His 101 chapter 7b western european kingdoms
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His 101 chapter 7b western european kingdoms His 101 chapter 7b western european kingdoms Presentation Transcript

  • GREGORY OF TOURS (538-594)Considered himself a RomanHe ruled by right of birth and statusSpoke and wrote LatinBy the 7th century there came a break with the Roman past that was profound200 years later—Charlemagne’s court sought to renew the empire of the Romans even though one could ride for 100 miles in any direction from Charlemagne’s castle and not find anyone who could read
  • INSTABILITYTemporary disruptions by Muslim raidersDisruption of Roman systems of law, infrastructure and commerceMovement away from urban centers to manorial lands in the countrysideBreakdown of coinage systemBy 660 gold was too expensive to use as a medium of exchangeTrade, plunder, extortionRulers often lacked legitimacy and pattern of violent overthrow of one leader by the troops of another leader continued
  • CLOVIS I (481-511)Converted to Roman Christianity (from Arianism) and obtained alliance with bishops in Gaul.Defeated the Visigoths in 507.Created a network of monasteries linked to the Merovingian Court.Redistributed wealth from Southern Gaul to the Rhineland and northward to the North Sea through conquest.
  • CLOVIS I (481-511)Converted to Roman Christianity (from Arianism) and obtained alliance with bishops in Gaul.Defeated the Visigoths in 507.Created a network of monasteries linked to the Merovingian Court.Redistributed wealth from Southern Gaul to the Rhineland and northward to the North Sea through conquest.
  • MONASTERIES & LOCAL RULERSInnovation in agriculture –heavy wheeled plowProsperity & Christianity made local chieftains legitimateChieftains—soon called ―Lords‖ gave monasteries more independence and privileges Siding with monasteries against local Bishops Permitting them legal authority over their own landsPowerful Families Law of primogeniture Marriage alliances Church/ monastic affiliationOpportunities for women to wield political power Freed from the role of sinful temptress Control over minds and bodies
  • HISTORIA ECCLESIASTICA GENTISANGLORUMCompleted in 731Scope: 33 B.C.E. campaign of Julius Caesar to 731—includes both primary and secondary sources, oral and documentary historyThemes: How Christianity united diverse peoples in Britain National origins myth: English people were dynamically guided by Providence from heathendom to Christendom
  • FALL OF MEROVINGIAN KINGSPepin (635-714) made himself the King’s right hand man and exercised royal authority as the Loyal ServantCharles Martel (688-741) aka Charles the Hammer, illegitimate son of Pepin defeats the Moors at the battle of Tours (733 or 734) Creates alliance with St. Boniface of the English Benedictines to convert the Netherlands and central Germany to Christianity Loose connection to the Papacy through Boniface750 Pepin the Short (Charles Martel’s son) seized the throne for himself Turned to the Pope for support Pope Gregory realized that alliance with powerful Frankish leader could help him with his own enemies 751, Boniface (on behalf of Pope Gregory) anoints Pepin as King of the Franks  Ritual based on Biblical imagery from Old Testament when Samuel anointed Kings
  • CHARLES MARTELCharles de Steuben,Bataille de PoitiersEn Octobre 782
  • PEPIN THE SHORTEncyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Tomb Of Pepin the Short ", accessed Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "PEPIN THE SHORT (714-768).8 Oct 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/108_304112 - King Of The Franks, 751-768. Detail From The Liber Aureus Of The Abbey Of Pr• accessed 8 Oct 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1660494
  • CHARLEMAGNE (742-814) R. 12/25/800-1/28/814Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest, "Charlemagne / Bust /Goldsmithery / C14", accessed 8Oct 2012,http://quest.eb.com/images/109_101717
  • PLUNDER, BOOTY & LANDMilitarized stateConquests against LombardsCounts appointed to supervise new landsCoinage systemRuler of Christendom Kingly government is a sacred office designed by God to protect the church, defend Christians and promote salvation No kingdom can prosper if lives of its subjects are displeasing to God
  • CAROLINGIAN REFORMS• Controlled Bishops and Abbots• Changed liturgy• Prohibited pagan practices• Imposed Holy Baptism on subjects• Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope on 12/25/800
  • Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest, "Coronation Of Charlemagne", accessed8 Oct2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/312_1013187
  • CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE• Classical learning is foundation of Christian wisdom• Collating, correcting and copying Latin texts, including the Bible• New style of handwriting: Carolingian Miniscule
  • CAROLINGIAN MINISCULEFrom 10th century manuscript of the Vulgate, Luke 1: 1-5
  • COLLAPSE OF CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE AFTER 814Charlemagne succeeded by Louis the PiousUpon Louis’s death, kingdom divided into 3 Western France Eastern France GermanyCivil War between Eastern and Western France 856 Kingdom at limit of power Not enough booty and plunder and land for the counts Viking raids
  • THE VIKINGS 900-1100Mid-twelfth century paintingOf Danish Seamen Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Viking Ship In Museum", accessed 8 Oct 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/131_1388137
  • VIKING RAIDERSVikings means ―robbers‖Raided Europe and British Isles for Silver from the middle of the 9th century Plunder Ransom Tribute collection slaving
  • VIKING RAIDS 900-1000• England, Scotland, Ireland and Northern France• Normandy ―land of the Northmen‖• 1066 Battle of Hastings
  • Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Viking Chariot",accessed 8 Oct 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/115_2844439 Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Viking Sword / Hedeby (Haithabu)", accessed 8 Oct 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/109_107901
  • WHICH HEIR WAS ROME’S TRUESUCCESSOR?• Byzantium copied Rome’s fundamental legal and political institutions• Muslim Caliphates combined the rich legacy of the Near East, Egypt and much of the Hellenistic world  Promoted commerce and cultural exchange• Geographic and cultural Rome: most closely emulated by the Kingdoms of northwestern Europe
  • INTERCONNECTIONSByzantium, Muslim Caliphates and Kingdoms of northwestern Europe developed their defining characteristics during the 6th and 7th centuriesFruitful if uneasy relationships  Italian traders active in Constantinople  Muslim traders common in Southern Italy  Anglo-Saxon merchants traded within the Mediterranean  Jewish merchants in Rhineland traded with Muslim communities in Egypt  Viking traders from Novgorod in Russia to Dublin
  • WESTERN EUROPEBegan to share a new sense of common identity Roman Church as spiritual guidance Look to fellow rulers for aid against invaders Mobilized for war against Islamic Caliphates