His 102 chapter 25 turmoil between the wars

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  • The Soviet Union under Lenin and StalinIn the aftermath of the First World War, Europeans were confronted with innumerable problems that resulted in a wide range of responses. The interwar years witnessed some individuals arguing for something akin to a “return to normalcy,” while others believed there was now a need for a new type of authoritarian leadership. If democracy had somehow shown itself to be a spent force, perhaps some other form of government would become necessary. Russia embarked on its own path of socialist development in the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. However, following Lenin’s death in 1924, and combined with Stalin’s “revolution from above” in 1928, the path taken by the Soviet Union would not likely be repeated anywhere else in Europe. Italy, although invited to the peace settlement following the Great War, was actually left in a far worse position. The sense of humiliation left the door open for a man like Benito Mussolini to proclaim the twentieth century as the century of fascism. 
  • Weimar Germany Shackled with the infamous “war guilt” clause, Germany emerged from the Great War a beaten nation. A revolution swept the nation in November 1918 and a new government was established at Weimar. However, the Weimar Republic faced nearly insurmountable problems right from the start. Economic disorder and social unrest, as well as the feeling of humiliation and betrayal, produced an environment that made it possible for Adolf Hitler, the tramp from Vienna turned Führer (leader), to capture Germany with the hope of creating a thousand-year Third Reich. 
  • The Great Depression in the Democracies Across the rest of Europe, authoritarian leaders emerged. It seemed that no nation was immune from the authoritarian impulse. Democracy seemed to be in retreat; and then followed the Great Depression, which affected the world economy in profound ways. 
  • Interwar Culture During the interwar years, modernism seemed to come of age. In art, science, philosophy, and architecture, new modes of thinking were developed while at the same time traditional values and systems of belief were called into question. Uncertainty and the anxiety that uncertainty breeds seemed to infect the “European mind” as a whole. As Paul Valéry remarked in 1919: “An extraordinary shudder ran through the marrow of Europe. She felt in every nucleus of her mind that she was no longer the same, that she was no longer herself, that she was about to lose consciousness, a consciousness acquired through centuries of bearable calamities, by thousands of men of the first rank, from innumerable geographical, ethnic, and historical coincidences.”
  • His 102 chapter 25 turmoil between the wars

    1. 1. TURMOIL BETWEEN THEWARSChapter 25
    2. 2. Introduction The legacy of the Great War Near-collapse of democracy The rise of authoritarian dictatorships
    3. 3. The Soviet Union underLenin and Stalin The Russian Civil War Treaty of Brest-Litovsk polarized Russian society The Whites Loose group united by the desire to remove the Redsfrom power Supporters of the old regime Reds (Bolsheviks) faced strong nationalistmovements
    4. 4. The Soviet Union underLenin and Stalin The Russian Civil War United States, Britain, and Japan intervene on theperiphery of the old empire Solidified Bolshevik mistrust of capitalist world powers Bolshevik victory Gained greater support from the majority of thepopulation Better organization Leon Trotsky as new commissar of war
    5. 5. The Soviet Union underLenin and Stalin The Russian Civil War Consequences One million combat casualties Several million dead from hunger and disease Created permanent hatreds
    6. 6. July 4, 1917
    7. 7. Women’s Battalion
    8. 8. Widows and Orphans by Käthe Kollwitz, 1919
    9. 9. The Soviet Union underLenin War communism Government control of industry Outlawed private trade in consumer goods Militarized production facilities and abolishedmoney Consequences Devastated Russian industry and emptied major cities Large-scale famine (1921) Large-scale strikes
    10. 10. The Soviet Union underLenin The NEP period (New Economic Policy) Abandoning war communism Reversion to state capitalism State owned all major industry Individuals could own private property Trading freely within limits Grain requisitioning replaced by fixed taxes onthe peasantry Nikolai Bukharin (1888–1938)
