CHAPTERS 20-21
The Emergence of Urban America and the
Gilded Age
The Emergence of Urban America
Chapter 20
America’s Move to Town
 Explosive Urban Growth
 1860-1910 population growth: 6 million to 44
million
 Majority lived in...
America’s Move to Town
America’s Move to Town
America’s Move to Town
America’s Move to Town
 The Allure and Problems of the Cities
 Unregulated urban growth created problems in
sanitation, ...
Immigration
Steerage Deck on the S.S. Pennland, 1893.
Immigration
Registration Room at Ellis Island: 29 questions, “are you a polygamist?”
Immigration
 Immigration Restriction
 Immigrant communities
 Nativist groups
 Immigrants are dangerous
 Work for subs...
Popular Culture
 A Reading Public
 Newspapers
 Openly partisan
 Vaudeville
 Variety show: comedy, music, dance
 Salo...
Popular Culture
Popular Culture
 Outdoor Recreation
 Relieved congestion of urban life
 New York’s Central Park established in 1858
 B...
Popular Culture
Wheeling
Popular Culture
 Spectator Sports
 Football, Basketball, Baseball
 White players only
 African Americans in separate l...
Popular Culture
Steeplechase Park: Coney Island, NY
Popular Culture
Baseball Card: 1887
Education and Social Thought
 The Spread of Public Education
 Prior to Civil War
 Education in private academies often ...
Education and Social Thought
Education and Social Thought
 Pragmatism
 William James:
ideas gain validity
from their social
consequences and
practica...
Social Darwinism
 Application by of
Darwin’s theory to
social issues
 Man’s better
characteristics could
be passed on
 ...
Chapter 21
What does “The Gilded Age”
Mean?
 Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner
 The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1893)
 King Jo...
“The Bosses of the Senate,” 1889
Politics is Personal
 Political party affiliations went back generations
 Both major parties had similar platforms so th...
Rutherford B. Hayes & Civil
Service Reform
 Attempted to abolish “spoils system”
 Republican Party conflicts
 Stalwarts...
Election of 1880
 Republican Ticket
 James Garfield (Half-Breed)
 Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart)
 Democratic Ticket
 Wi...
de Thulstrup, Thur. “Miss Columbia (to
General H_____).” Harper's Weekly July
24, 1880, 465
Woolf, Michael Angelo. “Exultant Tammanyite.” Harper’s Weekly October 30, 1880,
695.
de Thulstrup, Thur. “The Friend of the Freedmen.”
Harper's Weekly October 23, 1880, 685.
Keppler, Joseph. “Just the Difference.” "Puck." July 28, 1880,
43.
Nast, Thomas, “The Plumed Knight.” Harper's Weekly.
June 5, 1880, 353.
Keppler, Joseph. “A Merry Christmas to All.” “Puck." December 22, 1880, 45.
Political Party
Presidential Nom. VP Nom. # % # %
Republican James A. Garfield
Che
ster
A.
Arth
ur
214 58.0
4,453,61
1
48....
July 2, 1881
 President Garfield assassinated by Charles
Julius Guiteau at the Baltimore and Potomac
Rail Station in Wash...
President James Garfield
Charles Julius Guiteau
Diagram of the Train Station
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/guiteau/diagram.JPG
To General Sherman:
I have just shot the President. I shot him several times as I wished him to go as easily as possible. ...
Guiteau’s Brain , The College of Physicians of Philadelphia
https://www.google.com/search?q=Charles+Guiteau's+brain&tb
m=i...
Chester A. Arthur
 Passed the Pendleton Civil Service Act
 1884 election
 Republicans dumped Arthur & nominated James
B...
Election of 1884
 Republican Ticket: James Blaine
 Mugwumps: published embarrassing letters
showing Blaine in the pocket...
Nast, Thomas. “Death Before Dishonor.” Harper’s Weekly.”
June 21, 1884, 396-397.
Gillam, Bernhard. “Love’s Labor Lost.” Puck May 7, 1884, 160
“Ma! Ma! Where’s My Pa?”
