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His 121 chapters 8   9 the early republic and the dynamics of growth
 

His 121 chapters 8 9 the early republic and the dynamics of growth

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  • Originally, the only method Congress had of raising money was by placing taxes on imports. This is known as a tariff. Taxing of an individual’s income was extended in the twentieth Century in the form of the Sixteenth Amendment. <br /> Alexander Hamilton, a man who had “pulled himself up by the bootstraps,” was a firm believer in a national economic policy that would strengthen the role of the central government, while enriching the national economy. <br /> As secretary of the treasury, Hamilton won approval to absorb all of the states’ individual wartime debt, along with that of the national government, paying them all off as one debt. The establishment of a national bank, along the lines of the Bank of England, bolstered the economy of the United States and provided an excellent credit rating for the new nation. <br />
  • Although successful, the heavy-handed manner and what some viewed as unconstitutional actions of Hamilton to secure the national bank and to pay off the war debts led to the creation of the first political parties. <br /> Hamilton and his followers formed the Federalist Party, which promoted a strong central government. <br /> Jefferson and Madison, on the other hand, formed the Republicans, or Democratic Republicans Party. They stood for the rights of the states and a strict reading of the Constitution. Being involved in an agrarian economy, Jefferson feared that Hamilton’s policies would lead to a strong central government. <br />
  • The French diplomat to the United States during the early days of the French Revolution was citizen Edmund Genet. Genet had begun hiring privateers to attack Spanish Florida and harass British ships. Washington worried that Genet’s actions would lead to America’s entrance into the war against England, which he did not want and demanded Genet’s recall. By the time the demand reached France, another revolution had swept out Genet’s supporters, and he was ordered to be arrested. <br /> Genet begged for asylum to prevent being returned. <br /> In an effort to soothe relations with Great Britain while also securing promises to pull British forts out of the Ohio River Valley, John Jay was sent to England. His negotiations secured very few of Congress’s demands, and his treaty, though offensive to many, was ratified to avoid embarrassment abroad. <br />
  • With the Land Act of 1796, Congress extended the rectangular surveys of land that had been accepted in 1785 and agreed to sell the land at $2 per acre, with 640 acres being the minimum sold. This was well beyond the means of most farmers; in 1800 the act was revised to a 320-acre minimum and down payments were allowed. <br /> Daniel Boone, in 1795, expanded a Native American trail through the Cumberland Gap and opened what became known as the Wilderness Road. This allowed easier access to the back country, increasing the flow of goods and settlers into the area west of the Appalachians. <br />
  • After serving two terms in office, Washington was ready to retire. In his farewell address to the nation, he called for American citizens to forego political parties and to avoid entangling alliances with foreign nations. <br /> In all three presidential elections before 1804, the candidate with the second highest number of votes became the vice-president. After the 1800 election, this was no longer done. In the 1796 election, John Adams won the presidency, and Thomas Jefferson was his vice-president, even though they were of different parties. <br />
  • Jefferson’s administration faced its first serious crisis with the way it handled the Midnight Appointments of John Adams. After his defeat for reelection, Adams and the Federalist Senate appointed people to positions on the judiciary across the land. Before they could take their positions they needed letters of appointment, which the new administration refused to deliver. <br /> William Marbury was one of those who failed to receive his letter. He tried to force the issue by suing Secretary of State James Madison, starting at the Supreme Court. Under the Judiciary Act of 1789, the power to force Madison to produce the letter (known as a writ of mandamus). In a surprise move, the Supreme Court declared Section 13 of the Judiciary Act unconstitutional because Congress cannot give the Supreme Court powers. Although it was a loss for Marbury, it was a win for the Supreme Court because the Supreme Court had appropriated a power that they had not been given. <br />
  • As the Federalist Party began to die a slow death, the Democrat Republicans turned on themselves. John Randolph led the opposition to the Jefferson’s second administration. <br /> After fleeing prosecution for the death of Hamilton, Burr concocted a scheme to separate Louisiana from the United States and establish it as his own empire. He was apprehended before he got too far along with his plan and was tried for treason. He was found not guilty. <br />
