The Product Life-Cycle This CTR corresponds to Figure 9-2 on p. 288 and relates to the material on pp. 287-293. Instructor’s Note: This CTR can be used to overview the life cycle concept. Strategies appropriate for each stage are discussed on the following CTRs. Product Life Cycle Stages Product Development. Development begins when the company finds and develops a new product idea. During development the product has costs but no sales. Development costs must be strategically weighed against the projected length of the product's PLC. Introduction. During the introduction of new products initial sales growth is slow as the market is just becoming aware of the product. Profits are usually nonexistent at this stage due to heavy promotional spending. Growth. This stage is characterized by rapid market acceptance of the product and increasing profits. Maturity . In maturity there is a slowdown in sales growth as the product has achieved acceptance by most potential customers. Profits may level off or decline as marketing costs increase to defend existing market share. Decline. In this period sales begin to fall off and profits decline dramatically.
Introduction. In this stage marketers spend heavily on promotions to inform the target market about the new product's benefits. Low or negative profits may encourage the company to price the product high to help offset expenses. companies can concentrate on skimming strategies to generate high profits now or on penetration strategies to build market share and dominant the market for larger profits once the market stabilizes. Product Life Cycle Strategies Product Life-Cycle Strategies This CTR relates to the material on pp. 289 and 293.
Product Life-Cycle Strategies This CTR relates to the material on pp. 289-290 and 293. Product Life-Cycle Strategies Growth. In this stage the company experiences both increasing sales and competition. Promotion costs are spread over larger volume and strategic decisions focus on growth strategies. Strategies include adding new features, improving quality, increasing distribution, and entering new market segments.
Product Life Cycle Strategies Maturity. In this stage the company must manage slower growth over a longer period of time. Strategic decisions made in the growth stage may limit choices now. Marketing managers must proactively seek advantage by either market modification to increase consumption, product modification to attract new users (quality, feature, and style improvements), or marketing mix modification in an attempt to improve competitive position. Product Life-Cycle Strategies This CTR relates to the material on pp. 290-292 and 293.
Product Life-Cycle Strategies This CTR relates to the material on pp. 292-293. Product Life Cycle Strategies Decline. In this stage the costs of managing the product may eventually exceed profits. Rate of decline is a major factor in setting strategy. Management may maintain the brand as competitors drop out, harvest the brand by reducing costs of support for short term profit increases, or drop the product (divest) altogether.
Product Life Cycle (PLC): The Product Life Cycle (PLC) is based upon the biological life cycle. For example, a seed is planted (introduction); it begins to sprout (growth); it shoots out leaves and puts down roots as it becomes an adult (maturity); after a long period as an adult the plant begins to shrink and die out (decline).
Each product may have a different life cycle
PLC determines revenue earned
Contributes to strategic marketing planning
May help the firm to identify when a product needs support, redesign, reinvigorating, withdrawal, etc.
May help in new product development planning
May help in forecasting and managing cash flow
product life cycle Time Product Develop- ment Introduction Profits Sales Growth Maturity Decline Losses/ Investments ($) Sales and Profits ($)
Introduction Stage of the PLC Sales Costs Profits Marketing Objectives Product Price Low sales High cost per customer Negative Create product awareness and trial Offer a basic product Use cost-plus Distribution Build selective distribution Advertising Build product awareness among early adopters and dealers
Growth Stage of the PLC Sales Costs Profits Marketing Objectives Product Price Rapidly rising sales Average cost per customer Rising profits Maximize market share Offer product extensions, service, warranty Price to penetrate market Distribution Build intensive distribution Advertising Build awareness and interest in the mass market
Maturity Stage of the PLC Sales Costs Profits Marketing Objectives Product Price Peak sales Low cost per customer High profits Maximize profit while defending market share Diversify brand and models Price to match or best competitors Distribution Build more intensive distribution Advertising Stress brand differences and benefits
Decline Stage of the PLC Sales Costs Profits Marketing Objectives Product Price Declining sales Low cost per customer Declining profits Reduce expenditure and milk the brand Phase out weak items Cut price Distribution Go selective: phase out unprofitable outlets Advertising Reduce to level needed to retain hard-core loyal customers