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His 102 chapter 19 the industrial revolution spring 2013
 

His 102 chapter 19 the industrial revolution spring 2013

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  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760–1850The Industrial Revolution represents both a revolution in the economic structure of Europe and a transformation in European society. While the Industrial Revolution produced such tangibles as steam engines, railroads, and the factory system, it also brought with it the formation of social class and, equally important, class consciousness. The existence of a significant natural resource base, the enclosure movement, entrepreneurial skill, a commercial society, wide and varied domestic and foreign markets, and a government willing to back industrial enterprise all combined to allow England to become the first industrial nation and, by 1850, the “Workshop of the World.” The English also made numerous technological advances in certain industries, specifically cotton manufacture and coal mining, which allowed them to open up additional opportunities to facilitate greater opportunities for innovation. 
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent Our image of the Industrial Revolution, however, is often clouded by visions of factories outfitted with steam engines, belching acrid smoke into the overcrowded cities of England, France, and Germany. What such an image sometimes ignores is that industrialization was not monolithic. Many employers were hesitant to use steam-driven machinery. Industrialization was erratic and sporadic; it did not follow a singular path. Regional variations in the acceptance of machinery or the factory system meant that some industries were mechanized or rationalized, while others were not. Furthermore, the revolution in industry was an unplanned event; many nineteenth-century critics interpreted industrialization as a speedily passing phase of human existence. 
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization The Industrial Revolution also brought many hardships. Some of these problems were created by the revolution itself while others were exacerbated by it. New wealth meant many new opportunities for captains of industry and those that were employed by them. But new wealth also meant overcrowding, poor housing, poor working conditions, long hours, and low wages for most working-class people who were not skilled workers. Although European historians can identify the “middling folk” and the “common people” well before the onset of industrialization, it was only during the nineteenth century that these social orders took on new meanings as social classes, with distinct systems of values and worldviews. The immediate consequences of the Industrial Revolution highlight the fact that the revolution in industry was unplanned and unregulated. Men and women of differing social classes had to adjust to a changed environment, an environment that was their experience, not just the backdrop to their experience. One thing is certain: no one was left untouched by the social implications of the Industrial Revolution.

His 102 chapter 19 the industrial revolution spring 2013 His 102 chapter 19 the industrial revolution spring 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • The Industrial Revolution Chapter 19
  • Introduction• Why an industrial revolution? • From agriculture and craft to large-scale manufacturing • Capital-intensive enterprises • Urbanization• New forms of energy • Coal and Steam • Led to unprecedented economic growth • Altered the balance of humanity
  • Introduction• Mechanization • Gains in productivity • Shifted the basis of the economy • The intensification of human labor • New social classes and new social tensions• ―Industry‖—from industriousness to an economic system
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• Why England? • Natural, economic, and cultural resources • Small and secure island • Ample supply of coal, rivers, and a developed canal system
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• Why England? • The commercialization of agriculture • New techniques and crops, changes in property holding • Yielded more food for a growing population • Concentration of property in fewer hands • Growing supply of available capital • Well-developed banking and credit institutions • London as leading center for international trade
  • Enclosed Fields in Central Britain
  • Investment:Land Capital domestic foreign Technology Opening markets Increased Raw Materials Profits Exports
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• Why England? • Investment and entrepreneurship • Pursuit of wealth seen as a worthy goal • Domestic and foreign markets • The British were voracious consumers • A well-integrated domestic market • A constantly improving transportation system
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• Innovation in the textile industries • Revolutionary breakthroughs • John Kay—the flying shuttle (1733) • John Hargreaves—the spinning jenny (1764) • Richard Arkwright—the water frame (1769) • Samuel Crompton—the spinning mule (1799) • Eli Whitney—the cotton gin (1793)
  • The Spinning Mule
  • Richard Arkwright and the Water FrameArkwright’s factory system:• Two thirteen-hour shifts per day includingan overlap.• Bells rang at 5 am and 5 pm and the gates were shutprecisely at 6 am and 6 pm.• Anyone who was late not only could notwork that day but lost an extra days pay.• Whole families were employed, with large numbers of children fromthe age of seven, although this was increased to ten.• He allowed worker’s a week’s holiday a year, but on conditionthat they could not leave the village.
