Feudalism & Rise of European Monarchies

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Feudalism & Rise of European Monarchies

  1. 1. Feudalism
  2. 2.  Feudalism: A highly decentralized political system in which public powers of minting, justice, taxation and defense were vested in the hands of a private lord.What was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  3. 3.  Fief: contract in which someone granted something of value to someone else in return for a service ◦ Land grant implied subordination  Vassal  Lord  Homage Most developed and lasted the longest in France ◦ 10th and 11th centuries-minimal feudal pyramids ◦ 12th & 13th powerful lords insisted on pyramid structureWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  4. 4.  England ◦ Battle of Hastings 1066  William the Conqueror (1066-1100) ◦ Normans—extensive grants of English land ◦ King  Only the king could coin money  National land tax  Summon population to arms  All landholders owed loyalty to crown  Henry I (1100-1135) ◦ Created the Exchequer ◦ Appointed sheriffs to supervise counties ◦ Traveling circuit judges and to check power of landowners and sheriffsWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  5. 5.  England ◦ Henry II (1154-1189)  Grandson of Henry I  Ruled Normandy; Anjou; Aquitane & England  Expanded use of juries to determine facts in civil (not criminal) cases  Conflict with the Church  Two sons-Richard I (Lionheart) & John ◦ Richard I (1189-1199)  Spent only 6 months in England ◦ John (1199-1216)  taxes and fines to recover lost lands in France  1214 military expedition to France failed  1215 Nobility forced John to sign the Magna CartaWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  6. 6.  Henry III (1216-1272) ◦ Perfected legal system “English Common Law” ◦ Taxed both Nobles and commoners in proportion to their income Edward I (1272-1307) ◦ Parliament  assembly of nobles, knights and townsmen  Announce tax levies, explain need for new taxes  Hear judicial cases involving higher nobility  Review local administration  Hear complaints  Announce new lawsWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  7. 7.  France ◦ Capetian Dynasty  Produced uninterrupted line of sons for 300 years  Long-lived  Direct rule over Paris and surrounding area  Rich agriculture  Protectors of popes  Patronized University of Paris (Sorbonne) ◦ Louis VI (the Fat) (1108-1137)  Consolidated control over land around Paris ◦ Louis VII (1137-1180)  Incited rebellions by Henry II’s sons against their father  Kept Henry II from increasing power in FranceWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  8. 8.  France ◦ Philip II (1179-1223)  Claimed homage from John in return for lands in France (which John already owned as son of Henry)  Confiscated lands  Appointed royal officials with judicial, military and administrative authority (no separation of powers) ◦ Louis VIII (1223-1226)  strengthened French administrative control into lands seized from John ◦ Louis IX (Saint Louis) (1226-1270)  increased French control of lands in France  Engaged in last crusades ◦ Philip IV (1285-1314)  Wars against Flanders and England  Raised taxes on commoners but not nobility who were exempt from paying direct taxes to crown  Estates GeneralWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  9. 9.  Germany ◦ Territories  Switzerland  Eastern France  Belgium & Netherlands  Northern Italy ◦ Relied heavily on cooperation with Church  Church leaders frequently members of royal family appointed by emperor ◦ Henry IV & Henry V (1056-1125)  Conflicts with Dukes of Saxony & Pope Gregory VII ◦ Civil war ◦ Investiture  Enabled German princes to rule “principalities” with larger independence than existed in France or England  New Emperors must be elected from among the Princes and approved by the PopeWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
  10. 10.  Germany ◦ Frederick Barbarossa (1152-1190)  Holy Roman Empire: descending from Rome and blessed by God  Compromised with Princes of Lombard League and Pope ◦ Agreement for Henry VI to succeed him ◦ Henry marry Norman Princess of Sicily ◦ Henry became king of Sicily when wife’s brother diedWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?

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