Beard, Frank. “Another Voice
For Cleveland.” Judge,
September 27, 1884, xii.
“Gone to the White House. Ha! Ha!
Ha!”
Nast, Thomas. “What It Means.” Harper’s Weekly, November 15,
1884, 747.
Political Party Presidential Nom. VP Nom. # % # %
Democratic Grover Cleveland
Thoma
s
Hendric
ks
219 54.6 4,915,586 48.9
R...
Grover Cleveland
The Tariff
 Primary revenue source for Federal government.
 Issue: Did Tariff create the big Trusts
(Monopolies)?
 Less...
Democratic Grover Cleveland Allen Thurman 168 41.9 5,539,118
48.6
Republican Benjamin Harrison Levi Morton233 58.1 5,449,8...
Harrison Presidency
 Secretary of State: James Blaine former
Republican Candidate for President
 Sherman Anti-Trust Act
...
What Form of Currency Should be
Accepted?
 Specie: money made out of a precious metal
 Gold
 Silver: opposed by many be...
Agrarian Protest Movements
 Farmers debts rose as crop prices dropped
 domestic overproduction
 increasing internationa...
I Feed You All
Granger Movement & Farmers’
Alliances
 The National Grange of the Patrons of
Husbandry (The Grange)
 1886 first attempt ...
Farm Politics and Populist Party
 Farmers political action: local
 South: Democratic voting blocks of farmers won
electi...
Grover Cleveland Adlai E. Stevenson 277 62.4 5,554,617
46.0
Benjamin Harrison Whitelaw Reid 145 32.7 5,186,793
43.0
James ...
Depression of 1893
 Philadelphia & Reading RR declared
bankruptcy just before Cleveland was sworn
into office
 Overexten...
New York Stock Exchange on
Friday, May 5, 1893
International Economic Crisis
 Great Britain still global financial center
 Failure of Large British Bank caused British...
http://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=HeTkT5-w5RA
Election of 1896
Race Relations
 Wilmington, North Carolina
 African American majority
 1894 & 1896 African Americans joined with
Republ...
Wilmington On Fire
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZbE0R2-kzD4
Ida B. Wells
IDA B. WELLS
Booker T. Washington
W.E. B. Du Bois
Bibliography I
 de Thulstrup, Thur. “The Friend of the Freedmen.” Harper's Weekly October
23, 1880, 685.
 de Thulstrup, ...
Bibliography II
 Unknown. Ida B. Wells,
 Wells, Ida B. Southern Horrors, Lynch Law in All its Phases.
New York Age Print...
His 122 ch 20 21 su 14
His 122 ch 20 21 su 14
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  • The flow of population during this period switched from extending the frontier, as at the turn of the century, to retreating to the safety and security of cities. Technologies such as elevators, steam radiators, and less expensive steel allowed urban dwellers to live more compactly than ever before.
  • ?”
  • William James proposed the concept of pragmatism, that ideas gain their validity not from their inherent truth but instead from their social consequences and practical applications.
  • His 122 ch 20 21 su 14

    1. 1. CHAPTERS 20-21 The Emergence of Urban America and the Gilded Age
    2. 2. The Emergence of Urban America Chapter 20
    3. 3. America’s Move to Town  Explosive Urban Growth  1860-1910 population growth: 6 million to 44 million  Majority lived in Urban areas
    4. 4. America’s Move to Town
    5. 5. America’s Move to Town
    6. 6. America’s Move to Town
    7. 7. America’s Move to Town  The Allure and Problems of the Cities  Unregulated urban growth created problems in sanitation, health and morale  Mortality rates  Cholera, yellow fever and typhoid
    8. 8. Immigration Steerage Deck on the S.S. Pennland, 1893.
    9. 9. Immigration Registration Room at Ellis Island: 29 questions, “are you a polygamist?”
