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From Restoration to Revolution 1815-1848
» After Waterloo—Europe without  revolution?» Citizens and new political ideologies» Industrial change and social change» ...
˃Central cast  + Russia: Alexander I (1777–1825, r. 1801–    1825)     –Enlightened monarch and absolutist       monarch  ...
Alexander I
˃Central cast  + France: Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand    (1754–1859)      – Foreign minister to Louis XVIII  + Aus...
Clemens von Metternich
Maurice de Talleyrand
˃Goals of the Congress  + The restoration of order and legitimate authority  + The prevention of French expansion  + Germa...
˃Goals of the Congress  + British compensations     –Received French territories in South       Africa and South America
The Congress of Vienna
˃ Concert of Europe The  + Securing the peace and creating    permanent stability  + Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia...
˃ Concert of Europe The + Alexander and the Holy Alliance + Established a ruler’s legitimacy based on   international trea...
˃Secret organization: the Carbonari  + Vowed to oppose the government in Vienna  + Spread through southern Europe and Fran...
I met a traveller from an antique landWho said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stoneStand in the desert. Near them, on the...
» Monarchs helping monarchs  ˃Assistance from one another to suppress   revolt  ˃Austria put down the Italian revolts  ˃Fr...
» The unsteady foundations of colonial rule  ˃Argentina declared independence in 1816  ˃The liberation of Chile and Peru  ...
» Political revolts unleashed conflict and civil war      + Some elites sought liberation from Spain      + Radicals wante...
˃ United States The  + The Monroe Doctrine (1823)      – Warned Europe that intervention in the New        World was an un...
» Russia: the Decembrists   ˃ Death of Tsar Alexander I (1825)       + Of Typhus in a small town outside St. Petersburg on...
» Death of Tsar Alexander I (1825)  ˃The Decembrists     + Most came from noble families or were members       of elite re...
Decembrist Revolt by Vasily Timm, Oil on Canvas, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
˃Nicholas I (1796–1855, r. 1825–1855)  + Crushed the Decembrist revolt  + The Third Section (secret police force)
Nicholas I
» Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality   ˃ Absolute loyalty to unlimited authority of the Tsar   ˃ The Russian Orthodox Churc...
˃Signs of change  + The bureaucracy became more centralized    and efficient  + Less dependence on the nobility for    pol...
» Southeastern Europe: Balkans (Greece and  Serbia)  ˃ Local movements in Greece and Serbia began to demand autonomy  ˃ Gr...
» Southeastern Europe: Balkans (Greece and  Serbia)  ˃ Greek war for independence (1821–1827)      + Celebrating Greeks an...
The Massacre at Chios by Eugène Delacroix (1789–1863)
» Southeastern Europe: Balkans (Greece and  Serbia)  ˃ Results     + European opportunism     + Greece and Serbia did not ...
» Principles of conservatism   ˃ The concept of legitimacy as a general antirevolutionary policy   ˃ The monarchy was a gu...
» Principles of conservatism   ˃ Joseph de Maistre (1753–1821) and Louis-Gabriel-Ambroise Bonald     (1754–1840)       + D...
» Principles of conservatism   ˃ The revival of religion      + Expressed a popular reaction against revolution      + Emp...
» Liberalism   ˃ The commitment to individual liberties and rights   ˃ Most important function of government was to protec...
» Liberalism   ˃ The roots of liberalism      + John Locke      + American and French Revolutions      + Inalienable right...
» Liberalism   ˃ Economic liberalism       + Adam Smith (1723–1790), Wealth of Nations (1776)           – Attacked mercant...
» Liberalism   ˃ Economic liberalism       + Economic activity ought to be unconstrained           – Labor contracted free...
» Liberalism   ˃ Liberty and freedom       + Great Britain            – Expanding the franchise            – Laissez-faire...
» Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism   ˃ Republicans      + Demanded constitutions and governments by the peop...
» Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism   ˃ Socialism       + Raising the “social question” as an urgent politica...
» Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism   ˃ Robert Owen (1771–1858)      + Built a model workshop at New Lanark (...
Quadrille Dancing at Lanark, Robert Owen’s Model Community
» Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism   ˃ Charles Fourier (1772–1837)      + The abolition of the wage system  ...
» Karl Marx (1818–1883) and socialism  ˃ Influenced by Hegel’s philosophy  ˃ Studied philosophy but became a journalist  ˃...
