A street in the “burned district” Ruins of Richmond, Virginia, in the spring of 1865.
The Confederate Army was beaten, but in many areas the southern people were still unbowed. Many planters now found themselves destitute, as they were unable to manage their lands without their slaves. As the Union soldiers were dispatched to take control of the former Rebel provinces, they were viewed with hatred as the conquerors they were. Although they found themselves freed from slavery, very few northerners were willing to elevate the freedmen to the same status as whites. Many argued that land should be provided for them to work, but nothing came of this plan.
In 1863, Lincoln issued his plan to return the Rebels to the Union. Once 10 percent of those who voted in 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution they would be allowed to return to the Union. This plan was viewed by Congress as being too lenient to the Rebels. When Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana met these guidelines, Congress refused to accept them, stating that Reconstruction was a legislative, not an executive, function. The Wade-Davis Bill, which called for even more stringent demands on the South, was vetoed by Lincoln. In retaliation, the Wade-Davis Manifesto was issued, which accused Lincoln of violating his constitutional authority.
In order to help the freedmen adapt to their new lives, Congress created the Freedmen’s Bureau, which aimed to provide them with the basic necessities as they adjusted.
Freedmen’s school in Virginia Throughout the former Confederate states, the Freedmen’s Bureau set up schools for former slaves, such as this one.
His 122 ch 17 fall 2013
RECONSTRUCTION: NORTH AND SOUTH
The XIII Amendment to the Constitution
In the final months of the Civil War Congress debated the adoption
of the XIII Amendment
Text of the XIII Amendment
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their
Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
Passed by 2/3 majority of both the House and the Senate
Ratified by 3/4ths of the States (by various processes)
Ratification of the XIII Amendment
Passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864
Passed by the House of Representatives: January 31, 1865
119 to 56 (seven votes above the 2/3 majority required)
Ratified by the required ¾ majority of states by December 6, 1865
Civil War Ends
Formal surrender by Robert E. Lee on April 9, 1865
President Lincoln shot on April 14, 1865
President Lincoln died on April 15, 1865
President Andrew Johnson declared the Civil War over on May 9,
Questions in the War’s Aftermath
How were the Confederate States to be treated?
Forgiven prodigal sons?
Traitors to the United States?
Industrial North firmly in control of Congress and was no longer at
the mercy of the southern coalition of congressmen
What money was available for this?
Who would pay?
The XIV Amendment
Passed by Congress: June 13, 1866
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the
United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting
the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the
choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and
Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State,
being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in
rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such
male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold
any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member
of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial
officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against
the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove
Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of
pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United
States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United
States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Ratified amendment pre-certification, 1866–1868
Ratified amendment pre-certification after first
rejecting it, 1868
Ratified amendment post-certification after first
rejecting it, 1869–1976
Ratified amendment post-certification, 1959
Ratified amendment, withdrew ratification
(rescission), then re-ratified
Territories of the United States in 1868, not yet states
Any state that had met previous guidelines to return to the Union
was still in rebellion
President denied power to remove members of his cabinet
Grant made independent of Johnson
Conditions of Readmission to the
States must craft new constitutions
States must adopt universal male suffrage
States must adopt the 14th Amendment
South divided into 5 military districts controlled by governors
Church became the center of society
Marriage (illegal under slavery) exploded. By 1870 the majority of
black families had established a two parent home.
Schools built in local communities of Freedmen frightened whites
who feared that education would cause them to seek better
opportunities and living conditions.
Freedmen exercised the right to vote and attended the state
Social distinctions and conflicts between urban and rural freedmen
Ratified in 1870
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of
race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
Women’s suffrage organizations split over XIV Amendment
National Women’s Suffrage Association opposed (Susan B. Anthony &
Elizabeth Cady Stanton)
American Women’s Suffrage Association (Lucy Stone & Henry Brown
American History in Video—Violence and Reconstruction in the
Grant Elected President in 1868
Grant ( R ) Defeats Seymour (D)
Electoral College 214 to 80
52.7 % to 47.3%
Grant Presidency Scandals
Plot to corner the gold market
Reform and the Election of 1872
Scandals and Radical Reconstructionist in Republican Party
spawned creation of the Liberal Republican faction.
Favored free trade not tariffs
Redemption of greenbacks with gold
A stable currency
End to reconstruction in the South & restoration of rights of former
Civil Service Reform
Nominated Horace Greely for President in 1872
Southern Democrats supported Greely
Election of 1872
Grant defeats Greely
Electoral College: 286 -0
55.6% to 43.8 %
Greely died on November 29, 1872
After the popular election but before
the electoral college met.
His electors split their votes among 4
North Grows Weary of
By 1873 many in the North are more concerned with other pressing
problems than reconstruction
Political controversy over tariffs and greenbacks
Southern resistance to reconstruction increased the cost and the time
Democrats in the South mobilized the ―white‖ vote using the issue of
race to mobilize the white electorate and create climate of fear
―While White and Black Republicans may outvote us but we can out count
1876 Radical Republican regimes survived only in Louisiana, South
Carolina and Florida. These collapsed in 1877.
War Bonds are what paid for the war.
War bonds could be purchased with ―greenbacks‖ (paper money
issued during the war).
What to do with ―greenbacks‖ after the war?
Replace greenbacks with hard currency (gold)?
Hard money (gold replacing greenbacks)
Soft money (withdraw greenbacks from circulation
Ohio Idea: use greenbacks to pay back war bonds
Public Credit Act (1869)
Government debt had to be paid in gold
Panic of 1873
In 1873, 25 Railroad companies defaulted on their debts causing the market in
Railroad bonds to crash
September 18, 1873 Investment Bank, Jay Cooke and Company goes bankrupt
Investor stampede to sell securities for cash caused the stock market to close for
Depression resulting from the Panic of 1873 lasted 6 years
During the Depression, Democrats gained control of the House of
Circular confusion: greenbacks < gold
Gold paid foreign debts causing outflow
Reduction of greenbacks to match ever shrinking gold supply caused currency
and credit shortage that hurt business expansion causing loss of jobs.
To ease the currency shortage, the treasury issued more greenbacks
Specie Redemption Act of 1875
People who turned in their greenbacks would be paid in gold
Compromise of 1877
Republicans nominate Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio
―he is obnoxious to no one‖
Democrats nominate Samuel J. Tilden
Wealthy corporate lawyer
Reform governor of New York who directed the campaign to overthrow
Both parties agreed on the issues
Democrats: ―aired the dirty linen‖ (Republican scandals)
Republicans: ―waved the bloody shirt‖ linking Democrats to the civil war
and Lincoln’s assassination: ―every scar you have on your heroic bodies
was given you by a Democrat!‖
Early election returns pointed to Tilden victory
254,000 votes ahead of Hayes
184 electoral votes (1 vote shy of a majority)
Hayes had only 165 electoral votes
Republicans claimed that they had 19 electoral votes from Florida,
Louisiana, and South Carolina
Rival election boards sent in different returns
January 29, 1877 Congress set up special Electoral Commission
15 member (5 House) (5 Senate) (5 Supreme Court)
Commission decision: 8 to 7 along party lines for Hayes
House voted to accept commission decision and declared Hayes the winner
by electoral vote of 185-184
Deal to End Reconstruction
February 26, 1877: Ohio Republicans and Southern Democrats
agreed to let Hayes be President in return for ending Reconstruction
in the South and removing Federal troops.
Hayes remove troops from S.C. and Louisiana so those Republican state
governments would collapse
Democrats would accept the Reconstruction Amendments (13, 14, 15)