His 122 ch 17 fall 2013

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  • A street in the “burned district” Ruins of Richmond, Virginia, in the spring of 1865.
  • The Confederate Army was beaten, but in many areas the southern people were still unbowed. Many planters now found themselves destitute, as they were unable to manage their lands without their slaves. As the Union soldiers were dispatched to take control of the former Rebel provinces, they were viewed with hatred as the conquerors they were. Although they found themselves freed from slavery, very few northerners were willing to elevate the freedmen to the same status as whites. Many argued that land should be provided for them to work, but nothing came of this plan.
  • In 1863, Lincoln issued his plan to return the Rebels to the Union. Once 10 percent of those who voted in 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution they would be allowed to return to the Union. This plan was viewed by Congress as being too lenient to the Rebels. When Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana met these guidelines, Congress refused to accept them, stating that Reconstruction was a legislative, not an executive, function. The Wade-Davis Bill, which called for even more stringent demands on the South, was vetoed by Lincoln. In retaliation, the Wade-Davis Manifesto was issued, which accused Lincoln of violating his constitutional authority.
  • In order to help the freedmen adapt to their new lives, Congress created the Freedmen’s Bureau, which aimed to provide them with the basic necessities as they adjusted.
  • Freedmen’s school in Virginia Throughout the former Confederate states, the Freedmen’s Bureau set up schools for former slaves, such as this one.


  • 2. The XIII Amendment to the Constitution  In the final months of the Civil War Congress debated the adoption of the XIII Amendment  Text of the XIII Amendment  Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.  Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  Ratification Process  Passed by 2/3 majority of both the House and the Senate  Ratified by 3/4ths of the States (by various processes)
  • 3. Ratification of the XIII Amendment  Passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864  Passed by the House of Representatives: January 31, 1865  119 to 56 (seven votes above the 2/3 majority required)  Ratified by the required ¾ majority of states by December 6, 1865
  • 4. Civil War Ends  Formal surrender by Robert E. Lee on April 9, 1865  President Lincoln shot on April 14, 1865  President Lincoln died on April 15, 1865  President Andrew Johnson declared the Civil War over on May 9, 1865
  • 5. Questions in the War’s Aftermath  How were the Confederate States to be treated?  Conquered states?  Forgiven prodigal sons?  Traitors to the United States?  Industrial North firmly in control of Congress and was no longer at the mercy of the southern coalition of congressmen  South: rebuilding  What money was available for this?  Who would pay?  Rebuilt how?
  • 6. “The Burned District” Richmond VA 1865 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • 7. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.  A Transformed South  Southern people defeated but unbowed  Viewed Northern troops with hatred  Legally Free, Socially Bound  Free but unemployed  Northern troops and politicians refused to consider “freedmen” as socially equal with whites  Citizens? Did the Constitution define who was and who was not a citizen? The War’s Aftermath
  • 8. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Battle over Reconstruction  Lincoln’s Plan and Congress’s Response  Once 10% of people who voted in 1860 (while men) took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution, they would be permitted to return to the Union.  Congress: reconstruction is a legislative function not an executive function  Refused to allow Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana to return to the Union  Wade-Davis Bill: harsh demands– Vetoed by Lincoln  Wade-Davis Manifesto accused Lincoln of violating his constitutional authority.
  • 9. The XIV Amendment  Passed by Congress: June 13, 1866  Text:  Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.  Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.  Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.  Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.  Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
  • 10. Ratified amendment pre-certification, 1866–1868 Ratified amendment pre-certification after first rejecting it, 1868 Ratified amendment post-certification after first rejecting it, 1869–1976 Ratified amendment post-certification, 1959 Ratified amendment, withdrew ratification (rescission), then re-ratified Territories of the United States in 1868, not yet states
  • 11. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The War’s Aftermath  The Freedmen’s Bureau  Created in March 1865 by Congress to help with basic necessities in the transition between slavery and self sufficiency
  • 12. Reconstruction Violence  http://ahiv.alexanderstreet.com.ezproxy.vccs.edu:2048/View/87764 0/timecode/480  American History in Video—Violence and Reconstruction in the South Playlist
  • 13. Freedmen’s school in Virginia © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • 14. Congressional Reconstruction  Any state that had met previous guidelines to return to the Union was still in rebellion  President denied power to remove members of his cabinet  Grant made independent of Johnson