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• Innovation in the textile industries • A revolution in clothing • Cotton was light, durable, and washable • Large domestic and foreign market for cotton cloth • Factory working conditions and the factory acts
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• Coal and iron • Technological changes • Coke smelting, rolling, and puddling • Substitution of coal for wood • James Watt and Matthew Boulton—the steam engine
  • James Watt’s GarrettWorkshop
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• The coming of railways • George Stephenson and the Stockton-to-Darlington line (1825) • Railway construction as enterprise • Toil and technology • Steam and speed as a new way of life
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• A different model of industrialization• Reasons for the delay • Lack of raw materials, especially coal • Poor national systems of transportation • Little readily accessible capital
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Economic climate changes after 1815 • Population growth (parts of France, Belgium, Rhineland, Saxony, Silesia, and Bohemia) • New railway construction
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Economic climate changes after 1815 • Governments played a major role in subsidizing industry • Subsidies to private companies (railroads and mining) • Incentives for and laws favorable to industrialization • Limited liability laws
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Economic climate changes after 1815 • Mobilizing capital • Joint-stock investment banks • Société Générale (Belgium, 1830s) • Creditanstalt (Austria,1850s) • Crédit Mobilier (1850s) • Promoting invention and technological development • State-established educational systems
  • Economic Depression in Britain• The increased industrialization of the country, combined with the demobilization of the British Army following the Napoleonic War, led to mass unemployment.• The Corn Laws led to massive increases in the price of bread.• The repeal of Income Tax meant that the war debt had to be recovered by taxing commodities.• The commodities tax forced prices even higher.• In addition, 1816 was unusually wet and cold, producing a very poor harvest.
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization• Life on the land: the peasantry • Rural poverty • Harsh conditions of the countryside • Millions of tiny farms produced a bare subsistence • Small farmers and peasants believed that large commercial farms were trying to push them off their land.
  • The Luddites
  • Ned Ludd
  • Frame Breaking
  • Child Labor
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization• Life on the land: the peasantry • Rural violence • Captain Swing, southern England (1820s) • Insurrections against landlords, taxes, and laws curtailing customary rights • Governments seemed incapable of dealing with rural discontent
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760– 1850• The coming of railways • George Stephenson and the Stockton-to-Darlington line (1825) • Railway construction as enterprise • Toil and technology • Steam and speed as a new way of life
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Industrialization after 1850 • The industrial core • Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland • The industrial periphery • Russia, Spain, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, and Serbia
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Industry and empire • European nations begin to control the national debts of other countries • Where trade agreements could not be made, force prevailed • New networks of trade and interdependence
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Industry and empire • The world economy divided • Producers of manufactured goods (Europe) • Suppliers of raw materials and buyers of finished goods (everyone else) • Toward a global economy
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Industrialization after 1850 • Individual British factories remained small, but output was tremendous • Iron industry the largest in the world • Continental changes • Mostly in transport, commerce, and government policy • Free trade and the removal of trade barriers • Guild controls relaxed or abolished • Expanding communications
  • The Industrial Revolution on the Continent• Industrialization after 1850 • Continental changes • New chemical processes, dyestuffs, and pharmaceuticals • New sources of energy—electricity and oil • Internal combustion engine (Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, 1880s) • Eastern Europe • Developed into concentrated, commercialized agriculture • The persistence of serfdom
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization• Population Growth • Causes • Fatal diseases became less virulent • Edward Jenner and smallpox vaccination (1796) • Improved sanitation • Less expensive foods of high nutritional value • Rising fertility
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization• Life on the land: the peasantry • Rural poverty • Harsh conditions of the countryside • Millions of tiny farms produced a bare subsistence • Great Famine of 1845–1849 • Potato blight • No alternative food source • At least 1 million Irish died of starvation • Forced 1.5 million people to leave Ireland for good
  • Late Blight onA potato
  • ―Attack on a GovernmentPotato Store‖Illustrated London NewsJune 1842
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization• The urban landscape • Urbanization moved from northwest Europe to the southeast • London’s population grew from 676,000 (1750) to 2.3 million (1850), that of Paris from 560,000 to 1.3 million • Overcrowding and poor sanitation • Construction of housing lagged well behind population growth
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization• Industry and environment in the nineteenth century • Air pollution • Water pollution • Fertile breeding grounds for cholera, typhus, and tuberculosis
  • View of London with Saint Paul’sCathedral in the Distanceby William Henry Crome
  • The Social Consequences of Industrialization• Industry and environment in the nineteenth century • The problems of the cities posed dangers that were not just social but political • Social surveys and studies • Critics of the urban scene
  • The Middle Classes• The French and Industrial Revolutions had replaced one aristocracy with another• Who were the middle classes? • Not a homogeneous group in terms of income or occupation • Upward mobility impossible without education • Easier in Britain than on the Continent
  • The Middle Classes• Who were the middle classes? • Respectability • A code of behavior • Financial independence • Providing for family • Avoiding gambling and debt • Merit and character • Aspirations and codes not social realities
  • The Middle Classes• Private life and middle-class identity • The family • A well-governed household served as an antidote to the confusion of the business world • Women stayed at home, kept household, raised children, engaged in charitable and church activities
  • The Middle Classes• ―Passionlessness‖: gender and sexuality • Women’s moral superiority embodied in their ―passionlessness‖ • Absence of reliable contraceptives
  • The Middle Classes• Middle-class life in public • Houses and furnishings as symbols of material prosperity • Suburban life • Moved to the west side of cities • Lived away from the city but managed the affairs of their city • Leisure
  • Working-Class Life• General observations • Working classes divided into several subgroups • Some movement from unskilled to skilled (required children with education) • Movement from skilled to unskilled due to technological change
  • ―The Outcast‖
  • ―Past and Present No. 1‖
  • Capital and Labour
  • Working-Class Life• Working-class women in the industrial landscape • Working-class sexuality • Different from middle-class counterpart • Increase in illegitimate births • Weaker family ties • The collapse of the family?