» Karl Marx (1818–1883) and socialism  ˃ In 1847, Marx and    Engels joined the    League of the Just    (later renamed th...
» Karl Marx (1818–1883) and socialism  ˃ The Communist Manifesto (1848)      + History and conflict      + Capitalism woul...
» Citizenship and community: nationalism  ˃ Nation, from the Latin nasci (to be born)  ˃ The French Revolution defined “na...
» Citizenship and community: nationalism  ˃ Nationalism and the liberals     + Associated with political transformations  ...
» Citizenship and community: nationalism  ˃ National identity developed and changed historically  ˃ Nationalism and the st...
» General observations  ˃ A diverse intellectual and cultural movement  ˃ A reaction against the Classicism of the eightee...
» British Romantic poetry   ˃ George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788–1824)       + Poetry was the “lava of imagination”       + H...
Newton by William Blake, 1795
» Women writers, gender, and Romanticism  ˃ Mary Godwin Shelley (1797–1851)     + Daughter of William Godwin and Mary Woll...
» Women writers, gender, and Romanticism  ˃ Madame de Staël (1766–1817)     + Popularized German Romanticism in France    ...
» Romantic painting  ˃ France      + Eugene Delacroix (1798–1863)  ˃ New ways of visualizing the world  ˃ Pointed to early...
John Constable, Weymouth Bay, 1816
J. M. W. Turner, Rain, Steam,Speed—The GreatWestern Railway, 1844
John Martin, The Bard, 1817
» Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation   ˃ Victor Hugo (1802–1885)       + Dealt sympathetically with the exper...
» Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation   ˃ The Romantic uniqueness of cultures       + Johann von Herder (1744–...
» Orientalism  ˃ Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt (1798)      + Brought back the Rosetta stone      + Establishment of the Egy...
» Orientalism  ˃ Looking for the roots of Christianity  ˃ Fascination with medieval history and religion (especially the  ...
Women of Algiers by Eugène Delacroix
» Goethe and Beethoven  ˃ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832)      + The Passions of Young Werther (1774)          – Ye...
» Goethe and Beethoven  ˃ Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)      + A Classicist and Romantic      + The poetry of instrumen...
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xfnuyf_nagano-1998-opening-ceremony-ode-to-joy-world-chorus_music
» The 1830 Revolution in France   ˃ Louis XVIII succeeded by Charles X (1757–1836, r. 1824–1830)       + Determined to rev...
» The 1830 Revolution in France   ˃ Charles called new elections, then tried to overthrow the     parliamentary regime   ˃...
» The 1830 Revolution in France   ˃ Revolution      + Paris took to the streets for three days of battles      + The abdic...
Charles X of FranceFrancois Pascal SimonGerard, MoMA
» The 1830 Revolution in France   ˃ Louis-Philippe (1773–1850, r. 1830–1848)       + Promoted as a constitutional monarch ...
Louis Pilippe ofFrance; Palace ofVersailles
Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix
» Belgium and Poland in 1830  ˃ Belgium     + Congress of Vienna joined Belgium to Holland     + Never popular in Belgium ...
» Belgium and Poland in 1830   ˃ Poland       + Not an independent state—under Russian governance       + Had its own parl...
» Reform in Great Britain   ˃ The end of the Napoleonic Wars       + Agricultural depression, low wages, unemployment, and...
» Reform in Great Britain   ˃ Parliament passed the Six Acts (1819)       + Outlawed “seditious and blasphemous” literatur...
» Reform in Great Britain   ˃ Liberal reforms       + Whigs, industrial middle classes, and radical artisans demand       ...
» Reform in Great Britain   ˃ Reform Bill of 1832      + Eliminated “rotten” boroughs           – Old Sarum in in Witlshir...
William Hogarth, Canvassing for Votes, 1754-1755. Oil on Canvass, Sir John Sloane’s Muesum, London.
» Reform in Great Britain   ˃ The repeal of the Corn Laws (1846)      + Corn Laws protected British landlords from foreign...
» British radicalism and the Chartist Movement   ˃ The six points of the “People’s Charter”      + 1.universal male suffra...
Chartist Meeting of 1848 on Kensington Common
» British radicalism and the Chartist Movement   ˃ Chartists presented petitions to Parliament in 1839 and 1842—both     r...
» The French Revolution of 1848  ˃ July Monarchy under Charles X seemed little different from that of    Louis XVIII  ˃ Po...
