His 102  chapter 23 modern industry & mass politics, 1870 1914
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  • New Technologies and Global TransformationsFriedrich Nietzsche aptly characterized Europe in the late nineteenth century when he wrote, “Disintegration characterizes this time, and thus uncertainty: nothing stands firmly on its feet or on a hard faith in itself; one lives for tomorrow as the day after tomorrow is dubious. Everything on our way is slippery and dangerous, and the ice that still supports us has become thin: all of us feel the warm, uncanny breath of the thawing wind; where we still walk, soon no one will be able to walk.” His prophetic words seem to highlight the increasingly apparent limitations of Western civilization, especially in terms of its materialism, hypocrisy, and rationality. Centuries of human thought had elevated reason as the great remedy of humanity’s problems. And now, at the end of the nineteenth century, Nietzsche summarized the great crisis facing humanity in its relentless path toward progress. Perhaps that quest was little more than an illusion.
  • Liberalism and Its Discontents: National Politics at the Turn of the Century The truth of Nietzsche’s prophecy was played out in late nineteenth-century European life at all levels of society. Old truths—call them nineteenth-century Victorian values—were called into question and vigorously debated by socialists, feminists, psychologists, artists, and writers of all stripes. Nothing was certain, so it seemed, as new social groups found their voice in support of social reform and change. Perhaps the record of the “great” age of improvement was not an unmitigated success. There was little doubt that material wealth had increased. But what of morality or human happiness? Artists, writers, and composers turned their backs on the “Beethoven century” and began to experiment with new forms of expression that portrayed another side of human endeavor—the subjective side. Space and time were distorted as well, thus signifying the general decline in certainty that had been so characteristic of the past few centuries. Indeed, uncertainty and anxiety came to illustrate the new age. It is no accident that Sigmund Freud hoped to make irrationality an object of scientific study or that he developed psychoanalysis at this very moment in time. 
  • The Science and Soul of the Modern AgeThe late nineteenth century also witnessed the consolidation of the spheres of influence of the great powers—Britain, France, Germany, Russia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the United States. Of course, there were problems on the domestic front—anti-Semitism, revolution, and general strikes. The structure of Victorian values was no longer a match for this changed world. Something had to give. And while most of Europe clung to the last vestiges of nineteenth-century comfort and control, a Great War was about to transform the old world into the new world of the twentieth century. There seemed to be no turning back.

Transcript

  • 1. MODERN INDUSTRY ANDMASS POLITICS, 1870–1914 Chapter 23
  • 2. Introduction Marinetti and futurism A radical renewal of civilization through ―courage, audacity, and revolt‖ A radically new world  Second industrial revolution  New demands in the political arena  Socialist mobilization of industrial workers  White suffragists demand the franchise
  • 3. F.T. Marinetti: Futurism &Fascism
  • 4. Fascism Hard to define Radical, authoritarian, nationalist Rejuvenation of the nation based on a commitment to organic national unity of one people based on  Ancestry  Culture  Blood Discipline, indoctrination, physical education, eugenics Purify the nation of foreign influences that are causing degeneration Fascism opposes conservatives as compromising and liberalism, socialism and communism as polluting the national resolve Vanguard party; revolution from above; strong authority under a strong national leader, authoritariqn democracy based on most qualified
  • 5. Introduction The challenge of the twentieth century
  • 6. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations New technologies  Steel  Between the 1850s and 1870s, the cost of producing steel decreased  Steel industry dominated by Germany and the United States
  • 7. Annual Output of Steel (in Millions of Metric Tons)
  • 8. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations New technologies  Electricity  By the 1880s, alternators and transformers produce high-voltage alternating current  Edison invented the incandescent filament lamp in 1879
  • 9. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations New technologies  Chemicals  Efficient production of alkali and sulfuric acid  Transformed manufacture of paper, soaps, textiles, and fertilizer  British led the way in soaps and cleaners and in mass marketing  German production focused on industrial uses— synthetic dyes and refining petroleum
  • 10. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations New technologies  The liquid-fuel internal combustion engine  By 1914, most navies had converted from coal to oil  Discovering the potential for worldwide industrialization
  • 11. The Second Industrial Revolution
  • 12. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations Changes in scope and scale  Technological changes created changes in scope and scale of industry  The rise of heavy industry and mass marketing  National mass cultures  Watched as Europe divided the globe  Feats of engineering mastery  The ideals of modern European industry
  • 13. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations Changes in scope and scale  Changes  Population grew constantly  Food shortages declined  Populations in Western Europe and North America less susceptible to illness, lower infant mortality  Advances in medicine, nutrition, and personal hygiene
  • 14. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations Changes in scope and scale  Consumption  Consumption as a center of economic activity and theory  The appearance of the department store  Modern advertising  Credit payments Consumer debt = outstanding debt of consumers, as opposed to businesses or governments.  In macroeconomics terms: debt used to fund consumption rather than investment; includes debts incurred on purchase of goods (cars, refrigerators) that are consumable and/or do not appreciate.  Some economists view consumer debt as a way to increase domestic production, on the grounds that if credit is easily available, the increased demand for consumer goods should cause an increase of overall domestic production.  Milton Freidman suggests that consumers take debt to smooth consumption throughout their lives, borrowing to finance expenditures (particularly housing and schooling) earlier in their lives and paying down debt during higher-earning periods.
