† Traditional tale: Tartars vs. GenoveseTartars dying of plague and losing the battle, strap dead plague victims to catapults and fling them over the city walls to the Genovese.† Genovese contract the plague and begin dying themselves.Genovese escape by means of ships to ports around the Mediterranean carrying the plague with them.
Illuminated manuscript showingJews burned by townspeople in GermanyDuring an outbreak of the plague.
Pieter Bruegel, The Triumph of Death, c. 1562They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in ...ditches and covered with earth. And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug.And I, Agnolo di Tura ... buried my five children with my own hands ...And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world.—The Plague in Siena: An Italian Chronicle
• Undermined Church authority The regarding science, sin and the causes of misfortuneBlack • Shortage of Priests • Younger Priests showed moreDeath intellectual curiosityAvignon • Relocation of papacy from Rome to southern France pressured byPapacy French King Philip IV • Simony (selling church lands and (1309- taxing the clergy) • Indulgences (purchasing “leftover 1377) grace” from the lives of Saints) Great • College of Cardinals conflictSchism between French and Italian interests • Election of two popes(1378- • Avignon • Rome 1417)
From Tres Riches Heures (Very Precious Hours) ca. 1413-1416