    10. 10. Immigration  Immigration Restriction  Immigrant communities  Nativist groups  Immigrants are dangerous  Work for substandard wages  Religious prejudice  Congress  Overturned Chester Arthur’s veto of the Chinese Exclusion Act  Federal law limiting immigration on the basis of race and class
    11. 11. Popular Culture  A Reading Public  Newspapers  Openly partisan  Vaudeville  Variety show: comedy, music, dance  Saloon Culture  Social club for poor  Women segregated in smaller rooms
    12. 12. Popular Culture
    13. 13. Popular Culture  Outdoor Recreation  Relieved congestion of urban life  New York’s Central Park established in 1858  Bicycle: 1870’s  Working Women and Leisure  Church organizations  Small groups
    14. 14. Popular Culture Wheeling
    15. 15. Popular Culture  Spectator Sports  Football, Basketball, Baseball  White players only  African Americans in separate leagues  Urban base in large cities
    16. 16. Popular Culture Steeplechase Park: Coney Island, NY
    17. 17. Popular Culture Baseball Card: 1887
    18. 18. Education and Social Thought  The Spread of Public Education  Prior to Civil War  Education in private academies often centered around a religious denomination  Post Civil War  Vocational training  Morrill Act of 1862: Land Grant Colleges--30,000 Acres per representative to teach agriculture and mechanics  Vocational Training & “Americanize” Immigrants
    19. 19. Education and Social Thought
    20. 20. Education and Social Thought  Pragmatism  William James: ideas gain validity from their social consequences and practical applications
    21. 21. Social Darwinism  Application by of Darwin’s theory to social issues  Man’s better characteristics could be passed on  Man can manipulate society so that best men thrive
    22. 22. Chapter 21
    23. 23. What does “The Gilded Age” Mean?  Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner  The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1893)  King John by William Shakespeare (1595  "To gild refined gold, to paint the lily... is wasteful and ridiculous excess.“  A poor copy of the real thing: a thin layer of gold over metal or wood  Widespread corruption in public life: some live well and others pay for it
    24. 24. “The Bosses of the Senate,” 1889
    25. 25. Politics is Personal  Political party affiliations went back generations  Both major parties had similar platforms so they relied on personal attacks on candidates  Cities often more powerful than state governments due to party machines  Patronage  Republicans: Protestant, British, Scottish descent, African Americans  Dominated national politics  Democrats: Everybody else, the South  Local and state governments were main taxing authority and spending authority  Patronage
    26. 26. Rutherford B. Hayes & Civil Service Reform  Attempted to abolish “spoils system”  Republican Party conflicts  Stalwarts & Half Breeds  Roscoe Conkling  Elect Grant for 3rd term  James Blaine  Reform candidate for Republican nominee
    27. 27. Election of 1880  Republican Ticket  James Garfield (Half-Breed)  Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart)  Democratic Ticket  Winfield Scott Hancock  William English
    28. 28. de Thulstrup, Thur. “Miss Columbia (to General H_____).” Harper's Weekly July 24, 1880, 465
    29. 29. Woolf, Michael Angelo. “Exultant Tammanyite.” Harper’s Weekly October 30, 1880, 695.
    30. 30. de Thulstrup, Thur. “The Friend of the Freedmen.” Harper's Weekly October 23, 1880, 685.
    31. 31. Keppler, Joseph. “Just the Difference.” "Puck." July 28, 1880, 43.
    32. 32. Nast, Thomas, “The Plumed Knight.” Harper's Weekly. June 5, 1880, 353.
    33. 33. Keppler, Joseph. “A Merry Christmas to All.” “Puck." December 22, 1880, 45.
    34. 34. Political Party Presidential Nom. VP Nom. # % # % Republican James A. Garfield Che ster A. Arth ur 214 58.0 4,453,61 1 48.3 Democratic Winfield S. Hancock Willi am Engl ish 155 42.0 4,445,25 6 48.2
    35. 35. July 2, 1881  President Garfield assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau at the Baltimore and Potomac Rail Station in Washington D.C.