Horace Vernet, Barricade rue Soufflot, Oil on Canvass. Paris.
» The French Revolution of 1848  ˃ Provisional government      + A combination of liberals, republicans, and socialists   ...
» The French Revolution of 1848  ˃ Popular politics     + Provisional government lifted restrictions on freedom of speech ...
» The French Revolution of 1848  ˃ Repression  ˃ The government of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808–1873)     + Spent most o...
» The French Revolution of 1848  ˃ The Second Empire of Napoleon III (1852–1870)  ˃ Significance of the 1848 Revolution in...
» Concert of Vienna was a reaction to the French  Revolution of 1789» Was the Congress of Vienna successful?» The French R...
His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution
His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution
His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution
His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution
His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution
His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution
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His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution

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  • The Search for Order in Europe, 1815–1830The Congress of Vienna, which was held at the end of the Napoleonic Wars, sought to block the reoccurrence of further revolution. European monarchs could not allow themselves to become another France, especially in the changed economic circumstances of the early nineteenth century. The idea was to maintain a European “balance of power” that would keep France in check. Of course, the problems considered resolved at Vienna would emerge again at the end of the nineteenth century, when the combination of a unified Germany, European imperialist aspirations, a second industrial revolution, and the presumed duties of the great powers would lead to a new conflict, which was global in scope. 
  • Taking Sides: New Ideologies in Politics The first half of the nineteenth century in Europe can be characterized by a number of themes: revolution, conservatism, liberalism, and nationalism. Each of these themes had its origin in the last quarter of the eighteenth century—the specific event that inspired them was the French Revolution. The revolution impacted Continental Europe in a number of ways. Although the great wave of revolutionary ideas flooded the European consciousness with notions of fraternity, equality, and liberty, it was Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars that forced European monarchs to make important decisions about how to respond to this wave of revolution and reform. How would European governments deal with reform? How did the era of the dual revolution modify and transform European governments into European politics? 
  • Cultural Revolt: Romanticism In terms of European culture, the movement known as Romanticism served as a corrective to the Enlightenment’s overreliance on human reason. The Romantics—a mixed bag of poets, novelists, composers, artists, historians, and philosophers—elevated the emotions, spontaneity, and creativity of the individual. Questions of sentiment and sensibility became the new focus, and poetry seemed to be the most important form of discourse. Whereas the eighteenth century saw human nature as static and in accordance with reason, the Romantics saw diversity and uniqueness. 
  • Reform and Revolution The French Revolution not only generated a conservative reaction, it also created liberalism as a new political ideology. Conservatives were intent on demonstrating that natural rights did not exist; the only rights that existed were those granted by the state. Liberals argued that humanity did indeed have natural rights, and foremost among them was the natural right of personal liberty. In essence, one of the legacies of the French Revolution was a new political vocabulary, and since all revolutions force people to make choices, one had to decide whether to be a liberal or a conservative. Finally, the first half of the nineteenth century is also the period in which the European middle and working classes found their voice in the political affairs of their nation. The middle classes were slowly brought into the orbit of “popular” government as it created various programs for social, political, and economic reform. But for the working classes, various efforts to democratize their social and economic aspirations led to outright failure and near retreat.
  • Transcript of "His 102 chapter 20 from restoration to revolution"

    1. 1. From Restoration to Revolution 1815-1848
    2. 2. » After Waterloo—Europe without revolution?» Citizens and new political ideologies» Industrial change and social change» Romanticism
    3. 3. ˃Central cast + Russia: Alexander I (1777–1825, r. 1801– 1825) –Enlightened monarch and absolutist monarch –Presented himself as the “liberator” of Europe –Europe feared an all-powerful Russia as it had feared an all-powerful France
    4. 4. Alexander I
    5. 5. ˃Central cast + France: Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (1754–1859) – Foreign minister to Louis XVIII + Austria: Klemens von Metternich (1773–1838) – The “architect of the peace” – Lifelong hatred of political change – The peace he created helped prevent a major European war up until 1914
    6. 6. Clemens von Metternich
    7. 7. Maurice de Talleyrand
    8. 8. ˃Goals of the Congress + The restoration of order and legitimate authority + The prevention of French expansion + Germany and Poland – The Confederation of the Rhine – Independent kingdoms of Bavaria, Württemburg, and Saxony – A nominally independent kingdom of Poland
    9. 9. ˃Goals of the Congress + British compensations –Received French territories in South Africa and South America
    10. 10. The Congress of Vienna
    11. 11. ˃ Concert of Europe The + Securing the peace and creating permanent stability + Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia form the Quadruple Alliance –In 1818, joined by France (the Quintuple Alliance)
    12. 12. ˃ Concert of Europe The + Alexander and the Holy Alliance + Established a ruler’s legitimacy based on international treaties and not divine right
    13. 13. ˃Secret organization: the Carbonari + Vowed to oppose the government in Vienna + Spread through southern Europe and France in the 1820s + Aims – Some called for a constitution – Others sang the praises of Bonaparte
    14. 14. I met a traveller from an antique landWho said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stoneStand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,Tell that its sculptor well those passions readWhich yet survive, stamped on these lifelessthings,The hand that mocked them and the heart thatfed:And on the pedestal these words appear:"My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"Nothing beside remains. Round the decayOf that colossal wreck, boundless and bareThe lone and level sands stretch far away.
