Byzantium, Islam and the western European territories of Christendom
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"TURKEY: HAGIA SOPIA, 1852. - TheNave Of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul(Constantinople). Lithograph By LouisHaghe, 1852.", accessed 8 Oct 2012,http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1707131 Muhammad’s entry into Mecca Illuminated Aachen Gospels, c. 820 C.E.
Medieval or Middle Ages 17th century intellectuals wanted to distinguish their own ―modern‖ age from the period following the ―age of antiquity‖ (ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome in particular). In the ―Middle Ages‖ Foundations of modern political institutions were laid Relationships between Judaism, Christianity and Islam were first articulated Between 500 and 1100 C.E. Western Civilizations are dominated by the interactions and conflicts of these three civilizations
The Byzantine Empire A successor to the Roman state Emperor Justinian (R. 527-565) General Heraclius the Elder and the ―Re-conquest‖ of Rome Early Threats and challenges The Sassanid Persian Empire Conflicts with Rome since 220’s War broke out again in 526-27 through 532 Theft of the relic of the original cross when Sassanids took it from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem in 614. Heraclius routed the Persians (627) and took it back
Byzantium Justinian’s Reign: Codification of Roman law into 4 volumes, the Corpus Juris Civilis Political philosophy; ―What pleases the prince has the force of law‖ A sovereign’s powers are delegated to him by the people The state is a corporate body not the extension of an individual’s private property Orthodox Christianity is only legal religion in the Empire
Justinian’s Reconquest 535: Theodoric the Ostrogoth’s Kingdom in Rome overthrown by Justinian. Justinian’s Army overextended Drastically strained imperial resources in Byzantium Oppressive taxes resulted Distraction from enemies closer to home (Persians) Conflict with Church in Western Roman Empire
The Mediterranean World under Justinian, 527–565
Consequences Constantinople threatened; armies withdrawn from Italy and North Africa; Vital supply lines for the aqueducts to Rome were cut (Rome was without water); In 568 the Lombards conquered Northern Italy and some territories in the South East Conflict between Visigoths and Latins in Hispania (Spain) weakened each other. Visigoths conquered and absorbed by Islam.
Byzantium Conflicts Heraclius at war with the Persians to take back Jerusalem (627) Muslim-Arab armies occupied territories of the Middle East and Persia in the name of Islam 629- 1050’s Besieged Constantinople 676-678 Umayyad Navy defeated by Greek fire Among the dead: Eyup, Muhammad’s standard bearer and the last of his companions
Leo II & Greek Fire Leo III used Greek Fire to defeat the Arab (Umayyad) siege of Constantinople (717-718) Greek Fire: exact recipe unknown Byzantium conquered much of Turkey from the Arabs
Leo II & Iconoclast Controversy 8th century, most Christians insisted that images were an aid to worship not objects of worship. Iconoclasts argued that honoring images was blasphemy and Christ’s divinity could not be represented visually. 726, Leo III issued a decree against icons and ordered destruction of a statue of Christ near the Hagia Sophia. Constantine V (his son) convened church council in 754 to condemned worship of any images. Created discord with Church in Rome over power to decide church policies implication that Pope was an idolater. Pitted Emperor against monasteries Leo confiscated much Church property and wealth helping him to pay for wars
Byzantium: Tradition vs. Innovation Religion Fear of heresy impeded freedom of thought Reinforced unity of Constantinople’s Christian culture in a cosmopolitan urban center Hagia Sophia architecture emphasized the mysteries of holy knowledge imparted to Christ and to the soul of the Believer Links with Hellenistic past: Byzantine schools based instruction on Greek literature Studied Plato and historical prose of Thucydides Aristotle and logic were less respected (ultimately banned in 1118) Tradition prized more highly than originality Preservation more important than innovation Byzantine education open to laity and to women
Muhammad: Prophet and Founder Born 570 C.E. on the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia) Orphaned at 6 Caravan travels with uncle brought Muhammad into contact with Jews and Christians. Arabian Peninsula peoples were polytheistic Married Khadija at 25; ran her caravans
Revelations To Muhammad Age 41 (611 C.E.) Receives revelations from Angel Gabriel. Allah is the same deity as the Jewish and Christian God. God is one. Islam (submission to God’s will) is the final revelation of God to humanity.
