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Cat info mgt

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CAT Module Information Management

CAT Module Information Management

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  • A computer may be defined as a device which will accept input data, process it according to certain rules and stores or outputs data.
  • SupercomputersMainframe computers, now sometimes called ‘enterprise servers’Minicomputers, now often called ‘mid-range’ computersMicrocomputers, now commonly called Personal Computers (PCs)
  • A file server is more powerful than the average desktop PC, the file server provides additional services for users of networked PCsPortables or laptops Workstations – a high performance computer or working environmentMacs – the first user friendly interface
  • Processor or CPU components are:ALU arithmetic and logic unit which performs arithmetic and logical operationsThe control unit, which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes themThe set of operations that the processor performs is known as the instruction setChips the CPU is housed in a single chip usually under the fam.Motherboard – with other chips, each with their own functions, sound and video etcMHz, etc the speed is expressed MegaHertz (MHz) or GigaHertz (GHz)1 MHz = one million cycles per second2 GHz = one billion cycles per secondBus is where the signal travels along an electronic pathMemory is used to store data things like programs, input data, working data and output databits bytes kilobytes megabytes gigabytes terabytesBits and byesEach individual storage element in the computer memory consists of a simple circuit which can be switched on of off 1 or 0. Most PCs use 32 bit or 64 bit processors. Which means that data travels around in groups of 32 or 64 bits.Each 1 or 0 is a bit or 8 bits to a byteSize Equal to 8 bits 1 byte 1024 bytes 1 kilobyte 1024 kilobytes 1 megabyte 1024 megabytes 1 gigabyte 1024 gigabytes 1 terabyte The size of a file and a storage device's capacity will always be written in its simplest form. For example, an operating system would report a 1 terabyte
  • RAM is memory that is directly available to the processing unit. It holds the data and programs in current use. Data can be written on to or read from random access memoryRAM in microcomputers is volatile which means that the content of the memory are erased when the computer is powered down.
  • ROM is a memory chip into which fixed data is written permanently at the time of its manufacture. New data cannot be written into the memory – the data on the memory chip can’t be changed.RAM is non-volatile memory, which means that its contents does not disappear when the computer is switched off. The start-up program, known as a bootstrap program is always held in a form of a ROM.Cache is a small capacity but extremely fast memory chip which saves a second copy of the pieces of data most recently read from or written to the main memory. When the cache is full, older entries are flushed out to make room for new ones.
  • LAN is a network of computers located in a single building or on a single site. The part of the network are linked by computer cable rather than via telecommunications lines.WANs are networks on a number of sites, perhaps on a wide geographic scale/
  • Transcript

    • 1. Information for Management Control
      CAT
    • 2. Computer hardware and software
      1. Hardware
      2. Networks and communications
      3. Software
    • 3. A Computer
      Computer definition
      A computer is a device which will accept input data, process it or output the results
      Input
      Process
      Output
    • 4. Hardware
      Types of computer
      Supercomputers
      Mainframe computers
      Minicomputers
      Microcomputers
    • 5. Hardware
      Common descriptions of computers
      File servers
      Portables
      Macs
      Workstations
    • 6. Processor or CPU
      Chips
      MHz, cycles and clock speed
      The bus
      Memory
      Bits and bytes
      PC parts and specifications
    • 7. New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
      7
      Data Representation
      Binary digits (bits)
      A series of eight bits is called a byte
      Kilobyte (KB or K)
      Gigabyte (GB)
      Terabyte (TB)
    • 8. Computer Hardware
      Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor
      Memory (RAM)
      Storage Devices
      Input Devices
      Output Devices
    • 9. New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
      9
      Memory
      Random access memory (RAM)
      Volatile memory
      Cache memory (RAM cache or CPU cache)
      Virtual memory
    • 10. New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
      10
      Memory
      Read-only memory (ROM)
      BIOS (basic input/output system)
      Nonvolatile memory
      Cache
    • 11. Input Devices
      • An input device captures data and sends it to a computer system.
