His 101 chapter 9 feudalism & the consolidation of europe spring 13
FEUDALISM & THECONSOLIDATION OF Chapter 9 EUROPE
FEUDALISMFeudalism: A highly decentralized political system in which public powers of minting, justice,Taxation and defense were vested in the hands of a private lord.
WHAT WAS THE RELATIONSHIPBET WEEN FEUDALISM AND THE RISE OF NATIONAL MONARCHIES?
Fief: contract in which someone granted something of value to someone else in return for a service • Land grant implied subordination • Vassal • Lord • Homage Most developed and lasted the longest in France • 10th and 11th centuries-minimal feudal pyramids • 12th & 13th powerful lords insisted on pyramid structureFEUDALISM 101
LordLand grant implied subordination Vassal Could grant land to subordinate Vassals HomageDuty owed in return for Land Grant Ceremonial or Military
William theFEUDALISM AND THE RISE OF Conqueror – Edward I THE ENGLISH MONARCHY 1066 - 1307
FEUDALISM AND ADMINISTRATIVE GOVERNMENT IN ENGLAND England Battle of Hastings 1066 William the Conqueror (1066-1100) Normans—extensive grants of English land King Only the king could coin money National land tax Summon population to arms All landholders owed loyalty to crown
THE DOMESDAY BOOK 1085 Compiled by William to survey his English lands Who owned the land before 1066. Who owned the land at the time of Domesday in 1086. How it changed hands. What that land was worth, and what manors it was associated with. How many peasants (called bordars and villani) tended that land.
HENRY I (1100-1135) Created the Exchequer Appointed sherif fs to supervise counties Traveling circuit judges Checked power of landowners and sheriffs
HENRY II (1154-1189) Henry II (1154-1189) Grandson of Henry I Ruled Normandy; Anjou; Aquitaine & England through marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor originally married to Louis VII of France Louis had marriage annulled when she failed to bear him sons Eleanor received the land (her dowry) back Henry married her 8 weeks later and the lands of Aquitaine went to Henry Expanded use of juries to determine facts in civil (not criminal) cases Conflict with the Church Henry’s knights murder Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury in 1170 after he sides with the Church against Henry Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer written in context of pilgrimage to Canterbury
TOMBS OF HENRY II OFENGLAND & ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE
Richard I (aka Richard Lionheart) (R 1188-1199) 3 rd Crusade Spent only 6 months in England During his reign Imprisoned in Germany and Ransomed by John I
JOHN I OF ENGLAND (R. 1199-1216) Taxes and fines on aristocracy and free artisans to recover lands in France and ransom Richard I 1214 failed military campaign in France 1215 Runnymede, forced to sign Magna Carta
Henry III (1216-1272) Perfected legal system ―English Common Law‖ Taxed both Nobles and commoners in proportion to their income
EDWARD I OF ENGLAND (R. 1272-1307) Parliament Assembly of nobles, clergy and townsmen Announce tax levies Hear judicial cases involving higher nobility Review local administration Hear complaints
FRANCE • Centralized Bureaucracy • Protectors of Popes • King as Feudal Lord
Produced uninterrupted line of sons for 300 years France Long-lived Direct rule over Paris and surrounding area Capet Dynasty Rich agriculture Protectors of popes Patronized University of Paris (Sorbonne)
Louis VI (the Fat) (1108-1137) Consolidated control over land around Paris Louis VII (1137-1180) Incited rebellions by Henry II’s sons against their father Kept Henry II from increasing power in France
Philip II (1179-1223) Philip II (1179-1223) Went on 3 rd Crusade with Richard Lionheart Built a wall around Paris before he left on Crusade Claimed homage from John in return for lands in France (which John already owned as son of Henry) Confiscated lands Appointed royal officials with judicial, military and administrative authority (no separation of powers)
Louis IX (Saint Louis) (1226-1270) • Increased French control of lands in France • Engaged in last crusades • Purchased Holy Crown of Jesus Christ from Baldwin II of Constantinople • Expelled all Jews engaged in Usury from France • Instituted an Inquisition • Engaged in self- flagellation
PHILIP IV (1285-1314) • Wars against Flanders and England • Raised taxes on commoners but not nobility who were exempt from paying direct taxes to crown • Estates General • Expelled all Jews from France • Burned Grand Master of Knights Templar at the stake
CENTRALIT Y OF CHURCH TO POWER OF KING INDEPENDENCE OF PRINCESGermany Territories Switzerland Eastern France Belgium & Netherlands Northern Italy Relied heavily on cooperation with Church Church leaders frequently members of royal family appointed by emperor Henry IV & Henry V (1056-1125) Conflicts with Dukes of Saxony & Pope Gregory VII Civil war Investiture Enabled German princes to rule ―principalities‖ with larger independence than existed in France or England New Emperors must be elected from among the Princes and approved by the Pope
INVESTITURE CONFLICT Pope Gregory VII (1073 -1085) Election violently supported by a mob of Romans Violated terms of Papal decree of 1059 Caused friction between Pope and Henry IV Could a lay person appoint Bishops or Abbots? Gregory VII prohibited all clerics from accepting church offices from a layman even if the layman was a king Henry IV refused to accept this and appointed a new archbishop in Milan Gregory reminded Henry that Gregory was the successor to St. Peter and Henry owed Gregory the same obedience Gregory renounced his obedience to Gregory reminding Gregory that his election as Pope violated the decree of 1059 Gregory excommunicated Henry and called on his subjects to rebel Saxon Nobility renewed their civil war Henry must humble himself at Canossa
WAX FUNERAL EFFIGY OF GREGORY VII: SALERNO CATHEDRAL
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.