His 101 chapter 8 the middle ages 800 1100 spring 2013


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His 101 chapter 8 the middle ages 800 1100 spring 2013

  1. 1. The Middle Ages 800- 1300 C.E. Chapters 8-9 Challenges of Expansion and Consolidation of Western European Kingdoms and the Culture of Christendom
  2. 2. Bronze Age Beaker Culture 2800-1800 B.C.E.Common artifactsCommon Burial Practices
  3. 3. Julius Caesar 1st Historian of CeltsHistorians disagree over the exact dimensions ofthe culture and the particularities of various tribesdescribed by Caesar, Tacitus and other Romanhistorians
  4. 4. Celtic Coins4th to 1st Century B.C.E.Influenced by tradewith MacedonianEmpire
  5. 5. CultureTribalMilitaristicPaganSyncretism
  6. 6. Chaos, Conflict and Order:The Middle Ages 800- 1300
  7. 7. Charles MartelCharles de Steuben,Bataille de PoitiersEn Octobre 782
  8. 8. Accomplishments• Defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours (October 732)• Alliance with Benedictine Missionaries• Engaged with Papacy• Defeated Lombards
  9. 9. Charlemagne (742-814) (R. 768-814)
  10. 10. Plunder, Booty & LandMilitarized state Conquests against Counts appointed to Lombards Coinage system Ruler of Christendom supervise new lands Kingly government is a sacred office designed by God to protect the church,defend Christians and promote salvation No kingdom can prosper if lives of its subjects are displeasing to God
  11. 11. Carolingian Reforms in the ChurchControlled Bishops and AbbotsChanged liturgy to more uniformityProhibited pagan practicesImposed Holy Baptism on subjects
  12. 12. Carolingian Renaissance Classical learning is foundation of Christian wisdom Collating, correcting and copying Latin texts, including the Bible New style of handwriting Carolingian Miniscule Crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day 800
  13. 13. Palatine Chapel at Charlemagne’s Palace at Aachen (Germany)
  14. 14. Interconnections between Byzantine, Islamic and Western European Kingdoms in 7th and 8th Centuries• Byzantium, Muslim Caliphates and Kingdoms of northwestern Europe developed their defining characteristics during the 6th and 7th centuries• Fruitful if uneasy relationships • Italian traders active in Constantinople • Muslim traders were common in Southern Italy • Anglo-Saxon merchants traded within the Mediterranean • Jewish merchants in Rhineland traded with Muslim communities in Egypt • Viking traders from Novgorod in Russia to Dublin
  15. 15. The Vikings 900-1100Mid-twelfth century paintingOf Danish Seamen
  16. 16. Viking Raiders• Vikings means “robbers”• Raided Europe and British Isles from the middle of the 9th century • Plunder- Silver and weapons • Ransom • Tribute collection • Slaving
  17. 17. Alfred the Great
  18. 18. England under Alfred the Great• Ruled from 871to 899• Aelfraed (Old English: Elf Counsel)• Modeled his reign after Charlemagne • Reorganized Army • Founded new towns • Codified English laws • Established a court school • Fostered Anglo-Saxon writing • Wool trade English Coin c. 800• By 1000, England was the most sophisticated administration in Europe
  19. 19. Otto the Great 962-973 Mathilda Cross c. 973 Commissioned by Otto The Great
  20. 20. Technological Advances• Heavy wheeled plow• Water mills• Windmills • Increased population • Urbanization • Market for goods
  21. 21. Peasants• Tied to the land• Strip farming • Tenants in kind• Three field system of crop rotation • Adaptable to climate • 2 growing seasons • Higher yields
  22. 22. CommerceLong distance trade controlled by Venetian, Pisan and Genoese naviesCreated expanding market for Eastern luxury goodsChampagne Fairs
  23. 23. Town SpecializationParis and Bologna: universitiesVenice, Genoa, Cologne & London: long distance tradeMilan, Florence, Ghent and Bruges: manufacturing centers
  24. 24. Universities Then and Now
  25. 25. The Guild System• Male dominated professional associations of craftsmen • Master craftsmen • Journeymen • Apprentice• Preserve monopolies and limit competition • Controlled prices • Wages • Methods of production• Masterpiece• Merchant guilds
  26. 26. Dukes of SaxonyExercised power from 917 – 962Engaged in successful conquests of the Slavs955 Otto I defeated the “pagan” Hungarians962 Otto crowned Emperor of the West964 Otto deposes John XII as Pope and installs own manInstalls Bishops and Abbotts as defense against other Dukes