His 122 ch 24 america and the great war fall 2013
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His 122 ch 24 america and the great war fall 2013






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  • When elected to the presidency, Wilson admitted that he had no experience with foreign affairs, and that would be where he would spend most of his time during his administration. What he lacked in experience, he believed he made up for in ideals. He and his secretary of state, William Jennings Bryan, believed that it was the job of the United States to spread democracy across the world. Mexico had been undergoing a revolution for almost three years when Wilson took office. Presidential assassins became president until they were assassinated, and the cycle repeated itself. Wilson expressed sympathy for the Mexican citizens but at first took no direct actions. In the Tampico incident, American sailors were captured while obtaining supplies in Tampico, Mexico. The situation was diffused, but not before their commander demanded that Mexicans salute the U.S. flag, a grave insult to Mexico. Then, in 1916, Pancho Villa invaded Texas and New Mexico and killed seventeen Americans. Wilson dispatched the army to find him in Mexico, but they never did.
  • The July Crisis It can be argued that the twentieth century began with the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. The ostensible cause of the Great War was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, in Sarajevo on June 28. However, there were other, more subtle, reasons behind the outbreak of the war. The Bismarckian system of secret alliances had broken down. The Second Industrial Revolution created the chemical and electrical industries; it also introduced changes in management that dramatically increased the speed of production. The end of the nineteenth century was also the period of new imperialism in which the great powers of Europe and the United States made a desperate bid to colonize new territories in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. An arms race developed as well. On the cultural front, the grand system of values referred to as Victorianism had finally succumbed under its own weight. Something had to give; in some sense, Europeans welcomed the war when it finally broke out in August 1914. It was to be a glorious war and over by Christmas. However, it was not.
  • The Lusitania Americans were outraged when a German torpedo sank the Lusitania on May 7, 1915.
  • Stand by the president In this 1915 cartoon, Woodrow Wilson holds to the middle course between the pacifism of Bryan (whose sign reads, “Let Us Avoid Unnecessary Risks”) and the belligerence of Roosevelt (whose sign reads, “Let Us Act without Unnecessary Delay”).
  • Peace with honor Woodrow Wilson’s policies of neutrality proved popular in the 1916 campaign.
  • Roosevelt desired to be the Republican candidate in 1916, but because of his actions in the 1912 election, the party chose Charles Hughes. The Democrats nominated Wilson again. Running on the slogan “He kept us out of war,” Wilson won a second term. Following his reelection, Wilson yet again tried to broker a peace, to no avail. When Germany broke its pledge to only wage restricted submarine warfare, Wilson countered by arming merchant ships. Then in February 1917, the Zimmerman Telegram was revealed. Zimmerman, the German foreign minister, had instructed his ambassador in Mexico to have him tell the Mexican government that should it join with the Central Powers and attack the United States. In return, Mexico would receive back all the land that had been taken away.
  • Women aid the war effort Women working at the Bloomfield International Fuse Company, New Jersey, 1918.
  • The Beast of Berlin A scene from the movie The Beast of Berlin, which gave audiences a propagandistic view of World War I.
  • American casualties A Salvation Army worker writing a letter home for a wounded soldier.
  • Wilson hoped to impose on the victorious Allies and the defeated Central Powers a series of agreements designed to prevent such an occurrence again. The German government desired to adopt the Fourteen Points as part of the peace treaty, but the victors only viewed them as a foundation on which to begin negotiating. While this was occurring, the war was still being waged, although the end was in sight. Bulgaria, Turkey, Austria-Hungary, and Italy all dropped out of the war.
  • Allied victory Celebration of the armistice ending World War I, New York City, November 1918.
  • Wilson was the first president to leave the country for an extended period, which he did to attend the peace conference. While he was gone he would lose touch with the American people while at the same time being hailed as the victor for the Allies while in Europe. He would alienate Republicans who had helped win the war by openly requesting the citizens only vote for Democrats in the 1918 election. When he arrived in Paris, Wilson found that many of his allies were not interested in the Fourteen Points. The cornerstone of the Fourteen Points was the League of Nations, a place where nations would settle their disputes by diplomacy, not war. When the treaty approving the League was finished, Wilson returned to a defiant Senate, which refused to ratify it.
  • “The League of Nations Argument in a Nutshell” Jay N. “Ding” Darling’s summation of the League controversy.