  • Working-Class Life• Working-class women in the industrial landscape • Women’s work not new—industrialization made it more visible • Women workers were paid less and were less troublesome • Gender division of labor • Most women labored at home or in small workshops (―sweatshops‖) • Domestic service
  • Contagious Diseases Acts 1864-1869• British Parliament concerned about STD’s among men, particularly armed forces.• Decided women were to blame• Police officers could arrest prostitutes and conduct compulsory venereal disease examinations• Refusal or positive result required confinement in ―Lock Hospital‖ until cured (up to a year) • ―It is men, only men, from the first to the last that we have to do with! To please a man I did wrong at first, then I was flung about from man to man. Men police lay hands on us. By men we are examined, handled, doctored. In the hospital it is a man again who makes prayer and reads the Bible for us. We are had up before magistrates who are men, and we never get out of the hands of men till we die!‖
  • Josephine Butler (1828-1906)
  • Working-Class Life• A life apart: class consciousness • The factory created common experiences and difficulties • Denied skilled laborers pride in their crafts • Guild protections abolished • The factory • Long hours under dirty and dangerous conditions • The imposition of new routines and discipline
  • Working-Class Life• A life apart: class consciousness • Working-class vulnerability • Unemployment, sickness, accidents, and family problems • The varying price of food • Seasonal unemployment • Markets for manufactured goods were small and unstable • Cyclical economic depressions • Severe agricultural depressions
  • ―Less Eligibility‖ (Moral Hazzard)• Poor Law of 1834• Make workhouses a ―deterrent‖ to people seeking ―poor relief ‖• Conditions in the workhouse were to be worse than the worse possible working conditions outside the workhouse• ―Pauperism‖ caused by the recklessness and improvidence of the people and the ―barbarism of the Irish‖
  • Workhouses
  • Children of Workhouses
  • Working Class Slum
  • Streets in Victorian London
  • Working-Class Life• A life apart: class consciousness • Working-class survival • Families worked several small jobs • Joined self-help societies and fraternal associations • Early socialist movement
  • Working-Class Life• A life apart: class consciousness • Social segregation of the city • Implied that working people lived a life apart from others • Class differences become embedded in experience and beliefs
  • Works Cited1. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "James Watts Garret Workshop At Heathfield Hall, Near Birmingham ", accessed 9 Feb 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/108_2724942. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Late Blight", accessed 9 Feb 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/139_20106573. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Irish Potato Famine: Government Potato Store Being Attacked By Starving Inhabitants Of Galway. The Potato Crop Which, Provided The Staple Food For The Irish Peasantry, Was Destroyed By Potato Blight (Phytophthora Infestans), The Cause Of The Famine In Which One Million Died Of Starvation And Another 2.5 Million Were Forced To Emitrate. From The Illustrated London News, June 1842. Wood Engraving.", accessed 9 Feb 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/300_22902654. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Rint V. Potatoes - The Irish Jeremy Diddler. Daniel OConnell (1775-1847) Irish Political Leader Continued To Collect Repeal Rents To Fund Home Rule Movement While Irish Poor Were Starving. Cartoon From Punch, 15 November 1845. Wood Engraving.", accessed 9 Feb 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/300_22889495. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Victorian London Streets.", accessed 9 Feb 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/113_9281176. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "SCOTLAND: GLASGOW. - Old Houses At The Corner Of George Street And High Street. Photograph, Late 19th Century.", accessed 9 Feb 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1676250