  • 15. The Industrial Regions of Europe
  • 16. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations The rise of the corporation  Economic growth and demands of mass consumption spurred the reorganization of capitalist institutions  The modern corporation appeared  Limited-liability laws  Stockholders would only lose their share value in the event of bankruptcy
  • 17. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations The rise of the corporation  Size and control  Larger corporations became necessary for survival  Control shifted from the family to distant bankers and financiers  An ethos of impersonal finance capital  Demand for technical expertise  The white-collar class: middle-level salaried managers, neither owners nor laborers
  • 18. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations The rise of the corporation  Consolidation would protect industries from cyclical fluctuations and unbridled competition  Vertical integration  Industries controlled every step of production  From acquisition of raw materials to distribution of finished goods
  • 19. Population Growth in Major States between1871 and 1911 (Population in Millions)
  • 20. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations The rise of the corporation  Horizontal integration  Organizedinto cartels  Companies in the same industry would band together  Fixing prices and controlling competition  Coal, oil, and steel were particularly well adapted
  • 21. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations The rise of the corporation  Dominant trend was increased cooperation between government and industry  Appearance of businessmen and financiers as officers of state
  • 22. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations International economics  Search for markets, goods, and influence fueled imperial expansion  Trade barriers arose to protect home markets  An interlocking, worldwide system of manufacturing, trade, and finance  Near-universal adoption of the gold standard
  • 23. New Technologies andGlobal Transformations International economics  MostEuropean countries imported more than they exported  Reliedon ―invisible‖ exports: shipping, insurance, and banking  London as money market of the world  Massmanufacturing and commodity production changed patterns of consumption and production
  • 24. Labor Politics,Mass Movements Changes in the European working class  Ingeneral, workers resented corporate power  The ―new unionism‖  Labor unions evolved into mass centralized national organizations  Organization across whole industries  Brought unskilled workers into the ranks
  • 25. Labor Politics,Mass Movements Changes in the European working class  Changes in national political structure  Opened the political process to new participants  Efforts to expand the franchise (1860s–1870s)  New constituencies of working-class men  Socialist organizations abandoned their insurrectionary radicalism and opted for reform
  • 26. Labor Politics,Mass Movements Changes in the European working class  Karl Marx  Published first volume of Das Kapital in 1867)  Attacked capitalism in terms of political economy  The Marxist appeal  Provided a crucial foundation for building a democratic mass politics  Made powerful claims for gender equality  The promise of a better future
  • 27. Das Capital: Critique of Political Economy (1867), by Karl Marx The motivating force of capitalism is the exploitation of labor Unpaid work is the ultimate source of profit and surplus value The employer can claim right to the profits of employee’s labor because he owns the means of production  Legally protected by the State through property rights  Producing money rather than commodities (goods and services), the workers continually reproduce the economic conditions by which they labor.  "Laws of motion" of the capitalist economic system describe the dynamics of the accumulation of capital; the growth of wage labor, the transformation of the workplace, the concentration of capital, commercial competition, the banking system.
