Chapter 18 part 2 the french revolution and napoleon su14
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Chapter 18 part 2 the french revolution and napoleon su14 Chapter 18 part 2 the french revolution and napoleon su14 Presentation Transcript

  • The French Revolution Part II: The Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte Chapter 18
  • Hero, Dictator, Conqueror, Menace? Napoleon Crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David, 1801
  • The French Revolution Stage 3 1795-1799: A Republic without Leadership— Enter Napoleon
  • New Constitution of Year III & The Directory • August 22, 1795: Citizens vote to approve newest constitution • Created a Directory of 5 citizens • Created a legislature of 2 houses (Bicameral Legislature) • Directory members did not trust democracy • Indiscriminate killings continued though in smaller numbers and mostly against groups who had participated in revolts in the provinces
  • Military Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte • 1793, Captured Toulon from Royalists and the British and promoted from Captain to Brigadier General at 24 • Rebuffed an uprising against the Directory (group of 5 men that replaced the Committee of Public Safety) • Marched into Italy and defeated Austrians, forcing them to withdraw. • Attacked British forces in Egypt. Escaped from British by leaving his army surrounded.
  • Coup d’etat • Abbe Sieyes (“What is the 3rd Estate”) conspired with Napoleon to replace the Directory. • Napoleon becomes “temporary consul” on 9 November 1799. • “confidence from below, authority from above” • Napoleon rose to lead the French army through merit. In pre- revolutionary France he would have had to purchase his rank. • Napoleon was able to rise on his own merits—making him a son of the Revolution. • Napoleon was unwilling to wait for the democratic process. • First Consul • Second Constitution • White male suffrage for literate men • Indirect elections • 1802 Consul for Life ratified by Plebiscite • Centralized authority
  • “The Revolution is Over” • December 15, 1799 • French citizens vote to adopt another constitution • This constitution is not preceded by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen • New Preface: • “Citoyens, la Revolution est fixee aux principes qui Pont commences: elle est finie” • “Citizens, the Revolution is established upon its founding principles: the Revolution is over”
  • The French Revolution Stage 4: Napoleon’s Rule and Defeat
  • Domestic Reforms Under Napoleon • Napoleonic Code • Affirmed “natural authority” of husband over wife • Married women required husband’s permission to sell property, own a business or enter a profession • Unequal divorce: men- adultery of wife. Women: only if a man moved his mistress into the family home. • No paternity suits to establish male parentage of illegitimate children • Criminal Code • Citizens are equal before the law • Outlawed arbitrary arrest and imprisonment (required independent determination of reasons for arrest) • Abolished cruel punishments like branding and cutting off hands • Educational Reform • Established “lycees” (high schools) in every major town. • Institute of France • Military Academy • Teacher Education
  • Concordat with Pope • 1801 • Pope had right to appoint and depose Bishops and discipline French clergy • Pope would forego claims to French land once owned by church and seized during French Revolution • Did not revoke principle of religious freedom • Did ease worries of religious conservatives whose support Napoleon needed to remain in power
  • Emperor Napoleon I • 2 December 1804 Napoleon crowns himself Emperor at the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
  • Napoleonic Wars • 1805 Russians, Prussians, Austrians, Swedes and British allied to contain France. • Napoleon’s military advantages • Conscript army • Revolutionary Militias • Promotions based on talent and merit not birth or patronage • Domestic economy geared to support of military • Battle of Austerlitz 5 December 1805 • Napoleon defeats combined forces of Austria and Russia • Rules the continent from Portugal to Russia • Allies and client states • Rome, Papal states, Confederation of the Rhine (principalities in Germany and part of Poland); Dalmatian territories (Croatia) • Spain, Naples, Holland: Napoleon’s brother, brother-in-law and general installed as monarchs.
