Feudalism: A highly decentralized political system in which public powers of minting, justice, taxation and defense were vested in the hands of a private lord.What was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
Fief: contract in which someone granted something of value to someone else in return for a service ◦ Land grant implied subordination Vassal Lord Homage Most developed and lasted the longest in France ◦ 10th and 11th centuries-minimal feudal pyramids ◦ 12th & 13th powerful lords insisted on pyramid structureWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
England ◦ Battle of Hastings 1066 William the Conqueror (1066-1100) ◦ Normans—extensive grants of English land ◦ King Only the king could coin money National land tax Summon population to arms All landholders owed loyalty to crown Henry I (1100-1135) ◦ Created the Exchequer ◦ Appointed sheriffs to supervise counties ◦ Traveling circuit judges and to check power of landowners and sheriffsWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
England ◦ Henry II (1154-1189) Grandson of Henry I Ruled Normandy; Anjou; Aquitane & England Expanded use of juries to determine facts in civil (not criminal) cases Conflict with the Church Two sons-Richard I (Lionheart) & John ◦ Richard I (1189-1199) Spent only 6 months in England ◦ John (1199-1216) taxes and fines to recover lost lands in France 1214 military expedition to France failed 1215 Nobility forced John to sign the Magna CartaWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
Henry III (1216-1272) ◦ Perfected legal system “English Common Law” ◦ Taxed both Nobles and commoners in proportion to their income Edward I (1272-1307) ◦ Parliament assembly of nobles, knights and townsmen Announce tax levies, explain need for new taxes Hear judicial cases involving higher nobility Review local administration Hear complaints Announce new lawsWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
France ◦ Capetian Dynasty Produced uninterrupted line of sons for 300 years Long-lived Direct rule over Paris and surrounding area Rich agriculture Protectors of popes Patronized University of Paris (Sorbonne) ◦ Louis VI (the Fat) (1108-1137) Consolidated control over land around Paris ◦ Louis VII (1137-1180) Incited rebellions by Henry II’s sons against their father Kept Henry II from increasing power in FranceWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
France ◦ Philip II (1179-1223) Claimed homage from John in return for lands in France (which John already owned as son of Henry) Confiscated lands Appointed royal officials with judicial, military and administrative authority (no separation of powers) ◦ Louis VIII (1223-1226) strengthened French administrative control into lands seized from John ◦ Louis IX (Saint Louis) (1226-1270) increased French control of lands in France Engaged in last crusades ◦ Philip IV (1285-1314) Wars against Flanders and England Raised taxes on commoners but not nobility who were exempt from paying direct taxes to crown Estates GeneralWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
Germany ◦ Territories Switzerland Eastern France Belgium & Netherlands Northern Italy ◦ Relied heavily on cooperation with Church Church leaders frequently members of royal family appointed by emperor ◦ Henry IV & Henry V (1056-1125) Conflicts with Dukes of Saxony & Pope Gregory VII ◦ Civil war ◦ Investiture Enabled German princes to rule “principalities” with larger independence than existed in France or England New Emperors must be elected from among the Princes and approved by the PopeWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
Germany ◦ Frederick Barbarossa (1152-1190) Holy Roman Empire: descending from Rome and blessed by God Compromised with Princes of Lombard League and Pope ◦ Agreement for Henry VI to succeed him ◦ Henry marry Norman Princess of Sicily ◦ Henry became king of Sicily when wife’s brother diedWhat was the relationship between Feudalism and the rise of national monarchies?
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