  • As the French Revolution continued to rage, American shipping began to fall prey to both British and French harassment. Each side wanted America to trade only with it, and seized American ships to prevent them from going to enemy ports. Because the United States was neutral, these actions were against international law, but the United States was unable to protect its ships. <br /> In an attempt to starve the aggressor nations into respecting our neutrality, Jefferson instituted an embargo on all US shipping. The only thing truly hurt by this embargo was the U.S. shipping industry. <br /> Madison was tricked into repealing the Embargo Act against France to force the British to do the same, although France had no intention of upholding the agreement. England agreed as well but not before a declaration of war was approved. <br />

His 121 chapters 8   9 the early republic and the dynamics of growth His 121 chapters 8 9 the early republic and the dynamics of growth Presentation Transcript

  • The Early Republic and the Dynamics of Growth Chapters 8-9
  • The Federalist Era Chapter 8
  • Alexander Hamilton’sVision for the Nation Raising revenue ◦ Exchange war bonds for interest bearing bonds ◦ Bonds accepted at face value  Rewarded speculators Economic policy: Tariffs ◦ Encouraging manufactures ◦ The emergence of sectional differences Establishing the public credit ◦ A national bank  10 million in capital  4/5ths supplied by private investors  1/5th supplied by government  5 directors named by private investors  5 directors named by government  National currency back by government bonds  Source of capital loans  Safe Place to keep government funds
  • The Republican Alternative Birth of the first political parties ◦ Federalists ◦ Republicans aka Democratic Republicans  Opposed to monarchy  Strict construction of Constitution  If it’s not spelled-out in the Constitution, the Federal government can’t do it.  No National Bank Jefferson’s agrarian view ◦ Nation of small farmers ◦ Wage laborers were dependent on others for their livelihood.  Subject to political manipulation  Economic exploitation
  • Crises Foreign and Domestic • Citizen Genet • French Revolution 1789 • King Louis XVI executed in 1793 • Britain, Spain, Austria, Prussia allied against France • US treaty with France following RevolutionaryWar (perpetual allies) • Citizen Genet hired Spanish privateers to harass British shipping off Florida coast • Washington revoked his Diplomatic privilege and was sending him back to France when Jacobins seized power from the National Assembly • Genet requested and was granted asylum
  • Crises Foreign and Domestic John Jay: US Supreme Court Chief Justice Crisis with Britain during French Revolution ◦ 1793 Britain began confiscating any ship carrying French goods or sailing for French Port in the Caribbean  Impressment of American seamen ◦ 1794 British arming Indians on frontier along Ohio River valley ◦ British seized forts along Great Lakes ◦ Democratic Republicans support for embargo on British goods Jay’sTreaty (1794) ◦ Accepted British definition of neutral rights  Tar, pitch and products for warships could not be shipped to enemy ports by neutral ships  Trade prohibited in peacetime could not be opened in wartime  Britain: most favored nation trading status  French privateers cannot be outfitted in American Ports  Forgive reparations for African slaves who escaped during Revolutionary War ◦ British concessions  Evacuation of British forts in Great Lakes by 1796  Reparations for seized American ships and cargo  Trade with BritishWest Indies
  • Jay Treaty Slogan by Democratic Republicans Damn John Jay! Damn everyone that won't damn John Jay! Damn every one that won't put lights in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!
  • Whiskey Rebellion FederalTax on Liquor (1791) WesternTerritories: Cheaper to ship liquor than grain or corn ◦ Bushel of corn worth $.25= 2.5 gallons of liquor worth $2.50 ◦ Farmers saw tax as a scheme by Hamilton to enrich urban speculators by “picking the pockets of farmers.” 1794 in PA “Whiskey Boys” ◦ burned stills of farmers who paid the tax ◦ Threatened federal revenue officers ◦ Robbed the mails ◦ Interrupted court proceedings ◦ Threatened to assault Pittsburgh ◦ “The Copper Kettle”: A song about theWhiskey Rebellion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XW1mEj2DQNI
  • Washington Proclamation • Called out 12,000 men in militias fromVirginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and New Jersey • General Henry Lee commanded 13,000 men • Whiskey Boys vanished • 20 men captured • 2 convicted of treason • Both pardoned byWashington • Simpleton • Insane
  • America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795
  • Settlement of New Land Land policy ◦ Cost of land  Parcels  Land Act of 1796:Townships-- 640 acre sections @ $2/acre  Land Act of 1804: Minimum unit 160 acre sections @ $1.64/acre Daniel Boone and theWilderness Road ◦ 1769 discovery of “Warrior’s Path” foot path through the Cumberland Gap (over the Appalacian Mountains) ◦ 1771 Boone and 30 woodsmen cut a larger road called “Wilderness Road” 300,000 settlers used theWilderness Road over the next 25 years.