Islam Emphasizes the centrality of the bond between Allah and his followers ―There is no God but God and Mohammed is the messenger of God‖ 5 Pillars of Muslim Religious Practice Confession of faith Recitation of prayers 5 times daily Giving alms (charity) Fasting (from dawn to dusk during Ramadan) The Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once
The HiJira 622 C.E. Muhammad moved to Medina with his family and followers (year 1 on the Muslim calendar) 630 C.E. Muhammad conquered Mecca and destroyed the idols of the Kaaba
The Qur’an Literally translated: Recitation Muhammad did not write down his revelations His followers memorized them and wrote them down after he died Written in Arabic Divided into 114 surah (chapters) Human beings born in the purity of God & free of original sin Righteous are promised paradise Wicked and unbelievers are promised hell Men and women equal but men are a degree higher than women Women must veil their bodies Influenced both art and architecture in the Islamic world
9th century C.E. manuscript of Qur’an one of the oldest manuscriptsOf the Qur’an in existence, Telyashayakh Mosque, Tashkent, Uzbekistan Text from 1st century (HiJira) 7th century C.E. David Collection, Copenhagen
The Spread of Islam Islam offered rules of conduct that were easy to understand and follow: Less ritualistic than Judaism or Christianity Less complex theology Islam welcomed everyone regardless of birth, ethnicity or socio-economic class; Did not condemn material possessions.
Age of the Caliphs Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1-11 Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11-40 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750/A.H. 40-129
Mosque of Uqba, in TunisiaBuilt in 670 C.E.The mosque is over 29,000 sq. ft.
Early Schism Muhammad never designated a successor Abu Bakir claimed to be Muhammad’s successor Abu Bakir chosen as 1st Caliph following Muhammad’s death Ruled from 632 to 634 Sunni Islam Ali ibn Abi Talib Muhammad’s son-in-law and nephew claimed that he was Muhammad’s successor Led Muslim’s who claimed that leadership of Islam should fall to Muhammad’s kin Assassinated in 661 C.E. while praying Founder of Shia Islam
Islamic Law Core Islamic texts Qur’an and Hadith (sayings and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad) constitute the sharia (path to follow) Leadership Imams (prayer leaders) Mullahs (scholars trained in Muslim law to interpret the sharia)
Muslim Theocracies Qur’an is the eternal and absolute word of God There is no separation between sacred and secular society In Islamic countries, the Qur’an is both secular and religious authority
Muslim Caliphates Caliphate = dominion of a successor (to Muhammad) The Head of State and his officials are representatives of the people of Islam They must rule according to constitutional (Constitution of Medina) and Sharia law. Sunni Islam: the Caliph should be elected by the Shura male representatives of the people of Islam Shia Islam: the Caliph should be an Imam (religious leader) chosen by God from among Muhammad’s progeny
Four Caliphates Succeeded Muhammad Rashidun Caliphate 632-661 Umayyad Caliphate 661-750 Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 Ottoman Dynasty 1299-1922
Rashidun Caliphate 640: Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia 642: Egypt 643: Persia Abu Bakir – Oldest companion of Muhammad Umar (634) Diwan – Government bureaucracy Military paid and controlled by Caliph Conquered peoples do not have to convert to Islam Imposed an Amir (governor) and an Amil (Financial Officer) Customs, language, religion untouched
Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) Family from Mecca Created capital at Damascus Covered more than 5 million square miles at its greatest extent Favored Old Arab Families over converts who were forced to pay the tax for non-believers
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem built in 691 under the Umayyad Caliphate
Alleged Foundation Stone Claimed to bethe site of the Holy of Holies by RabbinicSources dating to 833. Some TalmudicSources disagree.The Rock on which MuhammadAscended into heaven and wasAccompanied by the Angel Gabriel toPray with Abraham, Moses and Jesus.
Western Wall (Wailing Wall) and Dome of the Rock
Abbasid Caliphate 751-1258 Moved Capital from Damascus to Baghdad in 762 Islamic Golden Age 762-1268 ―The ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr.‖ Qu’ran hadith House of Wisdom in Baghdad—goal to gather all the wisdom of the known world Algebra Medicine (contagion) Astronomy Literature
Islamic Art Islamic Motifs: repeated in seemingly infinite, rhythmic pattern extension bounded only by the borders of the frame Reflects Allah’s infinite & uncentralized creation Meander & Frame: expresses the universal theme of both variety and unity in nature Complex surface designs in mosaics and tiles Qur’anic inscriptions
Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"Mosque", accessed 8 Oct 2012,http://quest.eb.com/images/144_1582566
West Door, Great Mosque Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"Mosque", accessed 8 Oct 2012,http://quest.eb.com/images/144_1576283
Arabesque Style Photo by Yves Remedios. Detail Of design in Alhambra Palace In Granada, Spain
Detail of ―Honeycomb‖ Vaulting in the Hall of the Abbencerajes, Photo by Vaughan Williams.
Mosques and Churches Mosques designed as places of prayer not liturgical worship No images in Mosques Mosques oriented toward Mecca Direction of Mecca is marked by a niche Niche may hold a lamp Minbar raised platform for reading Qur’an located to right of the niche Church interiors designed to draw worshippers from secular to sacred Sacred images are helpful to establish an atmosphere conducive to worship Ritual of gathering, word, prayer, Holy Communion, sending