  • 28. Marxist Critique of Capitalism Commerce, as a human activity, implies no morality beyond that required to buy and sell goods and services; Growth of the market system made discrete entities of the economic, the moral, and the legal spheres of human activity in society  subjective moral value is separate from objective economic value.  political economy – the just distribution of wealth and "political arithmetic" about taxes — became three discrete fields of human activity:
  • 29. The Great Divorce Economics, Law, Ethics, politics divorced. the use of money voided religious and political illusions about its economic value Replaced political and religious principles of value with commodity fetishism—the belief that an object (commodity) has inherent economic value. Because societal economic formation is an historical process, no one person can control or direct it;  creating a global complex of social connections among capitalists  Capitalist economic contradictions: struggle between labor and capital; wage earners and owners of the means of production  Operate behind the backs of the workers
  • 30. Labor Politics,Mass Movements Changes in the European working class  The workers’ movement  The First International (1864–1876)  Some followed Marx  Others followed the Russian anarchist, Mikhail Bakunin (1814–1876)
  • 31. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The spread of socialist parties—and alternatives  Marxist socialism spread to social democratic parties in Germany, Belgium, France, Austria, and Russia  Disciplined, politicized workers’ organizations
  • 32. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The spread of socialist parties—and alternatives  Themodel of all socialist parties was the German Social Democratic Party (SPD, founded 1875)  Strovefor political change within Germany’s parliamentary system
  • 33. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The spread of socialist parties—and alternatives  BeforeWorld War I, the Social Democrats were the best-organized workers’ party in the world: explanations  Rapid expansion of industrialization  Large urban working class  A new parliamentary constitution
  • 34. Socialist Party Pamphlet, c. 1895
  • 35. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The spread of socialist parties—and alternatives  Britain  Labour Party (1901)  Remained moderate and committed to incremental reform
  • 36. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The spread of socialist parties—and alternatives  Anarchism  Opposed to centrally organized economics and politics  Advocated small-scale, localized democracy  Similar foundations as Marxism, but different approaches to change  Conspiratorial vanguard violence
  • 37. The InternationaleBritish Translation American Version Arise, ye workers from your slumber,  Arise, you prisoners of starvation! Arise, ye prisoners of want. Arise, you wretched of the earth! For reason in revolt now thunders, For justice thunders condemnation: and at last ends the age of cant! A better worlds in birth! Away with all your superstitions, No more traditions chains shall bind Servile masses, arise, arise! us, Well change henceforth the old Arise you slaves, no more in thrall! tradition, The earth shall rise on new And spurn the dust to win the prize! foundations: So comrades, come rally, We have been nought, we shall be And the last fight let us face. all! The Internationale, Tis the final conflict, Unites the human race. Let each stand in his place. So comrades, come rally, The international soviet And the last fight let us face. Shall be the human race The Internationale, Tis the final conflict, Unites the human race. Let each stand in his place. The international working class Shall be the human race
  • 38. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The spread of socialist parties—and alternatives  Syndicalism  Demanded that workers share ownership and control of the means of production  The capitalist state must be replaced by workers’ syndicates or trade associations
  • 39. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The limits of success  Socialist parties never gained full worker support  Some workers retained loyalty to liberal traditions or religious affiliation  Others were excluded  German revisionism  EduardBernstein (1850–1932) called for a shift to moderate reform
  • 40. Labor Politics,Mass Movements The limits of success  German radicals  Rosa Luxembourg (1870–1919) called for mass strikes, hoping to ignite a proletarian revolution  Conflictover strategy and tactics reached its climax in the years before World War I