    36. 36. President James Garfield Charles Julius Guiteau
    37. 37. Diagram of the Train Station http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/guiteau/diagram.JPG
    38. 38. To General Sherman: I have just shot the President. I shot him several times as I wished him to go as easily as possible. His death was a political necessity. I am a lawyer, theologian, and politician. I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts. I was with General Grant and the rest of our men, in New York during the canvass. I am going to the Jail. Please order out your troops, and take possession of the jail at once. Very respectfully, Charles Guiteau. Answer note by General Sherman addressed from "Headquarters of the Army, Washington, DC. July 2, 1881, "in which he states that "I don't know the writer. Never heard of or saw him to my knowledge..."
    39. 39. Guiteau’s Brain , The College of Physicians of Philadelphia https://www.google.com/search?q=Charles+Guiteau's+brain&tb m=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=4PUwUu6NL8fh4AO9ko HwAw&ved=0CDIQsAQ&biw=1523&bih=815&dpr=1#facrc=_&i mgdii=_&imgrc=OBN7Grl4nrllyM%3A%3B9zYWpq5r7POiCM% 3Bhttps%253A%252F%252Fsphotos-a- ord.xx.fbcdn.net%252Fhphotos- ash3%252Fp480x480%252F1240429_10151852732879134_1 581301207_n.jpg%3Bhttps%253A%252F%252Fwww.facebook .com%252Fcollegeofphysicians%3B480%3B480
    40. 40. Chester A. Arthur  Passed the Pendleton Civil Service Act  1884 election  Republicans dumped Arthur & nominated James Blaine
    41. 41. Election of 1884  Republican Ticket: James Blaine  Mugwumps: published embarrassing letters showing Blaine in the pocket of Railroad barons  Democratic Ticket: Grover Cleveland  Cleveland had an illegitimate child  Media Frenzy
    42. 42. Nast, Thomas. “Death Before Dishonor.” Harper’s Weekly.” June 21, 1884, 396-397.
    43. 43. Gillam, Bernhard. “Love’s Labor Lost.” Puck May 7, 1884, 160
    44. 44. “Ma! Ma! Where’s My Pa?” Beard, Frank. “Another Voice For Cleveland.” Judge, September 27, 1884, xii.
    45. 45. “Gone to the White House. Ha! Ha! Ha!” Nast, Thomas. “What It Means.” Harper’s Weekly, November 15, 1884, 747.
    46. 46. Political Party Presidential Nom. VP Nom. # % # % Democratic Grover Cleveland Thoma s Hendric ks 219 54.6 4,915,586 48.9 Republican James G. Blane John Logan 182 45.4 4,852,916 48.2
    47. 47. Grover Cleveland
    48. 48. The Tariff  Primary revenue source for Federal government.  Issue: Did Tariff create the big Trusts (Monopolies)?  Less competition = higher prices for big business  Cleveland argued that the tariffs were too high and must be lowered  Election of 1888  Grover Cleveland vs. Benjamin Harrison  Democrats favored lowering the tariff  Republicans favored keeping the tariff  Republicans raised the most cash  Cleveland won the popular vote  Harrison won the Electoral vote
    49. 49. Democratic Grover Cleveland Allen Thurman 168 41.9 5,539,118 48.6 Republican Benjamin Harrison Levi Morton233 58.1 5,449,825 47.8
    50. 50. Harrison Presidency  Secretary of State: James Blaine former Republican Candidate for President  Sherman Anti-Trust Act  Forbade contracts, combinations or conspiracies in restraint of trade to create monopolies  Vague wording and difficult to enforce
    51. 51. What Form of Currency Should be Accepted?  Specie: money made out of a precious metal  Gold  Silver: opposed by many because it would add more money to the supply and make the money in circulation worth less  Mint Act of 1792 mandate: weight of one silver dollar = weight of a gold dollar  1837 money based on a silver standard  1873: silver coinage dropped  Currency supply failed to keep up with population growth
    52. 52. Agrarian Protest Movements  Farmers debts rose as crop prices dropped  domestic overproduction  increasing international competition  Tariff paid double taxes on domestic produce shipped overseas  Congress failed to act
