Changes in the church Papacy: dominant organizational force in western Christianity Pope Leo IX a reformer, appointed by his cousin, German Emperor Henry III Outlawed Simony: buying church offices Tried to enforce priestly celibacy (in the year 1000, majority of parish priests were married) 1059 Pope Nicholas II papal decree—only Cardinals could elect the Pope Middle ages—neither Kings nor Popes could imagine a separation of powers of church and state Decree of 1059 raised concerns about the nature of cooperation between church leaders and state leaders Both Kings and Popes were corrupt by today’s standards
Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) Election violently supported by a mob of Romans Violated terms of Papal decree of 1059 Caused friction between Pope and Henry IV Could a lay person appoint Bishops or Abbots? Gregory VII prohibited all clerics from accepting church offices from a layman even if the layman was a king Henry IV refused to accept this and appointed a new archbishop in Milan Gregory reminded Henry that Gregory was the successor to St. Peter and Henry owed Gregory the same obedience Gregory renounced his obedience to Gregory reminding Gregory that his election as Pope violated the decree of 1059 Gregory excommunicated Henry and called on his subjects to rebel Saxon Nobility renewed their civil war Henry must humble himself at Canossa
Henry forbidden to invest Bishops or Abbots with the symbols of their religious office (staff and ring) Henry was permitted to invest Bishops and Abbots with the symbols of their secular office (lance) Monastery lands owed rents to the King Monastery’s were required to support the King in times of war or rebellion Kings permitted to be present at investiture of Bishops (to mediate over disputes) Papal victory Strengthened the Papal claim to supremacy over the clergy Population rejected Bishops, Priests and Abbots who had purchased their office Population rejected married Priests
Increase in number of parish churches Married Priests had to leave wives or leave the church Establishment of cannon courts in which litigants could appeal to the Pope (outside the jurisdiction of the Kings)
Cluny freed itself from obligation to noble families by placing itself under the direct protection of the pope. Benefactor of Cluny relinquished control over Cluny property. Cluny benefactor and family granted special spiritual privileges including guarantee of heaven.
Became Pope at 37 Goal: bring all of Christendom under Papal hegemony and to recover Jerusalem from the Muslims Believed that Pope had the right to discipline Kings who sinned Engineered the accession of Frederick II to power as Emperor of Germany Increased church lands in Northern Italy of which Pope was the secular Prince Vatican City Power to tax parishes
Heresy is the assertion of a controversial or novel change to the established dogma of a religion Pope Innocent III supported the Medieval Inquisition to stamp out Christian heresy Cathars Waldensians Episcopal Inquisition Medieval Inquisition Torture permitted after 1252 Could not result in bloodshed, births, mutilation or death Could only be used once Full Confessions
13th century Popes acted more like Kings and less like Christ’s Representative on Earth Failure of the Crusades Inquisitions Conflict with Frederick II involved the church in purely political controversy over who had secular control over territories in Italy Pope Boniface III (1294-1303) National monarchies had gained more loyalty than papal power Clerical taxation Conflict with King Philip IV of France
Increased emphasis on differences between Christians and non-Christians Distinctive badges identified Jews, Muslims and Heretics in most Western Kingdoms Expulsion of Jews England 1290 France 1306
Philip IV of France levied taxes on French Clergy up to ½ of income from Church property Pope Boniface III issued decree forbidding clergy from transferring any property to the French crown Philip called a meeting of Bishops, Aristocrats and merchants to condemn the Pope Boniface arrested and held in France Boniface died (1303), Benedict XI died in 1304. French Cardinals narrowly elected Clement V and moved the seat of the Papacy to Avignon in France
Scholasticism: a method of reconciling the claims of competing authorities by applying Aristotle’s principles of logic to them Some early scholastics called this method “dialectic” Dialectic= thesis + antithesis = synthesis Abelard The Story of My Calamities Sic et Nom (Yes and No) Peter Lombard Book of Sentences theological questions, apparently contradictory answers from the Bible and Christian teachings; synthesis in answers
Here there arises a question. For it has been said … andcompletely fortified by authorities, that the Will of God,… and (which) iscalled His “Good Pleasure”, cannot be cancelled, because by that Will …He has done in Heaven and on Earth: Which, according to the testimonyof the Apostle, nothing resists. Therefore, it is asked, in what manner is what the Apostles says ofthe Lord, “Who wills that all men to come to be saved,” is to beaccepted? For since not all come to be saved, but more are damned, itseems, … what God wills to be done, a human will impeding the Will ofGod…. The Gospel says: How often I willed to gather thy children together,just as the hen gathers her chicks under (her) wings, and thou wouldstnot! Thus these are said, as if God’s Will has been overcome by the will ofmen, and (as if) … the Most Powerful One could not do, what He wanted. Where is, therefore, that omnipotence, by which, according to theProphet, all whatsoever He has willed, He has done in Heaven and onEarth?Lombard, Peter. The Four Books of Sentences. Ad Claras Aquas, 1882, Vol.1, pp. 814-818. http://www.franciscan-archive.org/lombardus/opera/ls1-46.html. (Accessed 11/6/2011).
Summa Theologica God created the world Study of the natural world can lead to knowledge of God Reason supports faith
La Divina Commedia di Dante (Dante and the Divine Comedy). 1465 fresco, in the dome of the FlorenceCathedral.
Describes Dante’s journey through hell, purgatory and earth Guides: Roman poet Virgil and Dante’s deceased love, Beatrice Virgil represents reason and classical learning Guides Dante through hell and purgatory Beatrice represents Christian wisdom and blessedness Guides Dante through Paradise
"... But to that second circle of sad hell,Where ‘mid the gust, the whirlwind, and theflawOf rain and hail-stones, lovers need not tellTheir sorrows. Pale were the sweet lips I saw,Pale were the lips I kiss’d, and fair the formI floated with, about that melancholystorm."
"… I saw multitudesto every side of me; their howls were loudwhile, wheeling weights, they used theirchests to push.They struck against each other; at that point,each turned around and, wheeling backthose weights,cried out: Why do you hoard? Why do yousquander? "
"From these two, art and nature, it is fitting,if you recall how Genesis begins,for men to make their way, to gain theirliving;and since the usurer prefers anotherpathway, he scorns both nature in herselfand art her follower; his hope is elsewhere."Of every malice gaining the hatred of Heaven,injustice is the goal;and every such goal injures someoneeither with force or fraud.
Violent against peopleAnd property.Submerged in boilingRiver guarded byCentaurs. AlexanderThe Great is buried upTo his chin.
Upper Chapel at SaintChappelle Cathedral,France
Façade intended to demonstrate toApproaching worshippers, both theMight of God and theMight of the institution.Western Façade of the Cathedral ofNotre Dame in Paris
Carry water away from the walls Divide the flow of rainwater away from the roof Adopted from ancient Egyptians and Greeks Used by the Church as a representation of evil Frighten worshippers Remind them that the end is near Assured worshippers that evil is kept outside the church Lions most used image Chimeras: combination of animal body parts to create new creatures. Chimeras remind the people not to underestimate the devil