    15. 15. » Monarchs helping monarchs ˃Assistance from one another to suppress revolt ˃Austria put down the Italian revolts ˃France sent 200,000 troops into Spain to restore the King
    16. 16. » The unsteady foundations of colonial rule ˃Argentina declared independence in 1816 ˃The liberation of Chile and Peru ˃Simon de Bolívar (1783–1830) + Led uprisings from Venezuela across to Bolivia
    17. 17. » Political revolts unleashed conflict and civil war + Some elites sought liberation from Spain + Radicals wanted land reforms and an end to slavery» Metternich and the conservative response—no revolutions in Latin America
    18. 18. ˃ United States The + The Monroe Doctrine (1823) – Warned Europe that intervention in the New World was an unfriendly act˃Britain + Recognized South American republics + New trading partner˃Brazil declared independence in 1822
    19. 19. » Russia: the Decembrists ˃ Death of Tsar Alexander I (1825) + Of Typhus in a small town outside St. Petersburg on 1 December 1826 + Feodor Kuzmich, a monk who emerged in Siberia in 1836 and died in 1864 is claimed to have been Tsar Alexander I ˃ Succession controversy
    20. 20. » Death of Tsar Alexander I (1825) ˃The Decembrists + Most came from noble families or were members of elite regiments + Saw Russia as the liberator of Europe + Russia needed reform + No political program
    21. 21. Decembrist Revolt by Vasily Timm, Oil on Canvas, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
    22. 22. ˃Nicholas I (1796–1855, r. 1825–1855) + Crushed the Decembrist revolt + The Third Section (secret police force)
    23. 23. Nicholas I
    24. 24. » Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality ˃ Absolute loyalty to unlimited authority of the Tsar ˃ The Russian Orthodox Church ˃ The Motherland» Nicholas I: Guardian of the State against revolution
    25. 25. ˃Signs of change + The bureaucracy became more centralized and efficient + Less dependence on the nobility for political support + The codification of the legal system (1832) + Landowners reorganized their estates
    26. 26. » Southeastern Europe: Balkans (Greece and Serbia) ˃ Local movements in Greece and Serbia began to demand autonomy ˃ Greek war for independence (1821–1827) + European sympathy and European identity + Christians cast the rebellion as a war between Christianity and Islam – A crusade to preserve the classical heritage (Philhellenism)
    27. 27. » Southeastern Europe: Balkans (Greece and Serbia) ˃ Greek war for independence (1821–1827) + Celebrating Greeks and demonizing Turks + British, French, and Russian troops went in against the Turks in 1827 ˃ Serbia + Europe sided with the Serbs against the Ottomans + Serbian semi-independence
    28. 28. The Massacre at Chios by Eugène Delacroix (1789–1863)
    29. 29. » Southeastern Europe: Balkans (Greece and Serbia) ˃ Results + European opportunism + Greece and Serbia did not break close ties with the Ottomans
    30. 30. » Principles of conservatism ˃ The concept of legitimacy as a general antirevolutionary policy ˃ The monarchy was a guarantee of political stability + The nobility as the rightful leaders of the nation ˃ Change must be slow, incremental, and managed
    31. 31. » Principles of conservatism ˃ Joseph de Maistre (1753–1821) and Louis-Gabriel-Ambroise Bonald (1754–1840) + Defended absolute monarchy + The Catholic Church ˃ The monarchy, aristocracy, and Church as mainstays of the social and political order
    32. 32. » Principles of conservatism ˃ The revival of religion + Expressed a popular reaction against revolution + Emphasis on order, discipline, and tradition
    33. 33. » Liberalism ˃ The commitment to individual liberties and rights ˃ Most important function of government was to protect these rights ˃ Components + Equality before the law + Government rests on the consent of the governed + Laissez-faire economic principles
    34. 34. » Liberalism ˃ The roots of liberalism + John Locke + American and French Revolutions + Inalienable rights + Written constitutions ˃ Advocated direct representation in government (for property owners)
    35. 35. » Liberalism ˃ Economic liberalism + Adam Smith (1723–1790), Wealth of Nations (1776) – Attacked mercantilism in the name of free markets – The economy should be based on a “system of natural liberty” + Political economy – Identified basic economic laws (supply and demand, balance of trade)
    36. 36. » Liberalism ˃ Economic liberalism + Economic activity ought to be unconstrained – Labor contracted freely – Property unencumbered by feudal restrictions – Goods to circulate freely – An end to government-granted monopolies + The government should preserve order and protect property
