Feudalism: A highly decentralized political system in which public powers of minting, justice, taxation and defense were vested in the hands of a private lord.What was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
Fief: contract in which someone granted something of value to someone else in return for a service Land grant implied subordination Vassal Lord Homage Most developed and lasted the longest in France 10th and 11th centuries-minimal feudal pyramids 12th & 13th powerful lords insisted on pyramid structure Feudalism 101
England Battle of Hastings 1066 William the Conqueror (1066-1100) Normans—extensive grants of English land King Only the king could coin money National land tax Summon population to arms All landholders owed loyalty to crown Feudalism and Government in England
William the ConquerorFrom the Bayeaux Tapestry
Created the Exchequer Appointed sheriffs to supervise counties Traveling circuit judges Checked power of landowners and sheriffs Henry I (1100-1135)
England Henry II (1154-1189) Grandson of Henry I Ruled Normandy; Anjou; Aquitane & England Expanded use of juries to determine facts in civil (not criminal) cases Conflict with the Church Two sons-Richard I (Lionheart) & John Henry II (1154-1189)
Richard I of England (R. 11889-1199) Richard I 3rd Crusade Spent only 6 months in England During his reign Imprisoned in Germany and Ransomed by John I
Trifels Castle in Germany, James Emerson, World Images Group
John I of England (R. 1199- 1216) Taxes and fines on aristocracy and free artisans to recover lands in France and ransom Richard I 1214 failed military campaign in France 1215 Runnymede, forced to sign Magna Carta
Parliament Assembly of nobles, clergy and townsmen Announce tax levies Hear judicial cases involving higher nobility Review local administration Hear complaintsEdward I of England
What was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies? France Capetian Dynasty Produced uninterrupted line of sons for 300 years Long-lived Direct rule over Paris and surrounding area Rich agriculture Protectors of popes Patronized University of Paris (Sorbonne) Louis VI (the Fat) (1108-1137) Consolidated control over land around Paris Louis VII (1137-1180) Incited rebellions by Henry II’s sons against their father Kept Henry II from increasing power in France
France Philip II (1179-1223) Claimed homage from John in return for lands in France (which John already owned as son of Henry) Confiscated lands Appointed royal officials with judicial, military and administrative authority (no separation of powers) Louis VIII (1223-1226) strengthened French administrative control into lands seized from John Louis IX (Saint Louis) (1226-1270) increased French control of lands in France Engaged in last crusades Philip IV (1285-1314) Wars against Flanders and England Raised taxes on commoners but not nobility who were exempt from paying direct taxes to crown Estates General French Monarchs Centralized Bureaucracy King as Penultimate Feudal Lord
Germany Territories Switzerland Eastern France Belgium & Netherlands Northern Italy Relied heavily on cooperation with Church Church leaders frequently members of royal family appointed by emperor Henry IV & Henry V (1056-1125) Conflicts with Dukes of Saxony & Pope Gregory VII Civil war Investiture Enabled German princes to rule ―principalities‖ with larger independence than existed in France or England New Emperors must be elected from among the Princes and approved by the Pope Centrality of Church to power of King Independence of Princes
Investiture Conflict Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) Election violently supported by a mob of Romans Violated terms of Papal decree of 1059 Caused friction between Pope and Henry IV Could a lay person appoint Bishops or Abbots? Gregory VII prohibited all clerics from accepting church offices from a layman even if the layman was a king Henry IV refused to accept this and appointed a new archbishop in Milan Gregory reminded Henry that Gregory was the successor to St. Peter and Henry owed Gregory the same obedience Gregory renounced his obedience to Gregory reminding Gregory that his election as Pope violated the decree of 1059 Gregory excommunicated Henry and called on his subjects to rebel Saxon Nobility renewed their civil war Henry must humble himself at Canossa
Gregory VII vs. Henry IV Round II Gregory supported Henry’s rival Duke Rudolf of Swabia in 1077 Henry invaded Rome in 1081 to depose Gregory and set up Guibert of Ravenna as Pope 17 Cardinals deserted Gregory Guibert was enthroned as Pope Clement III in 1084 Clement III crowned Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor A rival German Prince, Robert Guiscard, allied with Gregory and Henry and Clement fled Rome Gregory was chased out of Rome also because the nobles were angry that Gregory did not treat the Norman Kings as harshly as he did the Italian and German princes. Gregory fled to Monte Casino and then to Salerno where he died in 1085.
Wax Funeral Effigy of Gregory VII: Salerno Cathedral
Original Purposes Byzantine Emperor, Alexius hoped to use Norman mercenaries to defend Byzantium from Seljuk Turks. Urban II wanted to demonstrate to Kings of Western Europe that the Papacy could command an army that might enforce Papal decrees with military might. Urban II’s call to Crusade Clermont in France 1095 Any knight who wished to join in the fight to liberate the Holy Land from its Muslim Captors Anyone fighting or dying in the service of Christ would win total absolution from sins and be transported to heaven Glory, booty, salvation
Centrality of the Church to the Power of the Monarch Germany Frederick Barbarossa (1152-1190) HolyRoman Empire: descending from Rome and blessed by God Compromised with Princes of Lombard League and Pope Agreement for Henry VI to succeed him Henry to marry Norman Princess of Sicily Henry became king of Sicily when wife’s brother died
What Are the Differences in Development ofNational Monarchies in England, France andGermany (Holy Roman Empire)? England Administrative System Departments of Exchequer, Sheriffs and Courts; no one department controls all power All landowners (including Church) must pay taxes and provide military support to the king; Negotiations between King and Aristocracy limits the power of the King—beginning of Constitutional government (Magna Carta); Distance from Church leadership in Rome encourages independence of monarchs; Development of Parliament and beginning of participation in government by merchants and wealthy artisans.
What Are the Differences in Development ofNational Monarchies in England, France andGermany (Holy Roman Empire)? France Focused on increasing territory by taking land from English monarch; King appointed aristocrats to posts which include collecting taxes, enforcing the law, and judiciary; French Kings as ―protectors of the Pope‖ engaged in military campaigns in Italy and church politics in Rome; Controversy over taxing authority of King over church lands; Estates General: appearance of consultation but not supported by the monarch 1st Estate Aristocracy- no taxes 2nd Estate Church – resisted taxes 3rd Estate Everybody else – high taxes
What Are the Differences in Development ofNational Monarchies in England, France andGermany (Holy Roman Empire)? Germany (Holy Roman Empire) Principalities: territories ruled by princes who were not strong enough to force other princes to accept them as the ―lord‖ Princes elected the Holy Roman Emperor who had to then be approved by the Pope resulting in Papal interference in secular authority of Emperor; Princes maintained taxing, enforcement, and judicial authority Never developed strong central authority and Germany remained divided into Principalities;
Innocent III (1198-1216) Became Pope at 37 Goal: bring all of Christendom under Papal hegemony and to recover Jerusalem from the Muslims Believed that Pope had the right to discipline Kings who sinned Engineered the accession of Frederick II to power as Emperor of Germany Increased church lands in Northern Italy of which Pope was the secular Prince Vatican City Power to tax parishes
Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 Pope as Supreme head of the Church 2nd in authority is Patriarch of Constantinople Doctrine of Transubstantiation Required Jews and Muslims to wear special identification to distinguish them from Christians Required Sacramental Confession at least 1 time per year High conduct for Priests than laiety No new Religious Orders Rules for trial and punishment of heretics and their protectors