    53. 53. I Feed You All
    54. 54. Granger Movement & Farmers’ Alliances  The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange)  1886 first attempt by farmers to form a political alliance  Farmers’ Alliances  Collectives & cooperatives: community stores, warehouses and debt repayment  Avoid middlement
    55. 55. Farm Politics and Populist Party  Farmers political action: local  South: Democratic voting blocks of farmers won elections at state and national congressional level  1892 Association of farmers, labor and reform groups formed the People’s Party aka Populist Party  1892 Populist Party Candidate for President: James B. Weaver  Republican Nominee: Benjamin Harrison  Democratic Nominee: Grover Cleveland  Cleveland won both electoral and popular vote
    56. 56. Grover Cleveland Adlai E. Stevenson 277 62.4 5,554,617 46.0 Benjamin Harrison Whitelaw Reid 145 32.7 5,186,793 43.0 James Weaver James Field 22 5.0 1,029,357 8.5
    57. 57. Depression of 1893  Philadelphia & Reading RR declared bankruptcy just before Cleveland was sworn into office  Overextended banks and smaller RR companies  Economic panic lasted 4 years  Unemployment rate: 20%
    58. 58. New York Stock Exchange on Friday, May 5, 1893
    59. 59. International Economic Crisis  Great Britain still global financial center  Failure of Large British Bank caused British investors to sell holdings in U.S. for gold  This drained U.S. gold supply making shortage of currency greater  Silver interests claimed coinage of silver would end the panic  1896 Election  William McKinley, R  William Jennings Bryan, D
    60. 60. http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=HeTkT5-w5RA
    61. 61. Election of 1896
    62. 62. Race Relations  Wilmington, North Carolina  African American majority  1894 & 1896 African Americans joined with Republicans and Populists to choose a slate of elected officials  November 10, 1898  2,000 white men and boys rampaged through town destroying African American businesses and killing at least 100 African Americans  Forced newly elected officials out of office replacing them with Democrats
    63. 63. Wilmington On Fire http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZbE0R2-kzD4
    64. 64. Ida B. Wells IDA B. WELLS
    65. 65. Booker T. Washington
    66. 66. W.E. B. Du Bois
    67. 67. Bibliography I  de Thulstrup, Thur. “The Friend of the Freedmen.” Harper's Weekly October 23, 1880, 685.  de Thulstrup, Thur. “Miss Columbia (to General H_____).” Harper's Weekly July 24, 1880, 465.  Gillam, Bernhard. “Love’s Labor Lost.” Puck May 7, 1884, 160  Keppler, Joseph. “Just the Difference.” "Puck." July 28, 1880, 43.  Keppler, Joseph. “A Merry Christmas to All.” “Puck." December 22, 1880, 45.  Nast, Thomas, “The Plumed Knight.” Harper's Weekly. June 5, 1880, 353.  Nast, Thomas. “Death Before Dishonor.” Harper’s Weekly.” June 21, 1884, 396-397.  Nast, Thomas. “Death Before Dishonor.” Harper’s Weekly.” June 21, 1884, 396-397.  Nast, Thomas. “What It Means.” Harper’s Weekly, November 15, 1884, 747.  Woolf, Michael Angelo. “Exultant Tammanyite.” Harper’s Weekly October 30, 1880, 695.  Bell, Charles Milton. “Chester A. Arthur.” 1882. Library of Congress (Public Domain).
    68. 68. Bibliography II  Unknown. Ida B. Wells,  Wells, Ida B. Southern Horrors, Lynch Law in All its Phases. New York Age Print, 1892  Unknown. Booker T. Washington Library of Congress (Public Domain)  Purdy, J.E. W.E.B. DuBois. (1904) Library of Congress, (Public Domain).  Unknown. “The Vampire that Hovers Over North Carolina.” Raleigh News and Observer, September 27, 1898 (Public Domain)  Cronenberg, Henry. “Armed Rioters in Front of Press Building,” November 10, 1898 (Public Domain)

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