    37. 37. » Liberalism ˃ Liberty and freedom + Great Britain – Expanding the franchise – Laissez-faire economics and free trade – Creating a limited and efficient government + Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) – Human interests are not naturally harmonious – Utilitarianism—“the greatest happiness of the greatest number”
    38. 38. » Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism ˃ Republicans + Demanded constitutions and governments by the people + An expanded franchise and democratic participation in politics
    39. 39. » Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism ˃ Socialism + Raising the “social question” as an urgent political matter + Socialism as a response to rapid industrialization – The intensification of labor, miseries of the working classes, and social class
    40. 40. » Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism ˃ Robert Owen (1771–1858) + Built a model workshop at New Lanark (Scotland) + The principles of cooperation, not profitability + Organized good housing, sanitation, free schooling, social security
    41. 41. Quadrille Dancing at Lanark, Robert Owen’s Model Community
    42. 42. » Radicalism, republicanism, and early socialism ˃ Charles Fourier (1772–1837) + The abolition of the wage system + The division of labor based on natural inclinations + Complete equality of the sexes
    43. 43. » Karl Marx (1818–1883) and socialism ˃ Influenced by Hegel’s philosophy ˃ Studied philosophy but became a journalist ˃ Partnership with Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) + Experience in the Manchester textile factories + The Condition of the Working Classes in England (1844)
    44. 44. » Karl Marx (1818–1883) and socialism ˃ In 1847, Marx and Engels joined the League of the Just (later renamed the Communist League) Karl Marx
    45. 45. » Karl Marx (1818–1883) and socialism ˃ The Communist Manifesto (1848) + History and conflict + Capitalism would “dig its own grave” + With the collapse of capitalism, the workers would seize the state + Communism
    46. 46. » Citizenship and community: nationalism ˃ Nation, from the Latin nasci (to be born) ˃ The French Revolution defined “nation” to mean the people, or the sovereign people ˃ Celebrating a new political community, not a territory or ethnicity ˃ Nationalism in the early nineteenth century + Nation symbolized legal equality, constitutional government, and an end to feudal privilege
    47. 47. » Citizenship and community: nationalism ˃ Nationalism and the liberals + Associated with political transformations + The awakening of the common people + But nationalism could undermine liberalism as well
    48. 48. » Citizenship and community: nationalism ˃ National identity developed and changed historically ˃ Nationalism and the state + Developing national feelings + Educational systems taught a national language + “Inventing” a national heritage
    49. 49. » General observations ˃ A diverse intellectual and cultural movement ˃ A reaction against the Classicism of the eighteenth century ˃ The individual, individuality, and the subjective experience ˃ Intuition, emotion, and feelings as the guides to truth
    50. 50. » British Romantic poetry ˃ George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788–1824) + Poetry was the “lava of imagination” + His Romanticism was inseparable from his liberal politics ˃ Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822) + Defined romantic heroism and the cult of individual audacity
    51. 51. Newton by William Blake, 1795
    52. 52. » Women writers, gender, and Romanticism ˃ Mary Godwin Shelley (1797–1851) + Daughter of William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft + Fascination with contemporary scientific developments + Frankenstein, or, the Modern Prometheus (1818) – A twisted creation myth – Individual genius gone wrong
    53. 53. » Women writers, gender, and Romanticism ˃ Madame de Staël (1766–1817) + Popularized German Romanticism in France + De l’Allemagne (Germany, 1810) + Suggested that men could be emotional and that men and women shared a common human nature
    54. 54. » Romantic painting ˃ France + Eugene Delacroix (1798–1863) ˃ New ways of visualizing the world ˃ Pointed to early-twentieth-century modernism
    55. 55. John Constable, Weymouth Bay, 1816
    56. 56. J. M. W. Turner, Rain, Steam,Speed—The GreatWestern Railway, 1844
    57. 57. John Martin, The Bard, 1817
    58. 58. » Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation ˃ Victor Hugo (1802–1885) + Dealt sympathetically with the experience of the common people ˃ François de Chateaubriand (1768–1848) + Religious experiences of the national past are woven into the present + Accent on religious emotion, feeling, and subjectivity
