His 121 chapter 10 nationalism and sectionalism sp 14
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Era of Good Feelings; Economic Nationalism; Missouri Compromise

Era of Good Feelings; Economic Nationalism; Missouri Compromise

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  • Jefferson’s embargo forced Americans to look inward for the production of their finished goods. This led to the first American Industrial Revolution and a surge of economic growth. The charter for the first Bank of the United States ended in 1811 and was not immediately renewed. Without the financial control the central bank, economic turmoil ensued. To stabilize the economy, a second bank was chartered, which would last for 20 years.
  • To protect the fledgling American industrial sector from competing British imports, the Tariff of 1816 was enacted. The north, where most of the manufacturing base was located, was for it, and the south was against it. The agrarian economy of the south depended on shipping goods abroad to agents who sold them, purchased needed items, and shipped them back to America. Southerners were upset because they were forced to pay the import tax. The War of 1812 revealed several shortcomings of the United States. One of these was the transportation infrastructure. The first attempt to fix this problem was the construction of the Cumberland, or National, Road.
  • The internal improvements, the creation of an industrial infrastructure, and the stabilizing of the American economy after the War of 1812 has been the American System. It required a more active role of the federal government in the lives of the citizens. The first proponent of the American System was Henry Clay.
  • After the demise of the Federalist Party, the Democrat-Republicans remained as the only viable party. This period of one-party rule is known as the Era of Good Feelings. Continuing the Virginia dynasty of early American presidents, Monroe followed Madison in the White House. Monroe had served as secretary of state and secretary of war under Madison. After the conclusion of the War of 1812, the United States never fought another war with Great Britain; in fact, the two nations formed closed diplomatic ties. One of the first steps in this process was the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817, which ended the naval arms race on the Great Lakes. Both sides agreed to limit the number of warships in the lakes. The next effort was the Convention of 1818, which settled the northern limit of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel.
  • The United States now stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains; only Spanish America kept it from straddling the continent. However, Spain still controlled the territory of Florida and a narrow bit of land from its panhandle to the Mississippi River. This area was a lawless zone where bandits and Indians set up headquarters because U.S. officials could not legally cross the border. To combat hostile Seminoles on the Florida border, Jackson was dispatched with 2,000 troops. There he discovered two British spies, whom he summarily executed before continuing to pursue the Seminoles into Florida. At the same time, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams was negotiating with Spain to purchase the territory. He used Jackson’s exploits to strengthen his hand in obtaining Florida and establishing the western border of Louisiana.
  • In 1819, Great Britain, still the chief importer of the South’s cotton, turned to its colony of India to obtain cheaper cotton. This revealed the fragility of the U.S. economic system. Although a depression did not occur, a panic most certainly did. After the Revolution, the United States followed an alternating pattern when admitting states into the union: one slave then one free state. When Missouri requested admittance, there were twenty-two states—eleven free, eleven slave. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had dictated that there were to be no slave states there, but no such policy existed for states formed from the Louisiana territory. Eventually, Missouri gained statehood and an agreement was reached that no more slave states would be allowed north of the 36⁰ 30’ line.
  • Chief Justice John Marshall extended the powers of the Supreme Court to provide a more nationalist role of the federal government in state affairs. In the landmark case Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Marshall’s decision removed the power of the states to modify contracts on a whim.
  • Continuing his diplomatic successes on land issues, John Quincy Adams completed a treaty with Russia in 1824 that defined the Oregon Territory’s southern boundary. During the French Revolution, Spain had ignored its Latin American colonies which had rebelled against their motherland. By 1823, when it became apparent that Europe was willing to go to war to retake these colonies, Monroe issued a statement, declaring that the New World was no longer open to colonization by Europe. The United States did not have the military power to back up the Monroe Doctrine, but Great Britain, who approved of the decision, did.