  • France demanded Germany pay reparation for the damages the war had caused. This would also keep Germany weak and unable economically to rise again. Germany was divided into new nations with areas that would serve as buffer states if they were to become aggressive again. The German delegation was not allowed to partake in these talks but rather was presented with the finalized document. The Senate still would not ratify the treaty. Wilson decided that he would apply pressure on the senators through their constituents, and he began a whistle-stop tour of the nation to drum up support. Eventually, it would lead him to a stroke, which left him paralyzed on his left side for the rest of his life. Finally in 1921, the treaty was ratified, but Wilson was long out of the office by then.
  • Why was self-determination difficult for states in Central Europe? How did territorial concessions weaken Germany? Why might territorial changes like the creation of the Polish Corridor or the concession of the Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia have created problems that would surface in the future?
  • With the war over, society and industry had to revert to their prewar levels of activity. But with the returning soldiers came a new problem: the Spanish flu. Before the spring of 1918, 22 million would die globally from this virulent stain of influenza. Released from wartime constraints, workers began to strike for their demands. The largest strike was the U.S. Steel strike in 1919, which resulted in 340,000 workers walking off the job. Eventually, the workers won and returned to work.
  • The year 1919 was marked by race riots in the United States. Whites in Longview, Texas, invaded the black side of town to find a black man who was accused of allegedly dating a white woman. Washington, D.C., was mobbed by white and black gangs for four days until soldiers and a rainstorm ended it. The fear that what had occurred in Russia could also occur in the United States promoted the first Red Scare. Wartime hysteria over everything German soon found another roost in all things communist. Militants mailed bombs to prominent members of the government.

His 122 ch 24 america and the great war fall 2013 His 122 ch 24 america and the great war fall 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • WILSON AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS  Idealistic Diplomacy  Wilson had 0 experience in foreign affairs  Wilson and Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan  ―Spread democracy around the world‖  Intervention in Mexico  Mexico Revolution  Tampico Incident  American soldiers captured while obtaining supplies in Tampico  American commander demanded that Mexican soldiers salute the U.S. Flag  Pancho Villa invaded Texas and New Mexico: 17 Americans killed  Army invasion of Mexico never captured Pancho Villa
  • INTRODUCTION  A twentieth-century war  The expectations and reality of war
  • THE JULY CRISIS  Alliances  Triple Entente (Allied Powers): Britain, France, and Russia  Triple Alliance (Central Powers): Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy  Threats to peace  Economic, military, and political advantage  Scramble for colonies  The arms race
  • THE JULY CRISIS  Summer 1914  June 28, 1914: Franz Ferdinand and his wife assassinated at Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip  July: Austria issued an ultimatum  A punitive campaign to restore order in Bosnia and crush Serbia  The demands were deliberately unreasonable
  • THE JULY CRISIS  Summer 1914  The Serbs mobilized their army  July 28, 1914: Austria declared war  Austria saw the conflict as a chance to reassert its authority  Russia saw the conflict as a way to regain the tsar’s authority  July 30, 1914: Russia mobilized its troops to fight Austria and Germany
  • THE JULY CRISIS  Diplomatic maneuvers  Germany  Detailed war plans  Kaiser Wilhelm II sent an ultimatum to Russia  Germany demanded to know French intentions  August 1, 1914: Germany declared war on Russia
  • THE JULY CRISIS  Diplomatic maneuvers  August 3, 1914: Germany declared war on France  August 4, 1914: Germany invaded Belgium  The British response  Secret pacts with France  August 4: Britain reluctantly entered the war against Germany
  • THE JULY CRISIS  Diplomatic maneuvers  August 7, 1914: Montenegrins joined the Serbs against Austria  July: the Japanese declared war on Germany  August: Turkey allied itself with Germany  A ―tragedy of miscalculation‖  Little diplomatic communication  Austrian mismanagement  The lure of the first strike
  • THE MARNE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES  The Battle of the Marne September 5, 1914  The Western Front  The Great Powers dug in  Trench warfare  The importance of the Marne  Changed Europe’s expectation of war  The war would now be long, costly, and deadly
  • STALEMATE, 1915  The search for new partners  Ottomans joined Germany and Austria in 1914  Italy joined the Allies in May 1915  Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915  Expanded the war geographically
  • STALEMATE, 1915  A war of attrition  The nature of modern war  The total mobilization of resources  The Allies imposed a naval blockade on Germany  Germany responded with submarine warfare  Germans sank the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)  Almost twelve hundred killed (128 Americans)  Provoked the animosity of the United States  Wilson refused to enter the war but asked the army and navy to prepare for war.