    59. 59. » Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation ˃ The Romantic uniqueness of cultures + Johann von Herder (1744–1803) – Civilization arises out of the Volk (common people), not elites – The Volkgeist—spirit or genius of the people ˃ Brothers Grimm + Collected German folktales
    60. 60. » Orientalism ˃ Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt (1798) + Brought back the Rosetta stone + Establishment of the Egyptian Institute ˃ Defined Europe by looking at the Orient ˃ A fascination with ethnography and new regions
    61. 61. » Orientalism ˃ Looking for the roots of Christianity ˃ Fascination with medieval history and religion (especially the Crusades)
    62. 62. Women of Algiers by Eugène Delacroix
    63. 63. » Goethe and Beethoven ˃ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) + The Passions of Young Werther (1774) – Yearnings and restless love + Faust (1790) – Faust sells his soul to the devil in return for eternal youth and universal knowledge
    64. 64. » Goethe and Beethoven ˃ Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) + A Classicist and Romantic + The poetry of instrumental music + Completely deaf by 1819 + Later work expressed alienation from society and heroic creativity ˃ Goethe and Beethoven as transitional figures
    65. 65. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xfnuyf_nagano-1998-opening-ceremony-ode-to-joy-world-chorus_music
    66. 66. » The 1830 Revolution in France ˃ Louis XVIII succeeded by Charles X (1757–1836, r. 1824–1830) + Determined to reverse the legacies of the Revolution and Napoleon + Appeased the ultraroyalists by compensating nobility whose land had been confiscated during the Revolution + Restored the Catholic Church to its traditional place + Provoked widespread discontent
    67. 67. » The 1830 Revolution in France ˃ Charles called new elections, then tried to overthrow the parliamentary regime ˃ The July Ordinances (1830) + Dissolved the newly elected chamber before it had even met + Imposed strict censorship of the press + Further restricted suffrage to exclude all non-nobles + Called for new elections
    68. 68. » The 1830 Revolution in France ˃ Revolution + Paris took to the streets for three days of battles + The abdication of Charles
    69. 69. Charles X of FranceFrancois Pascal SimonGerard, MoMA
    70. 70. » The 1830 Revolution in France ˃ Louis-Philippe (1773–1850, r. 1830–1848) + Promoted as a constitutional monarch + The July Monarchy – Doubled the number of eligible voters – Voting remained a privilege ˃ Major winners—the propertied classes
    71. 71. Louis Pilippe ofFrance; Palace ofVersailles
    72. 72. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix
    73. 73. » Belgium and Poland in 1830 ˃ Belgium + Congress of Vienna joined Belgium to Holland + Never popular in Belgium + News of the July Revolution catalyzed Belgian opposition + Brussels rebelled, and the great powers guaranteed Belgian neutrality (in force until 1914)
    74. 74. » Belgium and Poland in 1830 ˃ Poland + Not an independent state—under Russian governance + Had its own parliament, a constitution, and guarantees of basic liberties + Ignored by Russian-imposed head of state, Constantine + Moved toward revolt in 1830 + Drove Constantine out + By 1831, Russian forces retook Warsaw + Poland placed under Russian military rule + Moved toward revolt in 1830 + Drove Constantine out + By 1831, Russian forces retook Warsaw + Poland placed under Russian military rule
    75. 75. » Reform in Great Britain ˃ The end of the Napoleonic Wars + Agricultural depression, low wages, unemployment, and bad harvests + Social unrest ˃ Peterloo (1819) + Demonstration against the Corn Laws + Manchester Patriotic Union advocating for universal male suffrage + Radical Orator Henry Hunt to speak + Fearing unrest, local magistrates called on military to arrest Hunt + Military fired on crowd—15 killed; 700+ wounded
    76. 76. » Reform in Great Britain ˃ Parliament passed the Six Acts (1819) + Outlawed “seditious and blasphemous” literature + Increased stamp tax + Restricted the right of public meeting ˃ Tory reforms + Refused to reform political representation in the House of Commons
    77. 77. » Reform in Great Britain ˃ Liberal reforms + Whigs, industrial middle classes, and radical artisans demand reform + The desire to enfranchise responsible citizens
    78. 78. » Reform in Great Britain ˃ Reform Bill of 1832 + Eliminated “rotten” boroughs – Old Sarum in in Witlshire (3 houses 7 voters) – Dunwish in Suffolk (44 houses 32 voters) + Reallocated 143 parliamentary seats from the rural south to the industrial north + Expanded the franchise
    79. 79. William Hogarth, Canvassing for Votes, 1754-1755. Oil on Canvass, Sir John Sloane’s Muesum, London.