  • In the election of 1824, with no political party to contend against, the Democrat Republicans turned on themselves and ran four candidates for the presidency. No candidate won an electoral majority, and the election was sent to the House of Representatives.Each state got one vote, regardless of how its citizens voted. In the end, John Quincy Adams won the presidency, though he had lost the popular vote and had come in second to Jackson in the electoral vote. He nominated his fellow candidate Henry Clay, the speaker of the house, to be his secretary of state. Because most past presidents had served as secretary of state, Jackson took this as a “corrupt bargain” struck by the two by which Clay would use his influence in the House to secure Adams the presidency and thus would be made heir apparent.
  • As president, Adams supported bold internal improvements. Such a program, coupled with the unusualness of the 1824 election, resulted in the end of the Era of Good Feelings and the emergence of a new party, the National Republicans. Almost from the moment the Adams was declared president, the 1828 campaign began. Jackson and his followers launched attacks on the character of Adams, which the president’s supporters returned with equally blistering assaults. In the end, Jackson was elected to the presidency.

His 121 chapter 10 nationalism and sectionalism sp 14 His 121 chapter 10 nationalism and sectionalism sp 14 Presentation Transcript

  • Nationalism and Sectionalism Chapter 10
  • Economic Nationalism  An unexpected benefit of the War of 1812  Jefferson’s embargo forced Americans to look inward for the production of their finished goods. This led to the first American Industrial Revolution and a surge of economic growth.  The Bank of the United States  The charter for the first Bank of the United States ended in 1811 and was not immediately renewed. Without the financial control the central bank, economic turmoil ensued.  State chartered local banks with no control flooded the channels of commerce with bank notes  Initial economic boom  Runaway inflation  Bursting bubble caused deep recession  Banks stopped exchanging coins for paper money  National government could not float loans or transfer funds across the country  To stabilize the economy, a second bank was chartered, which would last for 20 years.  1816  Bank of the United States (B.U.S.)
  • Economic Nationalism  A protective tariff  Protect the fledgling American industrial sector from competing British imports, the Tariff of 1816 was enacted.  North, where most of the manufacturing base was located, was for it,  South was against it.  The agrarian economy of the south depended on shipping goods abroad to agents who sold them, purchased needed items, and shipped them back to America.  Southerners were upset because they were forced to pay the import tax.  Internal improvements  War of 1812 revealed several shortcomings of the United States.  Transportation infrastructure.  The first attempt to fix this problem was the construction of the Cumberland, or National, Road.  Canals  Railroads
  • Economic Nationalism  The American System  Internal improvements  Creation of an industrial infrastructure,  National Banking System  Stabilizing of the American economy after the War of 1812 Required a more active role of the federal government in the lives of the citizens. The first proponent of the American System was Henry Clay who argued that properity depended on the federal government assuming an active role in shaping the economy. “Market Revolution”
  • Economic Nationalism  Clay’s American System  High tariffs to impede the import of European products and protect fledgling American industries  Higher prices for federal lands Proceeds to be distributed to states to finance internal improvements to facilitate delivery of goods to markets  Strong national bank to regulate the nation’s money supply and ensure sustained economic growth
  • Economic Nationalism  Opponents of Clay’s American System  Higher prices for federal lands would discourage western migration  Tariffs benefitted industrialists at the expense of farmers and “common folk”.  B.U.S. a potentially tyrannical force, dictating the nations economic future Centralizing power in the Federal Government Limiting States’ rights Limiting individual freedoms
  • Good Feelings  James Monroe  Relations with Britain  After the War of 1812, the United States never fought another war with Great Britain  close diplomatic ties. Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817, which ended the naval arms race on the Great Lakes. Both sides agreed to limit the number of warships in the lakes. Convention of 1818, Settled the northern limit of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel
  • Transcontinental Treaty Boundaries 1819