    11. 11. The Soviet Union underLenin The NEP period (New Economic Policy) Peasants should ―enrich‖ themselves Taxes would support urban industrialization andworking classes The ―golden age of the Russian peasantry‖ Divided up noble lands to level wealth disparities Reintroduced traditional social structure (peasantcommunes) Produced enough grain to feed the country
    12. 12. The Soviet Union underLenin The NEP period (New Economic Policy) Abandoning war communism Reversion to state capitalism State owned all major industry Individuals could own private property Trading freely within limits Grain requisitioning replaced by fixed taxes onthe peasantry Nikolai Bukharin (1888–1938)
    13. 13. The Soviet Union underLenin The NEP period (New Economic Policy) Failure Peasants refused to participate in markets to benefiturban areas Kept excess grain for themselves Cities experienced grain shortages
    14. 14. The Soviet Union underStalin Stalin and the ―Revolution from Above‖ Stalin the man Born in Georgia as Iosip Jughashvili (1879–1953) Exiled to Siberia for revolutionary activity Stalin the strategist Isolated all opposition Used the left to isolate the right, used the right toisolate the left
    15. 15. Lenin and Stalin
    16. 16. The Soviet Union underLenin Stalin and the ―Revolution from Above‖ Stalin the strategist By 1929, Trotsky and Bukharin were removed frompositions of power Abandoned NEP Increased tempo of industrialization Forced industrialization and the totalcollectivization of agriculture
    17. 17. The Soviet Union underStalin Collectivization Local party and police officials forced peasants tojoin collective farms Peasant resistance: sixteen hundred large-scalerebellions between 1929 and 1933
    18. 18. Winter Deportations, 1929–1930
    19. 19. The Soviet Union underStalin Collectivization The famine (1932–1933) The human cost was 3–5 million lives The Bolsheviks retained grain reserves in other partsof the country Grain reserves sold overseas for currency andstockpiled in the event of war
    20. 20. The Soviet Union underStalin The Five-Year Plans Campaign of forced industrialization First Five-Year Plan (1928–1932) Most stunning period of economic growth Built new industries in new cities Urban population more than doubled (from 26 millionto 56 million) between 1924 and 1939
    21. 21. “Imperialists cannot Stop the Success of the Five Year Plan!”
    22. 22. The Soviet Union underStalin The Five-Year Plans The human cost Large-scale projects carried out with prison labor The Gulag system By 1940, 3.6 million people were incarcerated by theregime
    23. 23. The Soviet Union underStalin The Five-Year Plans Structural problems The command economy: production levels plannedfrom Moscow in advance Heavy industry favored over light industry Emphasis on quantity over quality Cultural and economic changes Soviet cities Women entered the workforce The conservative shift
    24. 24. The Soviet Union underStalin The Great Terror (1937–1938) One million dead—1.5 million to the Gulag The elimination of Stalin’s enemies, real orimagined Purged the old Bolsheviks Stalin wanted to eliminate any disagreement with hispersonal views about Communism Communist Party disagreements included whether SovietCommunists should export Communism around the worldor focus on creating a Communist state in Russia first. How democratic should the party be? Is it possible to have socialist and liberal reforms on theway to Communism?
    25. 25. Plaque containing arrest photos of victims of the Great Purge.These victims were shot at the Butovo Firing Range near Moscow.Between 1938 and 1953 an estimated 20,000 political prisoners were shot atButovo and buried in mass graves.
    26. 26. We are living, but can’t feel the land where we stay,More than ten steps away you can’t hear what we say.But if people would talk on occasion,They should mention the Kremlin Caucasian.His thick fingers are bulky and fat like live-baits,And his accurate words are as heavy as weights.Cucaracha’s moustaches are screaming,And his boot-tops are shining and gleaming.But around him a crowd of thin-necked henchmen,And he plays with the services of these half-men.Some are whistling, some meowing, some sniffing,He’s alone booming, poking and whiffing.He is forging his rules and decrees like horseshoes –Into groins, into foreheads, in eyes, and eyebrows.Every killing for him is delight,And Ossetian torso is wide.“The Stalin Epigram,”by Osip Mendelstam.The poem wasin effect, a suicidenote as Mendelstamknew he would bearrested and executed.