  • 41. Demanding Equality: Suffrage andthe Women’s Movement Women’s rights  By 1884, Germany, France, and Britain had enfranchised most men  Women relegated to status as second-class citizens  Women pressed their interests through independent organizations and forms of direct action
  • 42. Demanding Equality: Suffrage andthe Women’s Movement Women’s organizations  Votes became the symbol for women’s ability to attain full personhood  Middle-class women founded clubs, published journals, organized petitions
  • 43. Demanding Equality: Suffrage andthe Women’s Movement British women’s suffrage campaigns  Exploded in violence  Millicent Fawcett (1847–1929)  National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (1897)  Composed of sixteen different organizations  Her movement lacked political and economic clout
  • 44. Demanding Equality: Suffrage andthe Women’s Movement British women’s suffrage campaigns  Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928)  Founded the Women’s Social and Political Union (1903)  Adopted tactics of militancy and civil disobedience  Women chained themselves to the visitor’s gallery in the House of Commons  Slashed paintings in museums  TheBritish government countered this violence with repression
  • 45. Demanding Equality: Suffrage andthe Women’s Movement British women’s suffrage campaigns  The martyrdom of Emily Wilding Davison (1913)
  • 46. Demanding Equality: Suffrage andthe Women’s Movement Redefining womanhood  Campaign for women’s suffrage helped redefine Victorian gender roles  The increasing visibility of women  Middle-class women and work  Worked as social workers, clerks, nurses, and teachers  Women, politics, and reform  Poor relief, prison reform, temperance movements, abolition of slavery, education
  • 47. Demanding Equality: Suffrage andthe Women’s Movement Redefining womanhood  The ―new‖ woman  Demanded education and a job  Claimed the right to be physically and intellectually active  Opposition  Never exclusively male opposition  Christian commentators criticized suffragists for moral decay  Others argued that feminism would dissolve the family
  • 48. White-Collar Work
  • 49. Changes in White-Collar Work
  • 50. Liberalism and Its Discontents Late-nineteenth-century liberalism  Middle-class liberals found themselves on the defensive after 1870  Mass politics upset the balance between middle- class interests and traditional elites  Trade unions, socialists, and feminists all challenged Europe’s governing class
  • 51. Liberalism and Its Discontents Late-nineteenth-century liberalism  The government’s response was a mixture of conciliation and repression  What was required was a distinctly modern form of mass politics
  • 52. Liberalism and Its Discontents France: the embattled republic  Franco-Prussian War (1870) a humiliating defeat for France  Government of the Second Empire collapsed  The Third Republic
  • 53. Liberalism and Its Discontents France: the embattled republic  The Paris Commune (1871)  Pitted the nation against the radical city of Paris  Paris refused to surrender to the Germans  Government sends troops to Paris in March 1871  Barricades and street fighting  Twenty-five thousand were executed, killed in fighting, or consumed in fires
  • 54. Liberalism and Its Discontents The Dreyfus Affair and anti-Semitism as politics  French anti-Semitism: a new form of radical right- wing politics (nationalist, antiparliamentary, and antiliberal)  The Dreyfus Affair (1894)  Dreyfus convicted of selling military secrets to Germany  Sent to Devil’s Island
  • 55. Anti-Semitic French Cartoon with Caricature ofJakob Rothschild, 1898
  • 56. Liberalism and Its Discontents The Dreyfus Affair and anti-Semitism as politics  The Dreyfus Affair (1894)  The verdict was questioned and documents were proven to be forgeries (1896)  Émile Zola (1840–1902) backed DreyfusDreyfus eventually freed in 1899 and cleared of all guilt in 1906
  • 57. “The Ogre’s Meal,” Caricature of Edouard Drumont, Editorof La Libre Parole, from Le Rire, 1896
  • 58. Liberalism and Its Discontents The Dreyfus Affair and anti-Semitism as politics  The Dreyfus Affair (1894)  Consequences  Separation of church and state in France  Republicans saw the church and army as hostile toward the republic
  • 59. Liberalism and Its Discontents The Dreyfus Affair and anti-Semitism as politics  Merged three strands of anti-Semitism  Christian anti-Semitism (Jews as Christ killers)  Economic anti-Semitism (Rothschild as representative of all Jews)  Racial thinking (Jews as an inferior race)
  • 60. “Anti-Semitic Agitation in Paris: Mathieu Dreyfus Burnedin Effigy in Montmartre (Paris).”