    80. 80. » Reform in Great Britain ˃ The repeal of the Corn Laws (1846) + Corn Laws protected British landlords from foreign competition + Kept the price of bread artificially high + The Anti–Corn Law League – Held large meetings throughout northern England – Lobbied members in Parliament – Persuaded Prime Minister Peel to repeal the Corn Laws
    81. 81. » British radicalism and the Chartist Movement ˃ The six points of the “People’s Charter” + 1.universal male suffrage; + 2.a secret ballot; + 3.no property qualification for members of Parliament; + 4.pay members of Parliament (so poor men could serve); + 5.constituencies of equal size; + 6.annual elections for Parliament. ˃ As economic conditions deteriorated, Chartism spread in the 1840s ˃ Chartists disagreed about tactics and goals + William Lovett – Self-improvement – Education of artisans was the answer
    82. 82. Chartist Meeting of 1848 on Kensington Common
    83. 83. » British radicalism and the Chartist Movement ˃ Chartists presented petitions to Parliament in 1839 and 1842—both rejected ˃ April 1848: Chartists planned a major demonstration and show of force in London + Twenty-five thousand workers marched to Parliament with a petition of 6 million signatures demanding the six points + The failure of Chartism – Accusations of radicalism – Reforms enacted – Faded in times of prosperity
    84. 84. » The French Revolution of 1848 ˃ July Monarchy under Charles X seemed little different from that of Louis XVIII ˃ Political crises + Republican disillusionment + Republican societies proliferate + Rebellions in Lyons and Paris
    85. 85. Horace Vernet, Barricade rue Soufflot, Oil on Canvass. Paris.
    86. 86. » The French Revolution of 1848 ˃ Provisional government + A combination of liberals, republicans, and socialists + A new constitution based on universal male suffrage + Tensions between middle-class republicans and socialists
    87. 87. » The French Revolution of 1848 ˃ Popular politics + Provisional government lifted restrictions on freedom of speech and political activity + Women’s clubs and newspapers appeared ˃ The end of the National Workshops + French assembly decided the Workshops were a financial drain ˃ The June Days (June 23–26): Parisian workers barricade the streets
    88. 88. » The French Revolution of 1848 ˃ Repression ˃ The government of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808–1873) + Spent most of his life in exile + Used his position to consolidate his power + Permitted Catholics to regain control of the schools + Banned meetings, workers’ associations + Asked the people to grant him the power to draw up a new constitution (1851)
    89. 89. » The French Revolution of 1848 ˃ The Second Empire of Napoleon III (1852–1870) ˃ Significance of the 1848 Revolution in France + Its dynamics would be repeated elsewhere + The pivotal role of the middle classes + Many saw the June Days as naked class struggle + Middle-class and working-class politics were more sharply differentiated
    90. 90. » Concert of Vienna was a reaction to the French Revolution of 1789» Was the Congress of Vienna successful?» The French Revolution of 1848 as the opening act of a larger drama ˃ Broad revolutionary alliances were broken apart by class politics ˃ Earlier forms of utopian socialism gave way to Marxism ˃ Romanticism lost appeal and gave way to Realism ˃ Nationalism contextualizes political attitudes of conservatism, liberalism, and socialism
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