  • 15. Conditions of Readmission to the Union  States must craft new constitutions  States must adopt universal male suffrage  States must adopt the 14th Amendment  South divided into 5 military districts controlled by governors
  • 16. Freedmen Society  Church became the center of society  Marriage (illegal under slavery) exploded. By 1870 the majority of black families had established a two parent home.  Schools built in local communities of Freedmen frightened whites who feared that education would cause them to seek better opportunities and living conditions.  Freedmen exercised the right to vote and attended the state constitutional conventions  Social distinctions and conflicts between urban and rural freedmen
  • 17. XV Amendment  Ratified in 1870  Text  Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.  Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  Women’s suffrage organizations split over XIV Amendment  National Women’s Suffrage Association opposed (Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton)  American Women’s Suffrage Association (Lucy Stone & Henry Brown Blackwell)
  • 18. Reconstruction Violence  http://ahiv.alexanderstreet.com.ezproxy.vccs.edu:2048/View/87764 0/timecode/480  American History in Video—Violence and Reconstruction in the South Playlist
  • 19. Grant Elected President in 1868 Grant ( R ) Defeats Seymour (D) Electoral College 214 to 80 52.7 % to 47.3%
  • 20. Grant Presidency Scandals  Plot to corner the gold market  Credit Mobilier  Whiskey Ring
  • 21. Reform and the Election of 1872  Scandals and Radical Reconstructionist in Republican Party spawned creation of the Liberal Republican faction.  Liberal Republicans  Favored free trade not tariffs  Redemption of greenbacks with gold  A stable currency  End to reconstruction in the South & restoration of rights of former Confederates  Civil Service Reform  Nominated Horace Greely for President in 1872  Southern Democrats supported Greely
  • 22. Election of 1872 Grant defeats Greely Electoral College: 286 -0 55.6% to 43.8 % Greely died on November 29, 1872 After the popular election but before the electoral college met. His electors split their votes among 4 other people.
  • 23. North Grows Weary of Reconstruction  By 1873 many in the North are more concerned with other pressing problems than reconstruction  Western Expansion  Indian Wars  Political controversy over tariffs and greenbacks  Southern resistance to reconstruction increased the cost and the time  Democrats in the South mobilized the ―white‖ vote using the issue of race to mobilize the white electorate and create climate of fear  ―While White and Black Republicans may outvote us but we can out count them‖  1876 Radical Republican regimes survived only in Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida. These collapsed in 1877.
  • 24. Debt  War Bonds are what paid for the war.  War bonds could be purchased with ―greenbacks‖ (paper money issued during the war).  What to do with ―greenbacks‖ after the war?  Replace greenbacks with hard currency (gold)?  Hard money (gold replacing greenbacks)  Soft money (withdraw greenbacks from circulation  Ohio Idea: use greenbacks to pay back war bonds  Public Credit Act (1869)  Government debt had to be paid in gold
  • 25. Panic of 1873  In 1873, 25 Railroad companies defaulted on their debts causing the market in Railroad bonds to crash  September 18, 1873 Investment Bank, Jay Cooke and Company goes bankrupt  Investor stampede to sell securities for cash caused the stock market to close for 10 days.  Depression resulting from the Panic of 1873 lasted 6 years  During the Depression, Democrats gained control of the House of Representatives  Circular confusion: greenbacks < gold  Gold paid foreign debts causing outflow  Reduction of greenbacks to match ever shrinking gold supply caused currency and credit shortage that hurt business expansion causing loss of jobs.  To ease the currency shortage, the treasury issued more greenbacks
  • 26. Specie Redemption Act of 1875  People who turned in their greenbacks would be paid in gold
  • 27. Compromise of 1877  Republicans nominate Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio  ―he is obnoxious to no one‖  Democrats nominate Samuel J. Tilden  Wealthy corporate lawyer  Reform governor of New York who directed the campaign to overthrow Boss Tweed  Both parties agreed on the issues  Democrats: ―aired the dirty linen‖ (Republican scandals)  Republicans: ―waved the bloody shirt‖ linking Democrats to the civil war and Lincoln’s assassination: ―every scar you have on your heroic bodies was given you by a Democrat!‖
  • 28. Election Doubt  Early election returns pointed to Tilden victory  254,000 votes ahead of Hayes  184 electoral votes (1 vote shy of a majority)  Hayes had only 165 electoral votes  Republicans claimed that they had 19 electoral votes from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina  Rival election boards sent in different returns  January 29, 1877 Congress set up special Electoral Commission  15 member (5 House) (5 Senate) (5 Supreme Court)  Commission decision: 8 to 7 along party lines for Hayes  House voted to accept commission decision and declared Hayes the winner by electoral vote of 185-184
  • 29. Deal to End Reconstruction  February 26, 1877: Ohio Republicans and Southern Democrats agreed to let Hayes be President in return for ending Reconstruction in the South and removing Federal troops.  Hayes remove troops from S.C. and Louisiana so those Republican state governments would collapse  Democrats would accept the Reconstruction Amendments (13, 14, 15)