  • 61. Liberalism and Its Discontents The Dreyfus Affair and anti-Semitism as politics  An ideology of hatred  La Libre Parole (Free Speech, 1892), the Anti- Semitic League, and Jewish France (1886)  The Third Republic  Showed that the radical right and anti-Semitism were plainly political forces
  • 62. Liberalism and Its Discontents Zionism: Theodor Herzl (1860–1904)  Consideredthe Dreyfus Affair to be an expression of a fundamental problem  Jews might never be assimilated into European culture  Endorsed Zionism—building a separate Jewish homeland outside Europe  Zionism as a modern nationalist movement
  • 63. Liberalism and Its Discontents Germany’s search for imperial unity  Bismarckunited Germany under the banner of Prussian conservatism (1864–1871)  Sought to create the centralizing institutions of a modern state  Safeguarding the privileges of Germany’s national interests  Executive power rested solely with William I (1797– 1888, r. 1861–1888), king and kaiser (emperor)
  • 64. Liberalism and Its Discontents Germany’s search for imperial unity  Three problems  Divide between Catholics and Protestants  Growing Social Democratic Party  Divisive economic interests of agriculture and industry
  • 65. Liberalism and Its Discontents Germany’s search for imperial unity  Kulturkampf (cultural struggle)  Bismarck unleashed an anti-Catholic campaign  Passed laws that imprisoned priests for political sermons  Banned Jesuits from Prussia  The campaign backfired  Catholic Center Party won seats in the Reichstag in 1874  Bismarck negotiated an alliance with the Catholic Center
  • 66. Liberalism and Its Discontents Germany’s search for imperial unity  The new coalition  Agricultural and industrial interests as well as socially conservative Catholics  Social Democrats as the new enemies of the empire  Bismarck passed antisocialist laws in 1878
  • 67. Liberalism and Its Discontents Germany’s search for imperial unity  Social welfare  Workers guaranteed sickness and accident insurance  Rigorous factory inspection  Limited working hours for women and children  Old-age pensions  Social welfare legislation did not win the loyalty of workers
  • 68. Liberalism and Its Discontents Britain: from moderation to militance  The Second Reform Bill (1867)  Liberal and Conservative political parties  New laws  Legalityof trade unions  Rebuilding large urban areas  Elementary education for all children  Male dissenters can attend Oxford or Cambridge  75 percent of adult males enfranchised by 1884
  • 69. Liberalism and Its Discontents Britain: from moderation to militance  Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881)— Conservative and William Gladstone (1809–1898)—Liberal  Both offered moderate programs that appealed to a widening electorate  The moderate working class  The Independent Labour Party (1901)  Social welfare legislation
  • 70. Liberalism and Its Discontents Britain: from moderation to militance  Problems  Liberal parliamentary framework began to show signs of collapse  Nationwide strikes of coal and railway workers  Irish radical nationalists began to favor armed revolution  Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Brotherhood  Home Rule tabled (1913)
  • 71. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Internal conflicts and an autocratic political system  Threatened by Western industrialization and Western political doctrines
  • 72. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Russian industrialization (1880s–1890s)  State-directed industrial development  Serfs emancipated in 1861  Heightened social tensions  Workers left their villages temporarily to work and then returned for planting and harvest
  • 73. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  The legal system  No recognition of trade unions or employers’ associations  Outdated banking and finance laws
  • 74. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Alexander II (1818–1888, r. 1855–1881)  The ―Tsar Liberator‖  Set up zemstvos, provincial land and county assemblies (1804)  Curtailed the rights of zemstvos, censorship of the press  Assassinated by a radical
  • 75. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Alexander III (1845–1894, r. 1881–1894)  Steered the country toward the right  Stern repression  Increased authority of the secret police
  • 76. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Nicholas II (1868–1918, r. 1894–1917)  Continued these ―counterreforms‖  Advocated Russification to extend the language, religion, and culture of Greater Russia  Pogroms and open anti-Semitism
  • 77. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  The Populists  Russia to modernize on its own terms, not those of the West  Based on the ancient village commune (mir)  Mostly middle class, students, and women  Overthrowing the tsar through anarchy and insurrection  Read Marx’s Capital and emphasized peasant socialism
  • 78. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Russian Marxism  Organized as the Social Democratic Party  Concentrated on urban workers  Russian autocracy would give way to capitalism  Capitalism would give way to a classless society
  • 79. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Social Democratic Party split (1903)  Bolsheviks (majority group)  Called for a central party organization of active revolutionaries  Rapid industrialization meant they did not have to follow Marx  Mensheviks (minority group)  Gradualist approach  Reluctant to depart from Marxist orthodoxy