  • ―Let Us Act without unnecessary Risk.‖ ―Let us Act without unnecessary Delay‖
  • STALEMATE, 1915  Trench warfare  New weapons  Artillery, machine guns, and barbed wire  Exploding bullets and liquid fire  Poison gas  Physically devastating and psychologically disturbing
  • War: Old and New
  • SLAUGHTER IN THE TRENCHES: THE GREAT BATTLES, 1916–1917  Verdun (February 1916)  Little strategic importance  Verdun as symbol of French strength  Germany’s goal was to break French morale  By June, four hundred thousand French and German soldiers were killed  The advantage fell to the French, but there was no clear victor
  • SLAUGHTER IN THE TRENCHES: THE GREAT BATTLES, 1916–1917  The Somme (June–November 1916)  Britain on the offensive  The idea was to destroy the German trenches  German trenches withstood the attack  Brutal fighting  Hand-to-hand combat  Neither side won—―the war had won‖
  • AN UNEASY NEUTRALITY  The Election of 1916  Woodrow Wilson won re-election ―He Kept us out of war‖  Last Efforts for Peace  Wilson attempted to broker a peace deal between the European powers  Germany broke pledge for restricted submarine warfare  Wilson armed merchant ships  Zimmerman Telegram (February 1917)  German foreign minister to Mexico: if Mexico joins German war effort, following victory, Germany will force U.S. to give back to Mexico land taken in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona.
  • THE HOME FRONT  The costs of war: money and manpower  Mobilizing the home front  Single goal of military victory  Civilians were essential to the war economy  Produced munitions  Purchased war bonds  Tax hikes, inflation, and material privation (rationing)
  • THE HOME FRONT  Women in the war  Women as symbols of change  Massive numbers entered the munitions industry  Women entered clerical and service sectors  New opportunities  Breaking down restrictions  The ―new woman‖  Symbol of freedom and a disconcerting cultural transformation
  • THE HOME FRONT  Women in the war  Long-term changes  Women sent home after the war  Governments pass ―natalist‖ policies  Encouraging women to marry and raise children  Birth control  Universal suffrage: Britain (1918), United States (1919), France (1945)
  • THE HOME FRONT  Mobilizing resources  Propaganda  Important in recruitment  Films, posters, postcards, newspapers  The absolute necessity of total victory  Committee on Public Information: Conveyed the Allies’ war aims  Witch hunt against German Americans  Sauerkraut =liberty cabbage; German Measles= liberty measles;  Espionage and Sedition Acts – 1,000 convictions of disloyalty  Financing the war  Military spending rose to half a nation’s budget  Allies borrowed from Britain, who borrowed from the United States  Germany printed its own money
  • THE HOME FRONT  The strains of war, 1917  Declining morale of the troops  Troops saw their commanders’ strategies as futile  Rise in number of mutinies  On the home front  Shortages of basic supplies (clothing, food, and fuel)  Price of bread and potatoes soared
  • German Kaiser as the Beast of Berlin (1918 Universal Studios)
  • RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS  February 1917 Tsar Nicholas forced to abdicate and Duma (Congress) took power  Russian military was losing badly against the Germans and was basically in a state of mutiny  Between February and October there was some sharing of power between the liberals, republicans and the socialists/communists.  October 1917 Bolshevik Party (Lennin) and the workers’ militias (Red Brigades) overthrew the provisional government in Petrograd  Treat of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918) Bolsheviks signed a peace treaty with Germany and ended Russia’s participation in WWI  Germans now free to turn full military resources to the Western Front
  • AMERICAN OPINION BEFORE 1917  Strongly favored staying out of WWI  Changing perspectives  Sinking of Lusitania  German atrocities in Belgium  Zimmerman Note  German submarines sank 7 U.S. Merchant ships  April 6, 1917 Congress voted to declare war against Germany 1918 Liberty Bonds (PD)
  • U.S. Soldiers fire artillery gun in Argonne, France
  • AMERICAN PREPAREDNESS  American troops played little role in WWI prior to 1918  October 1917 Italian forces overrun by Austrian forces  ―Race for defense of France‖  March 21, 1918 German Spring Offensive  May 1918 1 million fresh U.S. troops in France  June 1918  U.S. Forces (Marines) blocked German advance at Belleau Wood  U.S. Army took Vaux and opposed Germans at Chateau-Thierry  September 1918  U. S forces participate in the Meuse-Argonne offensive  1.2 million U.S. troops (117,000 American casualties, including 26,000 dead)
