher agree to be the defendant
Clarence Darrow (Defense)
William Jennings Bryan (Prosecution)
Scopes found guilty but conviction overturned
ScopesTrial in Dayton: Most attendees were reporters: July 1925
Ratified in 1918 (18th Amendment)
Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within,
the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Section 2.The Congress and the several States shall have
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3.This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of
the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven
years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the
Consuming alcohol was not illegal
House: 282 to 128,
Democrats voting 146 in favor and 64 in opposition;
Republicans voting 137 in favor and 62 in opposition.
Ratified in 1919 by 46 states
Women’s Suffrage before 1920
Primary suffrage- blue
School, bond, or tax suffrage—light blue
Municipal suffrage in some cities--maroon
Primary suffrage in some cities--pink
No suffrage—dark red
The “New Negro”
Occurred during WWI when white men were drafted for the war.
African American men encouraged to move to the Midwest to
take jobs that soldiers had left
Part of “Total War”
Over 323,000 people moved North
By 1930 615,00 more African Americans moved away from the
Cultural movement amongAfrican Americans
Centered in Harlem in NewYork City but also involved Caribbean-
Africans and Africans in Paris
Opportunity: AJournal of Negro Life published by the National
Harlem became a black neighborhood in NewYork in 1900
1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was
bought by various African-American realtors and a church group.
Three Plays for a NegroTheatre RidgeleyTorrence
Harlem Stride Style combined brass with piano
Innovation and liveliness important characteristics in the
beginnings of jazz.
Racial pride: modern African American
Frankie “Half Pint” Jackson & band at the Sunset Café 1920
Intellect and production of literature, art, and music could challenge
racism to promote progressive or socialist politics, racial and social
Creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race.
Garveyism: movement founded by Marcus Garvey:
Africans in the Diaspora should return to their African heritage
UNIA: Universal Negro Improvement Association
NegroWorld newspaper used to promote UNIA membership and
June 1919 (2 Million members of UNIA)
Garvey emphasized his belief in the One God, the God of Africa, who
should be visualized through black eyes.
He preached that black people needed to become familiar with
their ancient history and their rich cultural heritage.
He called for pride in the black race—for example; he made black
dolls for black children.
"A race without authority and power is a race without respect."
The Growing Consumer Culture promoted more homogenous
new products, lower prices
Mass communications: radios and movies
Airplanes, Automobiles, and the Economy
1927 Charles Lindbergh’s flight across the Atlantic proved the
feasibility of air travel.
Post war “boom” affluence and Model T’s
Availability of mass transportation made spectator sports more
Baseball, football and prize fights
Science and Social Thought
Albert Einstein announced theory of Relativity
Awarded Nobel Prize in 1921
Birth of the Modern Physics movement
Modernist Art and Literature
The Armory Show: traveling exhibit of modernist artists’ work
Ezra Pound; T.S. Eliot; Gertrude Stein