      • 12. Input devices convert physicalmovement, such as key pressing, or environmentaldata, such as temperature, sound or light into electrical signals.
      • 13. There are two types of input device: manual andautomatic.
    • Input Devices
      • A manual input device requires a human hand tocontrol it…
      Keyboard
      Mouse
      Camera
      Scanner
    • 14. Input Devices
      • A manual input device requires a human hand tocontrol it…
      Tracker ball
      Joystick
      Graphics tablet
    • 15. Input Devices
      • An automatic input device inputs data without the need for human intervention (once the device has been set up), e.g. MICR, OMR, barcode reader, webcam, microphone, sensor.
      Microphone
      Barcode reader &EPOS
      Webcam
    • 16. Automatic Input Devices
      A magnetic strip is just a thin band of magnetic tape similar to the tape inside a music cassette.
      The most common place you’ll come across a magnetic strip is on the back of a credit or debit card.
      Magnetic strips are also used on identity cards and electronic key cards in hotels and businesses. Often a PIN is needed.
    • 17. Automatic Input Devices
      Optical Mark Recognition or OMR uses an input device called an optical mark reader to detect marks made in certain places on specially printed forms.
      OMR is used to input data from things like answer sheets for multiple choice exams, registration forms in schools and National Lottery playslips.
    • 18. Automatic Input Devices
      Magnetic Ink Character Recognition or MICR uses an input device called a magnetic ink character reader to input characters that have been printed in special magnetic ink
      Banks use MICR to process cheques because it is a very secure input method.
    • 19. Speech Recognition
      Speech recognition is a type of input in which the computer recognizes words spoken into a microphone
      Special software and a microphone are required
      18
    • 20. Output Devices
      Monitor
      Speakers
      Printer
      Headphones
      Plotter
    • 21. Storage Technology
      Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.
      Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices.
      Capacity and speedare important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.
    • 22. New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
      21
      Storage Media
      Flash memory
      Flash memory cards
      USB flash storage device
      USB drive (flash drive)
    • 23. Storage Devices
      Hard Disk Drives
      Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).
      Typically permanently installed.
      Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.
      Magnetic storage device.
      Learn more about how a hard disk drive works from How Stuff Works website.
    • 24. Storage Devices
      CD-ROM Drives
      Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).
      Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
      Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.
    • 25. Storage Devices
      CD-ROM Drives
      Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.
      Data is read from CD by a laser.
      Optical storage device.
      Learn how to write data, images, and audio to a CD from Kodak’s website.
    • 26. Storage Devices
      Other Types of Drives
      Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.
      Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.
      DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.
      Learn more about specific hardware components and their functions from Tom’s Hardware.
    • 27. Storage Technology
      Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.
      Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.
    • 28. CPU Types
      CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of a computer.
      CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes instructions and data.
      CPU types.
      Intel Pentium II, III, IV
      Intel Celeron
      AMD Athlon
    • 29. CPU types
      CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second
      Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).
      Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing
      Watch an animated illustration of a CPU at work.
    • 30. Microcomputer Platforms
      All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) or computer platforms.
      PC architecture is based on the first IBM microcomputers. Generally, PCs use Microsoft Windows as their operating system.
      Apple computers or Macs are based on proprietary architecture manufactured exclusively by Apple Computer, Inc.
    • 31. Microcomputer Platforms
      Compatibilityrefers to computers that operate in essentially the same way.
      Compatibility across platforms is limited! You must know which platform your computer runs on before purchasing software.
      All software is designed for a specific platform.
      Windows, Mac or Unix versions
    • 32. Memory (RAM)
      RAM or Random Access Memory
      “Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.
      Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data.
      Ram is measured by:
      Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)
      Speed (in Nanoseconds)
    • 33. Memory (RAM)
      Amount of RAM installed will determine.
      Which software applications will run (efficiently)?
      How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)?
      RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install.
      Check your computer manual for RAM type (DIMM, SDRAM) and speed (100, 90ns).
    • 34. Memory (RAM)
      All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging.