    27. 27. The Soviet Union underStalin The Great Terror (1937–1938) Targeted ethnic groups (Poles, Ukrainians,Lithuanians, Latvians, and Koreans) Targeted the Soviet military and resulted in thearrest and detention of almost 10% of the topleaders. Stalin and total control Social advances Illiteracy reduced Higher education made available to more people
    28. 28. The Emergence ofFascism in Italy In the aftermath of war A democracy in distress Seven hundred thousand dead, $15 billion debt Territorial disputes
    29. 29. The Emergence ofFascism in Italy In the aftermath of war Problems Split between the industrial north and agrarian south Conflict over land, wages, and local power Government corruption and indecision Inflation, unemployment, and strikes Demands for radical reform
    30. 30. The Emergence ofFascism in Italy The rise of Mussolini (1883–1945) Editor of Avantia (leading socialist daily) Lost editorship when he urged Italy to side with theAllies during World War I Founded Il Popolo d’Italia The Fasci Organized to drum up support for WWI
    31. 31. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
    32. 32. The Emergence ofFascism in Italy The rise of Mussolini (1883–1945) The Fascist platform (1919): universal suffrage,the eight-hour day, and tax on inheritance Fascist support Gained respect of middle classes and landowners Repressed radical movements of workers andpeasants Attacked socialists Fifty thousand fascist militia marched on Rome onOctober 28, 1922
    33. 33. Mussolini at the march on Rome
    34. 34. The Emergence ofFascism in Italy Italy under Mussolini One-party dictatorship Changed the electoral laws Abolished cabinet system Mussolini assumed role of prime minister andparty leader (Il Duce)
    35. 35. The Emergence ofFascism in Italy Italy under Mussolini Repression and censorship Liberals and socialists considered enemies of thestate Granted independence to papal residence in theVatican City Roman Catholicism established as the statereligion
    36. 36. Weimar Germany November 9, 1918: Revolution Bloodless overthrow of the imperial government Social Democratic Party (SPD) announced a newGerman republic The kaiser abdicated
    37. 37. Social Democratic Partyleader, PhilipScheiderman, announcescreation of aGerman Republicon November 9, 1918
    38. 38. Weimar Germany Problems Governed by unelected Council of People’sCommissioners Introduced 8 hour workday, legalized labor unions,required re-hiring of WWI veterans; farm laborreforms; social welfare; national health insurance. Conservatives opposed these measures andCommunists thought they did not go far enough Elections not held until January 1919 Communists and independent socialists stagedarmed uprisings in Berlin Social Democrats tried to crush the uprisings
    39. 39. Weimar Germany The Weimar coalition Socialists, Catholic centrists, and liberaldemocrats Parliamentary liberalism Universal suffrage for men and women Bill of rights
    40. 40. Freikorps Recruiting Poster
    41. 41. FreikorpsCommunists
    42. 42. Weimar Germany The failure of Weimar Social, political, and economic crisis The humiliation of World War I Germany ―stabbed in the back‖ by socialists and Jews Versailles and reparations $33 billion debt The Dawes Plan (1924), a new schedule of payments
    43. 43. Disabled War Veteran Reduced to begging
    44. 44. Weimar Germany The failure of Weimar The government continued to print money Middle-class employees, farmers, and workers hithardest by inflation Economic recovery (1925) Scaled-down reparation payments Government-sponsored building projects
    45. 45. Hyperinflation
    46. 46. 1 Million Mark notes used as notepaper.
    47. 47. Weimar Germany The failure of Weimar Further problems U.S. stock market crash Unemployment Peasants staged mass demonstrations Government cut welfare benefits Left the door open for the opponents ofWeimar
    48. 48. By 1930, the two best organizedopposition parties were theCommunist Party and theNational Socialist GermanWorker’s (NAZI) Party
    49. 49. Hitler and theNational Socialists Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) Born in Austria, aspired to be an artist but wasrejected by the Academy of Fine Arts inVienna in 1907 and 1908. Lived in Vienna supported by orphan’sbenefits and support from his mother. After herdeath, Hitler lived in a homeless shelter in1909 and later in a hostel for poor laborers. Hitler apparently adopted Anti-Semitism,anti-Marxism, and pan-Slavism while inVienna. After receiving a settlement of his father’sestate, Hitler moved to Munich in 1913.
