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  • 1. Brand Positioning & Values
  • 2. Positioning
    • Identifying optimal location of a brand and its competitors in the mind of consumers or a market segment to maximize potential benefit to the firm
    • “Location” of the product is such that the consumers/market segments think about the product/service in the desired way
  • 3. Basic Concepts
    • Death of “one-size-fits-all”
    • Mass production >> Mass customization
    • “ act of designing the company’s offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued space in the target customer’s mind
    • Key steps:
      • Who is the target customer?
      • Who are the main competitors?
      • How is the brand similar to the competition?
      • How is the brand different from the competition?
  • 4. Target Market
    • Market – set of actual and potential buyers – motivation, ability and opportunity to buy your product
    • Market segmentation – Dividing into Homogenous consumer groups
    • Customization vs. Cost tradeoff – is “ Mera wala green” profitable
    • Segmentation base:
      • Descriptive – Customer Oriented (who is the customer?)
      • Behavioral – Product oriented (customer’s product usage)
  • 5. Segmentation Approaches
    • Behavioral – most valuable - for e.g. toothpastes and /or deodorants –
    • Sensory - seeks flavor & product appearance
    • Sociables - seek social acceptability –brightness of teeth, fresh smell.
    • Worriers – seek decay prevention
    • Independent – seek low prices
  • 6. Segmentation Approaches
    • Baldinger-
    • Loyals
    • Rotators
    • Deal Selectives
    • Price Driven
  • 7. Segmentation Approaches
    • “Market Facts” a research company has developed a conversion model to measure strength of the psychological commitment between brands and the consumers openness to change.
  • 8. Segmentation Approaches
    • This model segments users into-
    • Convertibles – Threshold of change-highly likely to switch brands
    • Shallow - Not ready to switch, but may be considering alternatives
    • Average – comfortable with their choices, unlikely to switch in future
    • Entrenched – staunchly loyal, unlikely to change at all
  • 9. Criteria for Segmentation
    • Identifiability
    • Size
    • Accessibility
    • Responsiveness
    • Profitability- most important
  • 10. Consumer Segmentation bases
    • Behavioral
      • User status
      • Usage rate
      • Usage occasion
      • Brand loyalty
      • Benefits sought
    • Demographic
      • Income
      • Age
      • Gender
      • Race
      • Family
    • Psychographic
    • Values, opinions, attitudes, activities, lifestyle
    • Geographic
      • International
      • Regional
  • 11. B2B Segmentation bases
    • Nature of Good
      • Specification
      • Kind
      • Where used
      • Type of buy
    • Buying Condition
      • Purchase location
      • Who buys
      • Type of buy
    • Demographics
      • Financials
      • Number of employees
      • Size of production
      • Number of establishment
  • 12. Points of Difference
    • Strong
    • Favorable
    • Unique brand associations
    • Based on
    • Attribute
    • Benefit
    • Develop a USP & a Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA)
  • 13. Points of Difference
    • Attributes – Kraft cheese – more milk
    • Benefit - Ikea – reasonably priced furniture and home furnishings for the mass market, TV’s with remote locators
    • USP –
    • Dettol vs.Savlon – does not burn
    • Iodex vs. Moov – does not leave stains
    • Crocin vs. Vicks Action 500 – fast relief
    • Lays chips vs. Bingo chips
  • 14. Points of Parity
    • Category POP- necessary for a credible offering –
    • Banks must have different saving options. ATMs, lockers etc.
    • Creams must moisturize and keep skin soft – gentle, protective, caring
    • Competitive POP- negate competition’s POD-
    • CNN – POD- in-depth and up-to-date news channel
    • POP - adopted varied programming such as interviews & talk shows like other channels
  • 15. Positioning Guidelines - Steps
    • Define & communicate a competitive frame of reference
    • Choose POP and/or POD
    • Establish these POP/POD
    • Update Positioning over time
  • 16. Step 1
    • Establish a competitive Frame of reference
    • Communicate brand category membership
    • This helps provide consumers with a frame of reference & avoid confusion in consumers mind
    • Important when introducing new products – ITC- Wiils-Fiama, Bingo etc.
    • Well established brands do not need this – Coke- beverages, Kellogs, McKinsey etc.
  • 17. Competitive Frame of reference
    • Company can straddle 2 or more frames of reference –
    • BMW – luxury & performance
    • Kellogs – taste & health
    • Maggi – fast to cook, healthy to eat
  • 18. Step 2
    • Choose POP/POD
    • Desirability Criteria
    • Relevance
    • Distinct
    • Believable
    • Deliverability Criteria
    • Feasible
    • Communicable
    • Sustainable
  • 19. Step 3
    • Establish POD & POP
    • Taste vs. low calories
    • Low price vs. quality
    • Powerful vs. safe
    • Family & Fun
    • Nutritious vs. taste
  • 20. Establish POD & POP
    • Separate the attributes – Head & Shoulders – 2 attributes – dandruff removal & sleek, shine and healthy hair
    • Leverage equity of another entity – brand ambassadors – Sachin Tendulkar & Boost, Reid & Taylor
    • Redefine relationships – Apple’s Mackintosh – user friendly & powerful
  • 21. Step 4
    • Update Positioning over time
    • Laddering – move from low level needs to higher level needs - Involves a progression from attributes to benefits to value creation – (Maslow’s Heirarchy)
    • Cream/lotions – moisturizes skin- healthy & glowing skin- beauty & confidence
    • Reacting –
    • Do nothing
    • Defensive
    • Offensive
  • 22. Abstract values Motivations
    • Laddering – Product functions >>> core values
    Updating brand positioning Benefits Attributes
  • 23. Brand Mantras
    • Short phrase that captures the spirit of positioning
    • Provides guidance to all the activities of the brand
    • Emotional modifier>> descriptive modifier>> Brand function
    • McD – “Food, folks and Fun
    • Nike – “Authentic Athletic Performance”
    • Disney – “Fun Family Entertainment”
    • Zee Cinema – “Movies Masti Magic”
    • Its should
      • Communicate the category and boundaries
      • Simplify.. To make brand memorable
      • Inspire – Should stand out with a higher meaning
  • 24. Brand Mantras
    • Expression of “Heart and soul” of brand
    • Short 3-5 word phrases that capture the essence & spirit of brand positioning & values
    • Creates a mental filter to screen out inappropriate marketing activities
    • Communicate the category and boundaries
    • Simplify.. To make brand memorable
    • Inspire – Should stand out with a higher meaning
    • 3 Aspects – Emotional – Descriptive - Function
    • McDonalds – Food - Folks - Fun
    • Nike - Quality - Athletic - Performance
    • Disney - Fun - Family - Entertainment