      Many applications list both a minimumand a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software.
      Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.
      Visit the Memory Technology Exhibit at Intel’s Virtual museum.
    • 35. Storage Technology
      Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.
      Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices.
      Capacity and speedare important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.
    • 36. Storage Technology
      Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.
      Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.
    • 37. Storage Devices
      Hard Disk Drives
      Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).
      Typically permanently installed.
      Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.
      Magnetic storage device.
      Learn more about how a hard disk drive works from How Stuff Works website.
    • 38. Storage Devices
      Floppy Disk Drives
      Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
      Storage device with the smallest capacity
      Most portable storage media
      Magnetic storage device.
    • 39. Storage Devices
      CD-ROM Drives
      Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).
      Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
      Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.
    • 40. Storage Devices
      CD-ROM Drives
      Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.
      Data is read from CD by a laser.
      Optical storage device.
      Learn how to write data, images, and audio to a CD from Kodak’s website.
    • 41. Storage Devices
      Other Types of Drives
      Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.
      Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.
      DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.
      Learn more about specific hardware components and their functions from Tom’s Hardware.
    • 42. 41
      Networks
      A network connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices, enabling you to share data and resources with others
      Network interface card (NIC)
      LAN
      WAN
    • 43. Networks
      Local Area Network (LAN) – a network located in a limited area.
      LANs are found in most businesses.
      Many campuses use LANs.
      A network interface card (NIC) – a key hardware component.
      Connects a workstation to the network.
      A circuit board that sends data between the workstation and the network.
    • 44. Networking Topology
      Bus Network
    • 45. Networking Topology
      Star Network
    • 46. Networking Topology
      Ring Network
    • 47. Networking Topology
      Mesh Network
    • 48. Client Server Architecture
      A network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server.
      Source: http://webopedia.lycos.com
    • 49. Applications that run on computers
      Rely on servers for
      Files
      Devices
      Processing power
      Example: E-mail client
      An application that enables you to send and receive e-mail
      Clients
      Clients are Applications
    • 50. Servers
      Computers or processes that manage network resources
      Disk drives (file servers)
      Printers (print servers)
      Network traffic (network servers)
      Example: Database Server
      A computer system that processes database queries
      Servers Manage Resources
    • 51. Communication Networks
      Networks Connect Clients and Servers
    • 52. Client–Server Computing
      Process takes place
      on the server and
      on the client
      Servers
      Store and protect data
      Process requests from clients
      Clients
      Make requests
      Format data on the desktop
      Client-Server Computing Optimizes Computing Resources
    • 53. Application Functions
      Software application functions are separated into three distinct parts
      Server:
      Data Management
      Client: Presentation & Application Logic
    • 54. A Communications Model
      Source
      generates data to be transmitted
      Transmitter
      Converts data into transmittable signals
      Transmission System
      Carries data
      Receiver
      Converts received signal into data
      Destination
      Takes incoming data
    • 55. Simplified Communications Model - Diagram
    • 56. Computer Software
      Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. Software can be categorized into two types:
      • Operating system software
      • 57. Application software.
      55
    • 58. Operating System Software
      Operating system software tells the computer how to perform the functions of loading, storing and executing an application and how to transfer data.
      Today, many computers use an operating system that has a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides visual clues such as icon symbols to help the user. Microsoft Windows 98 is a widely used graphical operating system. DOS (Disk Operating System) is an older but still widely used operating system that is text-based.
      56
    • 59. 57
      Operating System Categories
      Four categories:
      Real-time (RTOS)
      Single-user, single-task
      Single-user, multitask
      Multiuser
    • 60. 58
      Real-Time Operating Systems
      Systems with a specific purpose and a certain result
      Uses include:
      Industrial machines
      Robotic devices
      Automobiles
      Video game consoles
      Home appliances
    • 61. 59
      Single-User Operating Systems
      Single-task systems
      Perform one task at a time
      PDAs:
      Pocket PC
      Palm OS
      Windows Mobile
      MS-DOS
      Multitask systems
      Perform simultaneous tasks
      Windows
      Mac OS
      Linux
    • 62. 60
      Multiuser Operating Systems
      Known as network operating systems
      Allow access to the computer system by more than one user
      Manage user requests
      Systems include:
      Linux
      UNIX
      Unicos
      Windows Server 2008
      Windows Vista
      Mac OS X
      i5/OS
      z/OS
    • 63. 61
      Desktop and Notebook Operating Systems
      An operating system combined with a processor is known as a platform.