  • Napoleon’s Empire by 1811
  • Consequences of Empire • Brought the practical consequences of French Revolution to Europe • Powerful, centralizing state and an end to old systems of privilege • Changed terms of government service: merit vs. patronage or birth • Ended nobility monopoly on officer corps • State sponsored military • Training • Support beyond pay (food, clothing, armaments) • Defense taxes “liberty and requisitions” • Universal conscription • Elimination of feudal and clerical courts • State support for education on a broad scale
  • Continental System: Beginning of Napoleon’s Fall • 1806 Napoleon sought to starve the British into submission by and embargo on continental trade in British goods • 1807 British Navy blockades the continent • Continental trade was hurt more than British trade • WHY? • British global colonies • Trade with South America
  • Napoleon Dreams of Rome • Napoleon’s ambition • Recreate Roman empire • Rule Rome from Paris • Divorces Josephine • Marries Marie Louse (great niece of Marie Antoinette) • Loses support of former revolutionaries in France, enlightenment thinkers on the continent, and liberals at home and abroad
  • New Militaries Emerge • Prussia • Demand for rigorous practical training • Citizen army– no mercenaries • Support from State • Effect of Napoleon’s defeats on allies • Defeat at Trafalgar 1805 led to rift with Spain • Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 • Peninsular Wars • British and Spanish insurgents • French atrocities
  • The Third Of May 1808 Francisco Goya
  • Invasion of Russia 1811 • Tsar Alexander I turned blind eye to Russian trading with Britain • Napoleon collected “Grande Armee” of 600,000 soldiers to invade Russia • Russian army was outnumbered and withdrew deep into interior of Russia, burning land which Napoleon’s army might use • Russian partisans burned Moscow rather than allow it to be conquered by Napoleon. • Insurgent strikes on sick and demoralized army of France • By December 1812 French army had dwindled to a few thousand
  • Last Battles • Battle of Nations, Leipzig October 1813 • Austrians, Russians, Swedes and Prussians defeat Napoleon • March 31 Tsar Alexander & King Frederick William III of Prussia marched into Paris • Napoleon sent to exile on Elba
  • Brief Return, Final Defeat • Victorious Allies restore a Bourbon King to throne of France, Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) • Napoleon escaped from Elba and Louis XVIII flees France. • Allies meeting at Congress of Vienna hastily organize and army against Napoleon. • Battle of Waterloo June 15-18, 1815 • Napoleon defeated by Britain and Prussia • Exiled to Saint Helena and died in 1821
  • Haitian Revolution • Caribbean Islands & French sugar plantations • Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint-Domingue • Intense competition with British and Spanish • Saint-Domingue • 40,000 whites of different social classes • 30,000 free people of color • 500,000 slaves • 1790 Delegation of Free People of Color to Paris asking to be seated in the General Assembly. • Refusal to seat delegation caused unrest in Saint-Domingue • Vincent Oge` and other leaders of delegation • Broken on the wheel and decapitated • August 1791 Largest slave rebellion in History? • Spanish and British poised to take over the island • French promised citizenship to Free People of Color and freedom to slaves
  • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Leader of indigenous forces for independence • Defeated French planters in 1797 • British 1798 • Spanish 1801 • Haitian Constitution • Abolished slavery • Established Christianity • Toussaint –governor for life • Allegiance to France but French cannot interfere in Haiti internal affairs • 1802 Toussaint captured • 20,000 French troops • Yellow Fever • Insurgency • Atrocities • French troops recalled in 1803 • Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares independent state of Haiti in 1804
  • Touissaint L’Ouverture Jean-Jacques Dessalines
  • What Did the French Revolution Mean? Observations
  • Representative Government or Authoritarian Government • Revolutionary Situation occurs when the existing government has lost authority and legitimacy in the eyes of the people • In a Revolutionary Situation, more than one authority has legitimacy and multiple authorities refuse to share power • A Revolutionary Situation continues until one authority reestablishes power over the other authorities or multiple authorities agree to share power • How does a Representative Government establish power? • Force? • Collaboration and compromise between competing interests? • Authoritarian Government establish power? • Force • Repressing dissent
  • A Different Model of Government • Whether representative government or authoritarian government controlled • No monarchy • No hereditary rule • Church not necessary for legitimacy • The French Revolution brought new forms of government to Europe
  • Destruction of the Ancien Regime • The French Revolution not only rejected hereditary monarchy • The French Revolution violently overthrew feudal structure of France • Taxation no longer based on birth but on income • Creation and Extension of new civil rights (with exclusions) • Careers in military and government—opened to talent not ability to pay • Single set of laws applied to all: Napoleonic Code • Increase in size and influence of Bourgeoisie through purchase of Church property • France as militantly secular • A Revolutionary Tradition • Belief that revolution is a means for bringing about progressive change and extension of popular sovereignty • Gave people a sense that their participation mattered and that they could change their government • Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
  • Questions to Consider • Given the violence of the French Revolution and the disruption to France, was the revolution worth it? • Costs and benefits: what were they? • Is violence the nature of a Revolution? • Is authoritarian rule necessary following a revolution to restore order to society?