Jefferson’s administration faced its first serious crisis with the way it handled the Midnight Appointments of John Adams. After his defeat for reelection, Adams and the Federalist Senate appointed people to positions on the judiciary across the land. Before they could take their positions they needed letters of appointment, which the new administration refused to deliver. William Marbury was one of those who failed to receive his letter. He tried to force the issue by suing Secretary of State James Madison, starting at the Supreme Court. Under the Judiciary Act of 1789, the power to force Madison to produce the letter (known as a writ of mandamus). In a surprise move, the Supreme Court declared Section 13 of the Judiciary Act unconstitutional because Congress cannot give the Supreme Court powers. Although it was a loss for Marbury, it was a win for the Supreme Court because the Supreme Court had appropriated a power that they had not been given.
As the Federalist Party began to die a slow death, the Democrat Republicans turned on themselves. John Randolph led the opposition to the Jefferson’s second administration. After fleeing prosecution for the death of Hamilton, Burr concocted a scheme to separate Louisiana from the United States and establish it as his own empire. He was apprehended before he got too far along with his plan and was tried for treason. He was found not guilty.
As the French Revolution continued to rage, American shipping began to fall prey to both British and French harassment. Each side wanted America to trade only with it, and seized American ships to prevent them from going to enemy ports. Because the United States was neutral, these actions were against international law, but the United States was unable to protect its ships. In an attempt to starve the aggressor nations into respecting our neutrality, Jefferson instituted an embargo on all US shipping. The only thing truly hurt by this embargo was the U.S. shipping industry. Madison was tricked into repealing the Embargo Act against France to force the British to do the same, although France had no intention of upholding the agreement. England agreed as well but not before a declaration of war was approved.
The main reason for declaring war with Great Britain was for the violation of American shipping rights. The vote was cast along a sectional basis, with the shipping-oriented north voting for, and the agrarian south, who relied on British purchases, voting no. Another reason was the instigation of Indians by British citizens to attack the United States. After war was declared, Congress adjourned without providing financial support for it. The U.S. Army existed was relatively weak, but the navy was in better condition, having recently fought pirates.
In the southern theater of the War of 1812 Tennessee Major General Andrew Jackson was dispatched to deal with rampaging Cherokees. Catching them at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Jackson was able to break the power of the Cherokee in Alabama and Georgia.
An invasion attempt from Canada was stopped by a naval battle on Lake Champlain when Commodore Thomas Macdonough’s flotilla engaged and defeated the British ships that were providing cover for their army. In 1814, Redcoats were able to seize and burn Washington, D.C. Afterward, their attempts to capture Fort McHenry in Baltimore ended in failure. The siege of this fort moved Francis Scott Key to write “The Star Spangled Banner.”
A third invasion attempt (the first was from Canada and the second, along the Chesapeake) was aimed at New Orleans. There, Jackson was prepared to defend the valuable port and successfully defeated the British although outnumbered two to one. Almost from the moment the war had begun, efforts to end it had been under way. While Napoleon still controlled much of Europe, England was not interested in fighting a war across the Atlantic. Once Napoleon was defeated, it turned its attention to America. After the U.S. victory on Lake Champlain, England decided the war was not worth the cost. The treaty was signed Christmas Eve, 1814.
Made up of disgruntled Democrats and Federalists, the Hartford Convention proposed a list of demands, that if not met, would cause New England to secede from the union. These demands arrived in Washington, D.C. the same time that news of the victory at New Orleans did. The result was that the Federalists suffered the final death blow to their party due to this embarrassment. The War of 1812 has been considered our Second War for Independence because the United States were able to stand against the largest army in the world and defeat it. This time period also saw the first industrial revolution, for during the embargo and shipping crisis, Americans would look inwardly to get their manufactured goods.
His 121 chapter 9 the early republic
The Early Republic CHAPTER 9
Election Results of 1800US NationalArchives:Tally of ElectoralVotesFebruary 11, 1801
Deficiencies in Election Procedures Distinction between votes for President & Vice President Constitution calls for a vote in the House of Representatives in case of a tie House voted 36 times over 5 days: all votes tied Hamilton encouraged legislators to vote for Jefferson as “lesser of two evils” On February 17,1801 on the 37th vote Jefferson was elected President
Jeffersonian Simplicity New President walked from his lodgings to the Senate on Capitol Hill Administered oath by Chief Justice John Marshall Read his inaugural address Returned to boardinghouse for dinner
Peaceful Transition of PowerWe are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who wouldwish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them standundisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be toleratedwhere reason is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that arepublican government can not be strong, that this Government is not strong enough;but would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon agovernment which has so far kept us free and firm on the theoretic and visionary fearthat this Government, the worlds best hope, may by possibility want energy topreserve itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest Governmenton earth. I believe it the only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly tothe standard of the law, and would meet invasions of the public order as his ownpersonal concern. Sometimes it is said that man can not be trusted with thegovernment of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the government of others? Orhave we found angels in the forms of kings to govern him? Let history answer thisquestion. --Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1801
Jefferson in Office Adams’s Midnight Appointments Federalists wanted Federalist Judges Appointed Federalist Judges to positions before midnight on Adams’s last day in office Marbury v. Madison Jefferson’s administration refused to deliver the appointments Marbury requested Mandamus Court ruled: Jefferson could not withhold appointment Court had no jurisdiction to hear the case under the Constitution Supreme Court assumed the right of “Judicial Review”
Divisions in the Democratic-Republican Party John Randolph and the Old Republicans States rights Strict construction No tariffs No compromise—ever The Burr conspiracy Burr and General James Wilkinson Louisiana territory secede and rule Jefferson had him arrested for treason Executive Privilege Strict Construction of Treason as a crime Burr was aquitted
War in Europe Harassment by Britain and France Trade with one led to harassment by the other Impressment The embargo 1807 Commerce clause Hurt only U.S. Shipping (repealed in 1809) The drift to war The Chesapeake “…a dish of skim milk curdling at the head of our nation.”
Election of 1808James Madison Charles PinckneyDemocratic-Republican Federalist Electoral Vote 122 67 States Carried 12 5 Popular Vote 124,732 62,431 Percentage 64.7% 32.4%
The War of 1812 Causes Violation of American shipping rights Seizure of cargo Impressment of seamen Incitement of Indians along the border with Canada Supported by the Northern States Opposed by the South who relied on British purchases Preparations Congress adjourned without providing for payment Madison unprepared for fight over whether to go to war
The War of 1812 The war in the south General Andrew Jackson fought the Cherokees and broke their power at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The War of 1812 British strategy Invasion from Canada stopped by Naval battle on Lake Champlain Fighting in the Chesapeake British invaded and burned Washington D.C. Battle of Baltimore: Fort McHenry 1814 “The Star Spangled Banner”
The War of 1812 The Battle of New Orleans Jackson outnumbered 2:1 “The Rifles of Kentucky” The Treaty of Ghent 1814
The War of 1812 The Hartford Convention Federalists and “Democrats” proposed demands that if not met would result in New England’s secession from the Union. Demands arrived at the same time as news of the victory at the Battle of New Orleans Federalist Party did not survive the embarrassment The aftermath 2nd War for Independence Demonstrated that small nation could defeat a great power Spurred industrialization US could depend on internal rather than international markets Era of Good Feeling