      Microsoft Windows/Intel
      Apple Macintosh/Motorola
      Desktop and notebook operating systems include:
      Microsoft Windows
      Mac OS
      Linux
      UNIX
    • 64. Microsoft Windows
      • This newest version of Windows, which comes in many versions, provides tighter security and improved graphical capabilities.
      Windows Vista(2007)
      62
    • 65. 63
      Mac OS
      First commercially available OS with point-and-click technology (graphical user interface)
      Excellent in:
      Graphics display
      Processing capabilities
      System reliability
      File backup utilities
      Document recovery
      Fewer software applications available than for Windows
    • 66. 64
      Linux
      Open source operating system
      Based on UNIX
      Stable system
      Free
      May be downloaded from the Internet
    • 67. 65
      Operating Systems for Servers and Mainframes
      Servers
      Manage network resources
      Mainframes
      Handle requests from hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously
      Operating systems:
      Windows Server
      Unix
    • 68. 66
      UNIX
      Multiuser, multitask operating system
      Used primarily with mainframes
    • 69. 67
      What the OS Does
      Provides a user interface
      Manages the CPU
      Manages memory and storage
      Manages hardware and peripheral devices
      Coordinates application software with the CPU
    • 70. 68
      The User Interface
      Enables you to interact with the computer
      Types of interfaces:
      Command-driven interface
      Menu-driven interface
      Graphical user interface (GUI)
      Command-driven
    • 71. The Basics
      Using Computers
    • 72. 70
      PC operation and troubleshooting
      Before you turn your PC on
      What happens when you turn on your PC?
      Turning your PC off
      PC doesn’t boot correctly
      Common PC problems and error messages
    • 73. The Desktop
      71
    • 74. Windows
      Title bar
      Close button
      Ribbon
      Minimize button
      Maximize/Restore button
      Scrollbar
      Document view options
      72
    • 75. 73
      File Management
      The operating system provides an organizational structure for the computer’s contents.
      Hierarchical structure of directories:
      Drives
      Folders
      • Subfolders
      Files
    • 76. File Management
      Files and folders inside MGT 111 Spring folder
      Navigation pane with links to favorite folders
      MGT 111 Spring folder selected
      Click to display the Searches Folder
      Folders presented in a hierarchical structure
      74
    • 77. 75
      Working with Files
      File management actions:
      Open
      Copy
      Move
      Rename
      Delete
      Recycle Bin
    • 78. Introduction to E-mail
      Your Name Goes Here
      your_name@anyschool.edu
    • 79. E-Mail - Electronic Mail
      Send mail electronically via the Internet
      Requires an account on a mail server and supporting software on your PC
      The username and password will allow you to access your account
      All e-mail programs allow you to Send, Compose, Reply, and Forward mail
    • 80. Obtaining an E-mail Account
      You will need an e-mail server (post office) in order to send and receive e-mail.
      You can obtain an account in school
      You can pay for an account through an ISP such as AOL
      You can get free accounts:
      www.hotmail.com
      www.yahoo.com
    • 81. The Mail Folders
      Inbox – new messages as well as messages that have been read
      Outbox – messages not yet sent
      Sent items – messages that have been sent (moved here from outbox)
      Deleted items – messages deleted from any folder
      Custom folders – additional folders created by the user
    • 82. An E-mail Address
      Every e-mail address is unique and consists of two parts, a user name and a host computer
      The @ sign is required
      The host computer can be omitted if you are logged onto the same network or host computer
    • 83. Additional E-mail Capabilities
      Address Book
      Contains the e-mail addresses of frequent contacts
      Enables you to enter an alias; e.g., “Bob” instead of the complete address
      Distribution List
      A set of e-mail addresses stored under one name
      Ideal for your professor to e-mail the class
    • 84. The Internet
      What is it?