  • 80. Liberalism and Its Discontents Russia: the road to revolution  Social Democratic Party split (1903)  Lenin  Leader of the Bolsheviks while in exile  Coordinated socialist movement  Russia was ripe for revolution
  • 81. Liberalism and Its Discontents The first Russian Revolution (1905)  Causes  The Russo-Japanese War  Rapid industrialization had transformed Russia unevenly  Low grain prices resulted in peasant uprisings  Radical workers organized strikes and demonstrations
  • 82. Liberalism and Its Discontents The first Russian Revolution (1905)  Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905)  Two hundred thousand workers led by Father Gapon demonstrated at the Winter Palace  Guard troops killed 130 and wounded several hundred
  • 83. Liberalism and Its Discontents The first Russian Revolution (1905)  The protest grew  Merchants closed stores  Factory owners shut down factories  Lawyers refused to hear cases  The autocracy had lost control
  • 84. Liberalism and Its Discontents The first Russian Revolution (1905)  Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto  Guaranteed individual liberties  Moderately liberal franchise for the election of a Duma  Genuine legislative veto powers for the Duma
  • 85. Liberalism and Its Discontents The first Russian Revolution (1905)  Nicholas failed to see that fundamental change was needed  1905–1907: Nicholas revoked most of the promises made in October  Deprived the Duma of its principal powers
  • 86. Liberalism and Its Discontents The first Russian Revolution (1905)  PeterStolypin (1862–1911) and the Stolypin reforms (1906–1911)  Agrarian reforms for the sale of 5 million acres of royal land to peasants  Granted peasants permission to withdraw for the mir  Canceled peasant property debts  Legalized trade unions  Established sickness and accident insurance
  • 87. Liberalism and Its Discontents The first Russian Revolution (1905)  Russian agriculture remained suspended between emerging capitalism and the peasant commune
  • 88. Liberalism and Its Discontents Nationalism and imperial politics: the Balkans  Rising nationalism divides the disintegrating Ottoman Empire  Uprisings in Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Bulgaria (1875–1876)  Reports of atrocities against Christians  Led to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)  The Treaty of San Stefano  The great powers intervened
  • 89. The Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1699–1912
  • 90. Liberalism and Its Discontents Nationalism and imperial politics: the Balkans  The Treaty of Berlin (1878)  Bessarabia to Russia, Thessaly to Greece  Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian control  Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania become independent states  The independent kingdom of Bulgaria (1908)  Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 91. Liberalism and Its Discontents Nationalism and imperial politics: the Balkans  Turkish nationalism  Turks had grown impatient with weakness of the sultan  The Young Turks  Forced the sultan to establish a constitutional government in 1908  Launched effort to ―Ottomanize‖ all imperial subjects  Tried to bring Christian and Muslim communities under more centralized control  Spread Turkish culture
  • 92. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Darwin’s revolutionary theory  Organic evolution by natural selection transformed the conception of nature itself  An unsettling new picture of human biology, behavior, and society  Jean Lamarck (1744–1829)
  • 93. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Darwin’s revolutionary theory  Charles Darwin (1809–1882)  The Origin of Species (1859)  Five years aboard H.M.S. Beagle  Observed manifold variations of animal life  Theorized that variations within a population made certain individuals better adapted for survival
  • 94. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Darwin’s revolutionary theory  Charles Darwin (1809–1882)  Darwin used natural selection to explain the origin of new species  Applied theory to plant and animal species as well as to man  The Descent of Man (1871)  The human race had evolved from an apelike ancestor
  • 95. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Darwinian theory and religion  Darwinian theory challenged deeply held religious beliefs  Sparked a debate on the existence of God  For Darwin, the world was not governed by order, harmony, and divine will but by random chance and struggle
  • 96. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Darwinian theory and religion  Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–1895)  Argued against Christians appalled by the implications of Darwinism  Called himself an agnostic  You should follow reason as far as it can take you
  • 97. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age The rise of the social sciences  Influence of Darwinism on sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics  New ways of quantifying and interpreting human experience  Social Darwinism  Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)  Applied individual competition to classes, races, and nations  Coined the expression ―survival of the fittest‖