    50. 50. Hitler’sBaby picture Hitler’s mother,KlaraThe Alter Hof inMunich, watercolor,1914, by AdolphHitler.A soldier in WWI in a GermanBavarian Regiment
    51. 51. Hitler and theNational Socialists Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) After the war, he joined the GermanWorkers’ Party 1920: became the National Socialist Workers’Party (Nazi) Refused to accept the November (1918)Resolution
    52. 52. Hitler and theNational Socialists Hitler and the Nazis November 1923: Munich putsch Hitler imprisoned Dictated Mein Kampf Portrayed himself as the savior of the Germanpeople Nazi elections 1924: Nazis polled 6.6 percent of the vote 1928: Politics polarized between left and right The impossibility of a coalition
    53. 53. Beer Hall Putsch Defendants
    54. 54. Hitler and theNational Socialists Hitler and the Nazis Nazi supporters 1930 election Nazis won 107 of 577 seats in the Reichstag No party gained a majority Nazis supported no coalition government not headedby Hitler which caused the failure of the conservativecoalition government
    55. 55. Hitler and theNational Socialists Hitler as chancellor January 1933: Hindenberg appointed Hitlerchancellor February 27, 1933: Reichstag set on fire by Dutchanarchist Hitler suspended civil rights March 5, 1933: New elections Hitler granted unlimited power for four years Hitler proclaimed the Third Reich
    56. 56. Von HindenburgBelieved that Hitlercould be controlledby the Conservatives
    57. 57. Hitler and theNational Socialists Nazi Germany A one-party state Hitler’s first acts were to sharply limit freedom of thepress and to enable the cabinet to issue decreeswithout the consent or approval of the Reichstag(parliament). Reichstag Fire Decree suspended all civil libertiesguaranteed by the German constitution. Widespread arrests of known or suspected opponentsof the Nazi party. Opposition tactics Storm troopers (SA)—used to maintain party discipline June 30, 1934: Night of the Long Knives
    58. 58. On the basis of Article 48 paragraph 2 of theConstitution of the German Reich, thefollowing is ordered in defense againstCommunist state-endangering acts ofviolence: Articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124and 153 of the Constitution of the GermanReich are suspended until further notice. It istherefore permissible to restrict the rights ofpersonal freedom [habeas corpus], freedom of(opinion) expression, including the freedom ofthe press, the freedom to organize andassemble, the privacy of postal, telegraphicand telephonic communications. Warrants forHouse searches, orders for confiscations aswell as restrictions on property, are alsopermissible beyond the legal limits otherwiseprescribed.Reichstag FireDecree
    59. 59. The ReichstagFire, March 23,1933.
    60. 60. Hitler and theNational Socialists Nazi Germany Schutzstaffel (SS) Most dreaded arm of Nazi terror Organized by Heinrich Himmler Fighting political and racial enemies
    61. 61. Hitler and theNational Socialists Nazi Germany Support Played off fears of communism Spoke a language of national pride Hitler as the symbol of a strong, revitalized Germany(the Führer cult) The recovery of German national glory
    62. 62. Hitler and theNational Socialists Nazi Germany National recovery Sealed Germany off from the rest of the world Unemployment dropped from 6 million to two hundredthousand Outlawed trade unions and strikes, froze wages Organized workers into the National Labor Front Popular organizations cut across class lines
    63. 63. Still Image from Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph of the Will (1935),a Film about a Nazi Party Rally in Nuremberg, Germany, 1934
    64. 64. Hitler and theNational Socialists Nazi racism Nazi racism inherited from nineteenth-centuryopinions Anti-Semitism Joined by nationalist anti-Jewish theory The Jew as outsider An ―international Jewish conspiracy‖
    65. 65. Hitler and theNational Socialists Nazi racism April 1933: New racial laws excluded Jews frompublic office 1935 Nuremberg Decrees Deprived Jews of citizenship (determined by bloodline) November 1938: Kristallnacht (Night of BrokenGlass)
    66. 66. Nazi Boycott of Jewish Shops in Berlin, 1933
    67. 67. Hitler and theNational Socialists National socialism and fascism Both arose in the interwar period as responses towar and revolution Intensely nationalistic Opposed parliamentary government anddemocracy
    68. 68. The Great Depressionin the Democracies Western democracies France Continued to fear Germany Policy of deflation Britain Policy of deflation Reduction in wages and decline in the standard ofliving The Labour Party (1924 and 1929) Increasing trade union militancy