  • Salvation Army worker writing a letter home for wounded Soldier (1918, PD)
  • AMERICA AT WAR  The Fourteen Points  Wilson’s idealistic proposal to prevent future wars and spread democracy  Allies viewed these points as a starting point only  Bulgaria, Turkey, Austria-Hungary and Italy dropped out of the war in September, October and early November 1918  Armistice (November 11, 1918) cessation of hostilities at 11:00 AM (11/11/11)
  • THE FIGHT FOR THE PEACE  Domestic Unrest  Wilson hailed as the victor of the Allies when he traveled to Paris Peace Conference  January 18, 1919 6 months abroad  Told Americans to vote only for Democrats in 1918 Congressional elections alienating Republicans who had supported the war effort.  Did not appoint a prominent Republican to the staff of peace commissionaers  Republicans took back both the House and the Senate  Wilson discovered that the allies not interested in the 14 points  The League of Nations  U.S. Senate refused to ratify the League of Nations  Key piece to Wilson’s post war program
  • ―The League of Nations Argument in a Nutshell‖
  • THE FIGHT FOR PEACE  Territory and Reparations  France demands  Germany pay reparations  German territory reduced and new nations created as buffers  Wilson’s Loss at Home  League of Nations proposal  Article 10 pledged member nations to impose economic and military sanctions against ―aggressors‖  Executive Council: US Britain, France, Italy, Japan + 4  Teddy Roosevelt opposed ―substitute internationalism for nationalism means to do away with patriotism!‖  Henry Cabot Lodge: ―League would usurp Senate’s Constitutional authority to declare war.‖ Signed by 39 Senators or Senators-elect
  • SELF DETERMINATION  Wilson’s ideal that ethnicities in Europe be permitted to determine it’s own fate proved unworkable  4 Empires fell following WWI: Germany, Austria Hungary, Ottoman, Russian  Hundreds of millions of people clamoring for self determination unworkable  Victors drew borders based on their own best interests rather than ethnic or cultural similarities  War guilt clause: Germany accepted responsibility for the war and for its entire expense  Treaty of Versailles presented to Germany on May 7, 1919  Allies continued naval blockade  French threaten to move troops to the Rhine valley  German population starving because of Allied blockade  June 28, 1919 Germany signed
  • IRRECONCILABLES & RESERVATIONISTS  Irreconcilables: 14 Republicans and two Democrats who refused to support American membership in the League of Nations on any terms  Reservationists: mainstream Republicans who wanted to limit American participation in the League  October 2, 1919 President Wilson suffered a severe stroke which left him paralyzed on his left side, delusional and emotionally unstable  Wilson’s wife Edith, aides and cabinet members ran the Executive office  Original Treaty of Versailles failed (38 to 53)  Revised Treaty failed (38 to 53)
  • LURCHING FROM WAR TO PEACE  The Spanish Flu  Began in Army barracks in Kansas January 1918  500 million people infected  50-100 million people died  Flu killed healthy young adults rather than very young or very old  The Economic Transition  Workers strikes  U.S. Steel Strike (340, 000 workers)
  • LURCHING FROM WAR TO PEACE  Racial Friction  Race riots  367,000 African American veterans moved to new areas, developed careers  White fears  Whites in Longview Texas invaded black side of town to search for a man accused of dating a white woman (July 1919)  Washington D.C. riots started by false claims of sexual assaults on white women (July 1919 African Americans fought back and whites claimed a race war.  Chicago riot (July 1919) 38 African Americans killed, 537 people injured  Elaine Arkansas: up to 100 African Americans killed  25 race riots and 80 lynchings in 1919  The Red Scare  What had occurred in Russia could occur in the U.S.  Militant bombs (Italian Anarchists)  November 7, 1919 Immigration agents rounded-up 450 ―alien radicals‖ (Russian immigrants looking for work) deported to Russia without trial or judicial review  January, 1920 Police arrested 5,000 more suspects without warrants  100% Americanism and restriction on immigration