      A large network of computers
      Worldwide communication through standards
      Standards allow computers in China to access data from Zimbabwe or New York
      Not like a phone line
      Phones dedicate a connection even the silence
      The internet uses “packet switched” data.
    • 85. Browsers
      The browser takes all that text and uses it to create what you see on the screen.
      Different browsers have different translations. Although the web tries to be uniform, things may not always display the same.
      There are standards for the Web portion of the internet, but not all companies adhere to them.
    • 86. Browsers
      Code looks strange!
      <body class="mediawiki ns-0 ltr page-Byte">
      <div id="globalWrapper">
      <div id="column-content">
      <div id="content">
      <a name="top" id="top"></a>
      <h1 class="firstHeading">Byte</h1>
      <div id="bodyContent">
      <h3 id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</h3>
      <div id="contentSub"></div>
    • 87. Modems
      Basic modem sound conversion uses the normal phone line which wasn’t designed for digital data. A single line has a maximum speed of 56,000 Bytes per second, and is often slower
      These days 14336000000 a second is slow!
      Cable modems use a more digital friendly line and can be very fast
    • 88. Broadband
      ADSL is Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Link (Asymmetric because download is usually much faster than upload… you do more receiving than sending so this is fine)
      By using frequencies much higher than human speech it gets around the slow limit of the telephone 56,000 Bytes
      Can be very fast
      Cable/DSL connections are “Broadband”
    • 89. Bandwidth
      Bandwidth is the amount of data you can shove in at one time. The “Broader” your band the better.
      “Broadband” is becoming common enough that browsing can be painfully slow without it.
      Text is fast, images are slow
      A picture really IS more than a thousand words! Color/Brightness/position…
    • 90. Internet Savvy
      No matter what browser you use some things will be similar
      The address of the internet site you are accessing (Really you are downloading the code into your computer FROM that location
      Usually displayed in a “Bar” at the top
      “Buttons” Forward/Back, Stop, Refresh, Home
      A Title Display for the webpage
      Menus for options or actions you can perform
    • 91. What the root can tell you
      .gov
      Government sites in the United States at any level, city, county, state, federal etc.
      .org
      Organization or individuals
      .com
      Commercial (for profit)
      .net
      Network providers
    • 92. Rule of thumb
      Commercial sites usually have a financial motive, treat them like a salesman when they make statements about quality or capability.
      Org sites often have biases just like we all do. Remember that without some verification there are a lot of opinions that are stated as facts.
    • 93. More dependable
      .gov sites are usually dependable. Remember that Ketchup is a vegetable!
      Although the USDA never passed this into standards… the government is far from infallible. They are still some of the best.
      .edu sites are probably the most reliable but be aware of biases
      Not all .com sites are sales
      www.cityofalabaster.com for example!
    • 94. History Button shows where you’ve been!
    • 95. Gateways to the Web
      Search engines sift through the text on the web and try to find things that match. Different search engines bring different results back!
      Two commonly used search engines
      www.yahoo.com
      www.google.com
      Our library’s home page for public computers is www.yahoo.com.
    • 96. What a Search Engine Isn’t
      It doesn’t check content for you
      There are also filters that are sometimes in place that reduce your content!
      It doesn’t guarantee veracity
      Just like a book or a newspaper, a webpage can be wrong, or very biased
      It doesn’t filter out garbage for you
      In fact it may be set to filter out good stuff
      It can’t figure out what you really meant 
      It only knows the letters you type and the order
    • 97. Googling 
      Google has been such a popular search engine that people use the term as a verb 
      Google it!
      Since it is so popular, and unlike Yahoo!, isn’t categorized I’ll show you some tips and tricks
    • 98. www.google.com
      But wait, there's more!