  • Chester Harding, Unfinished Portrait of Daniel Boone,” 1820
  • Transfer of Power • Washington’s farewell • Avoid political parties • Avoid the entanglements of Europe • The election of 1796 • Federalist Candidates • John Adams (President) • Thomas Pinckney (Vice President) • Democratic Republicans • Thomas Jefferson (President) • Aaron Burr (Vice President)
  • Campaign of 1796 • Democratic Republicans called John Adams “his rotundity” • Federalists called Jefferson “a French loving atheist” • French ambassador public appeal for Jefferson • Foreign interference in US election • Adam’s elected: 70 electoral votes to 68 electoral votes
  • X Y Z Affair
  • Europe: NapoleonicWar Caribbean: JayTreaty required US to intercept ships bound for French ports ◦ French intercepted American shipping 300 times and broke diplomatic relations with Americans by 1797 American delegation to Paris: ◦ Thomas Pinckney; John Marshall, Eldridge Gerry ◦ X,Y,Z (French Diplomats) negotiations could only begin if Americans paid $250,000. “Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute!” Logan Act (1799) private citizens may not negotiate with foreign governments without authorization UndeclaredWar with France
  • American Navy 1797: The Constitution,The United States, The Constellation 1797 Congress authorized an army of 10,000 men to serve 3 years each GeorgeWashington called from retirement to command ◦ Washington demanded that Hamilton be 2nd in command Convention of 1800 ◦ Suspension of quasi-naval war with France ◦ Suspension of Perpetual Alliance of 1778 American Military
  • Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans Adams vs. Jefferson ◦ James Callender: Muckraker & sex scandals  Maria Reynolds & Alexander Hamilton  The Prospect Before Us  Jailed for Sedition under Alien and Sedition Acts  Pardoned by Jefferson but refused position as Postmaster General  Published letters between Callender and Jefferson that proved Jefferson funded Callender’s pamphlets against Federalists  Jefferson supporters accused Callender of abandoning his wife to die of a venereal disease  Callender broke story ofThomas Jefferson & Sally Hemming Election of 1800
  • Deficiencies in Election Procedures • No Distinction between votes for President &Vice President: Electoral vote resulted in a tie. • Constitution calls for a vote in the House of Representatives in case of a tie • House voted 36 times over 5 days: all votes tied • Hamilton encouraged legislators to vote for Jefferson as “lesser of two evils” • On February 17,1801 on the 37th vote, Jefferson was elected President
  • • New President walked from his lodgings to the Senate on Capitol Hill • Administered oath by Chief Justice John Marshall • Read his inaugural address • Returned to boardinghouse for dinner Jeffersonian Simplicity
  • We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that a republican government can not be strong, that this Government is not strong enough; but would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon a government which has so far kept us free and firm on the theoretic and visionary fear that this Government, the world's best hope, may by possibility want energy to preserve itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest Government on earth. I believe it the only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly to the standard of the law, and would meet invasions of the public order as his own personal concern. Sometimes it is said that man can not be trusted with the government of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the government of others? Or have we found angels in the forms of kings to govern him? Let history answer this question. --Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1801 Peaceful Transition of Power
  • Jefferson in Office • Adams’s Midnight Appointments • Federalists wanted FederalistJudges • Appointed FederalistJudges to positions before midnight on Adams’s last day in office • Marbury v. Madison • Jefferson’s administration refused to deliver the appointments • Marbury requested Mandamus • Court ruled: • Jefferson could not withhold appointment • Court had no jurisdiction to hear the case under the Constitution • Supreme Court assumed the right of “Judicial Review”
  • Divisions in the Democratic- Republican Party • John Randolph and the Old Republicans • States rights • Strict construction • No tariffs • No compromise—ever • The Burr conspiracy • Burr and General JamesWilkinson • Louisiana territory secede and rule • Jefferson had him arrested for treason • Executive Privilege • Strict Construction ofTreason as a crime • Burr was acquitted
  • War in Europe • Harassment by Britain and France • Trade with one led to harassment by the other • Impressment • The embargo 1807 • Commerce clause • Hurt only U.S. Shipping (repealed in 1809) • The drift to war • The Chesapeake • “…a dish of skim milk curdling at the head of our nation.”
  • Federalist Campaign Broadside (flyer)
  • Election of 1808 Electoral Vote 122 67 States Carried 12 5 Popular Vote 124,732 62,431 Percentage 64.7% 32.4% James Madison Democratic-Republican Charles Pinckney Federalist