  • 98. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age The rise of the social sciences  Social Darwinism  Popularized notions of social Darwinism were easy to comprehend  Integrated into popular vocabulary  Justified the natural order of rich and poor  Nationalists used social Darwinism to rationalize imperialism and warfare
  • 99. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Challenges to Rationality: Pavlov, Freud, and Nietzsche  The irrational and animalistic side of human nature  Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)  ―Classicalconditioning‖  Behaviorism  Eschewed mind and consciousness  Focused on physiological responses to the environment
  • 100. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Challenges to Rationality: Pavlov, Freud, and Nietzsche  Sigmund Freud (1856–1936)  Behavior largely motivated by unconscious and irrational forces  Unconscious drives and desires conflict with the rational and moral conscience
  • 101. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Challenges to Rationality: Pavlov, Freud, and Nietzsche  Sigmund Freud (1856–1936)  The psyche  Id: undisciplined desires for pleasure and gratification  Superego: the conscience (conditioned by morality and culture)  Ego: area where the conflict between id and superego is worked out
  • 102. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Challenges to Rationality: Pavlov, Freud, and Nietzsche  An objective (scientific) understanding of human behavior  Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) and the attack on tradition  Middle-class culture dominated by illusions and self- deceptions
  • 103. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Challenges to Rationality: Pavlov, Freud, and Nietzsche  Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) and the attack on tradition  Rejected rational argumentation  Bourgeois faith in science, progress, and democracy as a futile search for truth
  • 104. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Religion and its critics  The Roman Catholic Church on the defensive  Pope Pius IX issued the Syllabus of Errors in 1864  Condemned materialism, free thought, and religious relativism  Convoked a church council (first one since the late sixteenth century)
  • 105. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Religion and its critics  Pope Pius IX issued the Syllabus of Errors in 1864  Doctrine of papal infallibility  Denounced by the governments of several Catholic countries
  • 106. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Religion and its critics  Pope Leo XIII  Brought a more accommodating climate to the Church  Acknowledged that there is good and evil in modern civilization  Added a scientific staff to the Vatican, opened archives and observatories
  • 107. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age Religion and its critics  Protestants  Little in the way of doctrine to help them defend their faith  Pragmatism (Charles Peirce and William James)  Truth was whatever produced useful, practical results
  • 108. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age New readers and the popular press  Facilitated the spread of new ideas  Rising literacy rates and new forms of printed mass culture  Journalism  Emphasis on the sensational  Advertising  ―Yellow‖ journalism— entertainment, sensationalism, and the news
  • 109. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age The first moderns: innovations in art  Modernism  Questioning the moral and cultural values of liberal, middle-class society  Characteristics  Self-conscious sense of rupture from history and tradition  Rejection of established values  Insistence on an expressive and experimental freedom  A newunderstanding of the relationship between art and society
  • 110. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age The first moderns: innovations in art  Wassily Kandinsky (1866–1944)  Devotee of occult mysticism  The role of the visionary artist  From soulless materialism to the psychic-spiritual life
  • 111. Black Lines by Wassily Kandinsky, 1913
  • 112. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age The revolt on canvas  French Impressionism in the 1870s  The legacies of Claude Monet (1840–1926) and Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919)  Paved the way for younger artists to experiment more freely  Impressionist artists organized their own independent exhibitions
  • 113. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age The revolt on canvas  Post-Impressionism  Paul Cézanne (1839–1906)  Reducing natural forms to geometric equivalents  Emphasis on subjective arrangement of color and form  Art as a vehicle for an artist’s self-expression
  • 114. The Science and the Soul ofthe Modern Age The revolt on canvas  German Expressionism  Emil Nolde (1867–1956)  Painters turned to acidic tones, violent figural distortions, and crude depictions of sexuality  Edvard Munch (1863–1944) and Egon Schiele (1890–1918)  Henri Matisse (1869–1954) and Pablo Picasso (1869–1954)
  • 115. Self Portrait, Study for Ermiten, Egon Schiele, 1912
  • 116. Portrait of Ambroise Vollard by Pablo Picasso, 1909
  • 117. Conclusion Progress and the forces of change Decline and the forces of change