      There are a lot more things to Google than the basic search. The first thing to notice is the labels at the top. These change your search type.
      You can click on the “advanced search” link next to the Google search box to really specify what you want.
    • 99. Google Advanced
      The Advanced Search link just to the right of the normal Google search bar gives you lots more control! Limit byfiletype (Like .ppt for power points!) or root domains!
      .ORG .GOV etc.
    • 100. Google Images
      Images, Maps, and More!
    • 101. Be Aware of your Settings! Moderate Safe Search tries to edit out offensive images from your search
      The “Images” search just looks for pictures! “Web” is the default search
    • 102. Search Box Tricks
      “Monkey time” : would search for monkey time, in that order exactly
      Monkey time : would search for any page with monkey AND time on the same page
      Monkey OR time : would search for any page with monkey on it, or any page with time on it
      Monkey –time would search for any page with monkey but without time (- = not)
    • 103. Search Box Tips
      ( ) can be used to enclose a search
      (Monkey OR banana) time : would search for any page with monkey or banana that ALSO has time on it.
      Searches can be very exacting!
      (“monkey with a banana” OR “monkey in a tree”) AND (time lunch spotted (lost OR found)) : the AND is not needed but won’t mess the search up either, and helps make it more clear  ( ( stuff) ) is called “Nesting”
    • 104. Neat Search Filters
      www.rollyo.com
      Roll your own search engine
      This site has some pre-made search limits like “reference” and “tech news” or you can make your own search, using sites you trust
      www.alltheweb.com
      Searches a lot of content that text browsers miss Owned by Yahoo!, filters by type, useful for audio and video
      http://www.pipl.com/
      “Deep Web” search of personal records databases
    • 105. Using word processing software and spreadsheets
    • 106. Using word processing software and spreadsheets
    • 107. Application Software
      Application Software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. Some of the more commonly used packages are:
      105
    • 111. 106
      Word Processing
      Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents.
    • 112. 107
      Electronic Spreadsheets
      Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results.
    • 113. 108
      Database oftware
      Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities.
    • 114. 109
      Presentation Graphics
      Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer screen.
    • 115. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
      Security and Integrity of Data
    • 116. The Security and Integrity of Data
      The security of data means the protection of data.
      Security involves protecting data and software from being:
      Lost losing disks, badly named
      Destroyed fire or flood, deletion
      Corrupted scratches on disk
      Modified written over, updated by mistake
      Disclosed unauthorised access
    • 117. Possible threats to data security
      Hacking means obtaining access to a computer system without authority.
      It is now illegal. There are 3 main offences:
      Gaining unauthorised access
      Altering programs and data
      Gaining access to commit fraud
      A computer virus is a program which copies itself without the user intending it to.
      They usually affect .exe files, can delete files on a hard disk.
      Macro viruses affect data in programs such as Word
    • 118. Ways to protect data
      A backup file is a copy of a file which is kept in case anything happens to the original file.
      Can be kept on a floppy or a different hard disk
      Can be kept on a backup data tape
      Archive files are kept in long term storage in case they are required.
      Often from a back up data tape
      Back-up systems often use:
      Grandfather – Father – Son principal
    • 119. Physical safeguards for data protection
      Physical safeguards for data include:
      Locking files in a fireproof safe
      To protect files being overwritten use the write protect tab on disks & tapes
      Keeping unauthorised people from entering secure areas by using locks and security passes etc.
    • 120. Other safeguards
      Software safeguards include giving users:
      A user identity and a password.
      Users of this type of system have to log in and log out every time they use it.
      Other safeguards include:
      Password individual files.
      Data encryption.
      To encrypt data is to encode it so that it is unreadable by anyone else who does not have the ‘key’.
    • 121. EXAM QUESTIONS
      Describe how a computer hacker might do more harm than an office burglar.
      Give two ways of protecting personal data.
      Why is is a good idea to have at least 6 characters in a password.

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