    69. 69. The Great Depressionin the Democracies Western democracies United States Bastion of conservatism Presidents and the Supreme Court
    70. 70. The Great Depressionin the Democracies The origins of the Great Depression Causes Instability of national currencies Interdependence of national economies Widespread drop in industrial productivity Restrictions of free trade
    71. 71. The Great Depressionin the Democracies The origins of the Great Depression October 1929: collapse of the New York StockExchange United States as world’s creditor nation Immediate and disastrous consequences forEuropean economy Banking houses closed, manufacturers laid off entireworkforces
    72. 72. The Great Depressionin the Democracies The origins of the Great Depression Government response Britain Abandoned gold standard and free trade France The Popular Front under Léon Blum Nationalized munitions industry Forty-hour week Fixed the price and regulated the distribution of grain
    73. 73. The Great Depressionin the Democracies The origins of the Great Depression Government response United States The New Deal and FDR Recovery without destroying capitalism Managing the economy and public-works projects John Maynard Keynes
    74. 74. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals The rejection of tradition and the experimentwith new forms of expression Interwar intellectuals Disillusionment with war and the failure of victory Frustration, cynicism, and disenchantment Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961): The Sun AlsoRises (1926), the ―lost generation‖
    75. 75. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Interwar intellectuals T. S. Eliot (1888–1965): The Waste Land (1922),life is a living death Bertolt Brecht (1898–1956): corruption ofGermany’s elites The politicization of literature
    76. 76. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Interwar artists Developments paralleled those in literature The dominance of the avant-garde Subjective experience Multiplicity of meanings Personal expression The rejection of traditional forms and values Pushing the boundaries of aesthetics
    77. 77. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Interwar artists Expressionism—paintings need not have subjectsat all The Dadaists Rejected all forms of artistic conventions Haphazard ―fabrications‖
    78. 78. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Interwar artists Architecture Functionalism ―Form ever follows function‖ (Sullivan) Ornamentation to reflect an age of science and machines
    79. 79. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Interwar scientific developments Albert Einstein (1879–1955) Revolutionized modern physics Challenged our beliefs about the universe New ways of thinking about space, matter, time, andgravity
    80. 80. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Mass culture and its possibilities Explosive rise of mass media—media for themasses Mass politics as a fact of life Cut across class lines, ethnicity, and nationality Democratic and authoritarian possibilities
    81. 81. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Mass culture and its possibilities The radio Europe: broadcasting rights owned by the government United States: broadcasting managed by corporations National soapbox for politicians FDR’s fireside chats Nazi propaganda The new ritual of political life—communication andpersuasion
    82. 82. Voice of the People, Voice of God by George Grosz (1920)
    83. 83. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Mass culture and its possibilities Advertising Visual images replaced older ads Efficient communication, streamlined andstandardized Drew on modern psychology Film France and Italy had strong film industries 1927: Sound added to films
    84. 84. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Mass culture and its possibilities Film United States gained a competitive edge in Europe Size of home market Huge investments in equipment and distribution The Hollywood ―star system‖ The ―Americanization‖ of culture A threat to European culture? Introduced Europe to new ways of life
    85. 85. Interwar Culture:Artists and Intellectuals Mass culture and its possibilities The Nazis and propaganda Used film as a means of indoctrination and control ―Spectacular politics‖ Leni Riefenstahl (1902–2003): Triumph of the Will(1934) Tried to limit influence of American popular culture Dance and jazz
    86. 86. Conclusion The strains of World War I The Great Depression International tensions

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