La Mitrailleuse 1915Oil on canvas777 x 670 x 90C.R. W. Nevinson
Engulfed the entire globe Harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles › Unbalanced global economy › Led to Great Depression › Became a rallying point for NAZI brand of German nationalism Destroyed 3 Empires: Russia, Austro- Hungarian, Ottoman 70 million men mobilized
Sorted by number Mobilized Germany Austria-Hungary 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000 Bulgaria 1,200,000 87,500 152,390 27,029These figures from Everett, Susan, The Two World Wars, Vol I - World War I (1980Bison Books)
Combustible rivalry between Great Britain and Germany › The King of England, the German Kaiser, the Russian Czar and the Empress of Austria-Hungary were cousins—the Grandchildren of Queen Victoria Rivalry over who controlled the seas, who controlled colonies in Africa and the Middle East, whose industrial output was greatest Rivalries › Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Central Powers) vs. › Britain, France, Russia (Triple Entente) Italy (Allied Powers) › Secret Alliances: agreed to go to war to defend satellite nations and each other
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro- Hungarian Empire assassinated in June 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national who was a member of the Black Hand
Trial of the Black Hand MembersPrincip sentenced to Life in Prison.Lived 3+ years in this cell. TB, boneDisease (required amputation ofOne arm) and malnutrition killedHim.
The Balkans › The Austro-Hungarians and the Ottomans: unsteady empires › Nationalist movements and pan-Slavism › Great powers tried to avoid direct intervention › The First Balkan War (1912) Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro against the Ottomans
Summer 1914 › July: Austria issued an ultimatum A punitive campaign to restore order in Bosnia and crush Serbia The demands were deliberately unreasonable
Summer 1914 › The Serbs mobilized their army › July 28, 1914: Austria declared war › Austria saw the conflict as a chance to reassert its authority › Russia saw the conflict as a way to regain the tsar’s authority › July 30, 1914: Russia mobilized its troops to fight Austria and Germany
Diplomatic maneuvers › Germany Detailed war plans Kaiser Wilhelm II sent an ultimatum to Russia › Germany demanded to know French intentions › August 1, 1914: Germany declared war on Russia
Diplomatic maneuvers › August 7, 1914: Montenegrins joined the Serbs against Austria › July: the Japanese declared war on Germany › August: Turkey allied itself with Germany › A “tragedy of miscalculation” Little diplomatic communication Austrian mismanagement The lure of the first strike
German war plans › Designed to suit Germany’s efficient but small army › Von Schlieffen Plan—Attack France first, neutralize the Western Front, then attack Russia
German war plans › Problems The plan overestimated physical and logistical capabilities The speed of movement was too much for the troops The resistance of the Belgian army Frequent changes made to the plan
The Battle of the Marne › The Western Front The Great Powers dug in Trench warfare › The importance of the Marne Changed Europe’s expectation of war The war would now be long, costly, and deadly
Cheshire Regiment (British) Trench near Alberta-Bapaume RoadJuly 1916 during the Battle of the Somme
Gallipoli and naval warfare › Turkish intervention Threatened Russia’s supply lines Endangered British control of the Suez Canal › Churchill argued for a naval offensive in the Dardanelles
Gallipoli and naval warfare › Gallipoli landing (April 25, 1915) Incompetent naval leadership Fought for seven months and then the British withdrew Major Allied defeat
Australian Troops attempt in vain to take Dardanelles
Ottoman guns mounted on cliffs above the Allied Landing
A war of attrition › The nature of modern war › The total mobilization of resources › The Allies imposed a naval blockade on Germany › Germany responded with submarine warfare Germans sank the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) Almost twelve hundred killed Provoked the animosity of the United States
Reliance on Technology Mobilization of entire population War on Civilians Total Devastation left little to recover once hostilities ceased
from Bullets & Billets: "First Discovered in the Alluvial Deposits of Southern Flanders. Feeds Almost Exclusively on Jam and Water Biscuits. Hobby: Filling Sandbags, on Dark and Rainy Nights".Bruce Bairnsfather, creator
The Sadness of the Somme, Oil on Plywood by Mary Riter Hamilton
Ravages of War, Charcoal by Mary Riter Hamilton
Canadian Monument, Passchendaele Ridge, Oil on Cardboard by Mary RiterHamilton
Pluck” by Eva Dobell (a British Nurse)Crippled for life at seventeen,His great eyes seem to question why:with both legs smashed it might have beenBetter in that grim trench to dieThan drag maimed years out helplessly.A child-so wasted and so white,He told a lie to get his way,To march, a man with men, and fightWhile other boys are still at play.A gallant lie your heart will say.So broke with pain, he shrinks in dread “To see the dresser drawing near;and winds the clothes about his headThat none may see his heart-sick fear.His shaking, strangled sobs you hear.But when the dreaded moments thereHell face us all, a soldier yet,Watch his bared wounds with unmoved air,(Though tell-tale lashes still are wet),And smoke his Woodbine cigarette.
First SoulI was a peasant of the Polish plain;I left my plough because the message ran:-Russia, in danger, needed every manTo save her from the Teuton; and was slain.I gave my life for freedom—This I knowFor those who bade me fight had told me so.
Second SoulI was a Tyrolese, a mountaineer;I gladly left my mountain home to fightAgainst the brutal treacherous Muscovite;And died in Poland on a Cossack spear.I gave my life for freedom—This I knowFor those who bade me fight had told me so.
Third SoulI worked in Lyons at my weavers loom,When suddenly the Prussian despot hurledHis felon blow at France and at the world;Then I went forth to Belgium and my doom.
Fourth SoulI owned a vineyard by the wooded Main,Until the Fatherland, begirt by foesLusting her downfall, called me, and I roseSwift to the call—and died in far Lorraine.
Fifth SoulI worked in a great shipyard by the Clyde;There came a sudden word of wars declared,Of Belgium, peaceful, helpless, unprepared,Asking our aid: I joined the ranks, and died. I gave my life for freedom—This I knowFor those who bade me fight had told me so.
Great Depression Bolshevik Revolution Militarization Rise of militant German nationalism Rise of anti-Semitism Creation of new states without regard for the ethnic and historical conflicts between peoples of different cultures
Article Two of the UN Convention on Genocide of December 1948describes genocide as carrying out acts intended to destroy, in wholeor in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6045182.st m
January 1918 to December 1920 Between 50 and 100 million died Attacked young, apparently healthy people between 18-25 years of age 500 million, or 27% of the world’s population, were infected
Serbia lost 40% of its troops (15% of its population France, Britain and Germany each lost about one third of their men aged 19-22. Disillusionment among the survivors about nationalism, the political class › Russian mistrust of Western Democracies › American isolationism Europe no longer the center of the world economy Disillusionment: a generation of men slaughtered to no apparent end.