  • Good Feelings  The extension of boundaries  1819  Financial Panic  Debate over extension of slavery to new territories  Concerns over Spanish sovereignty over Florida  Seminole Indians and Runaway slaves  1817 Americans burned Seminole settlement in Florida Panhandle; Seminoles responded with raids of their own against white settlers  Secretary of War: John C. Calhoun appointed Andrew Jackson to take command of American troops  Orders: pursue attackers into Spanish territory but do not attack Spanish posts  1818 Jackson ordered troops to cross border and assault the Spanish fort at Saint. Marks, destroying Seminole villages also.  Jackson ordered execution of two British traders accused of inciting the Seminoles to war.  Captured Pensacola and established a provisional American government then Jackson returned to Tennessee  Jackson’s actions strengthened American bargaining position with Spain over Florida purchase  Transcontinental Treaty of 1819
  • Crises and Compromises  The Panic of 1819  In 1819, Great Britain, still the chief importer of the South’s cotton, turned to its colony of India to obtain cheaper cotton.  To enlarge their loans, state banks issued more bank notes than they could redeem with gold or silver coins.  Extensive fraud and embezzlement in the Baltimore Branch of the B.U.S. by Bank officials  Langdon Cheves: reduced bank salaries, dividends, reduced extension of credit and presented bank notes for redemption.  These actions put pressure on the state banks who put pressure on their debtors, making it more difficult to renew old loans or get new loans.  The Missouri Compromise  After the Revolution, the United States followed an alternating pattern when admitting states into the union: one slave then one free state.  When Missouri requested admittance, there were twenty-two states—eleven free, eleven slave.  The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had dictated that there were to be no slave states there  Missouri gained statehood under a compromise: no more slave states would be allowed north of the 36⁰ 30’ line.
  • The Missouri Compromise, 1820
  • Judicial Nationalism  John Marshall, chief justice  Strengthening the federal government  McCulloch v. Maryland (1819).  Did the Federal government have the right to create a bank when this was not specifically mentioned as a power given to Congress in the Constitution.  Marshall ruled that a clause in Article I, section 8 was purposefully left vague to allow Congress to create “necessary and proper” entities for them.  “To make all laws which are necessary and proper into execution of the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States or in any department or officer thereof.”  Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) , Marshall exerted the right of the nation to regulate state commerce.
  • Nationalist Diplomacy  The Pacific Northwest  John Quincy Adams to Russia, “the American continents are no longer subjects for any new European colonial establishments.”  Treaty of 1824  The Monroe Doctrine  The American continents are not subject to any further expansion of European colonial power  The political system of European powers is different from that of the United States who will consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of the Western hemisphere as “dangerous to our peace and safety”  U.S. would not interfere with existing European colonies  U.S. will keep out of the internal affairs of European nations and their wars.  Monroe Doctrine could not be unilaterally enforced and depended on naval supremacy of Great Britain. European powers at the time did not acknowledge it.
  • One-Party Politics  Presidential nominations in 1824  Snatching defeat from the jaws of victory: with no political party to contend against, the Democratic- Republicans turned on themselves and ran four candidates for the presidency.  No candidate won an electoral majority, and the election was sent to the House of Representatives.  The corrupt bargain  Each state got one vote, regardless of how its citizens voted.  John Quincy Adams won the presidency, though he had lost the popular vote and had come in second to Jackson in the electoral vote.  He nominated his fellow candidate Henry Clay, the speaker of the house, to be his secretary of state.  Because most past presidents had served as secretary of state, Jackson took this as a “corrupt bargain” struck by the two by which Clay would use his influence in the House to secure Adams the presidency and thus would be made heir apparent.
  • One-Party Politics  John Quincy Adams  Bold programs which would expand power of federal government  Promote internal improvements  Set up a national university  Finance scientific explorations  Build astronomical observatories  Create a department of the interior  Praised the example of “the nations of Europe and of their rulers” which confirmed suspicions that the Adams’s were “closet monarchists”  The election of Andrew Jackson  Jacksonian Democrats  The Sequester is NOT new! Presented an alternative tariff bill with such outrageously high duties on raw materials that the manufacturers in the Mid-Atlantic states would join the South and the Southwest to defeat the tariff allowing Jacksonian supporters in the North could still support the tariff and retain voter loyalty while Jacksonian supporters in the South could take credit for opposing the tariff.  The tariff passed.  Doctrine of Nullification: John C. Calhoun changes sides and opposes a tariff  Jackson elected President in 1828
  • 1828 Presidential Election Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams