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CAT Module Information Management

CAT Module Information Management

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  • A computer may be defined as a device which will accept input data, process it according to certain rules and stores or outputs data.
  • SupercomputersMainframe computers, now sometimes called ‘enterprise servers’Minicomputers, now often called ‘mid-range’ computersMicrocomputers, now commonly called Personal Computers (PCs)
  • A file server is more powerful than the average desktop PC, the file server provides additional services for users of networked PCsPortables or laptops Workstations – a high performance computer or working environmentMacs – the first user friendly interface
  • Processor or CPU components are:ALU arithmetic and logic unit which performs arithmetic and logical operationsThe control unit, which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes themThe set of operations that the processor performs is known as the instruction setChips the CPU is housed in a single chip usually under the fam.Motherboard – with other chips, each with their own functions, sound and video etcMHz, etc the speed is expressed MegaHertz (MHz) or GigaHertz (GHz)1 MHz = one million cycles per second2 GHz = one billion cycles per secondBus is where the signal travels along an electronic pathMemory is used to store data things like programs, input data, working data and output databits bytes kilobytes megabytes gigabytes terabytesBits and byesEach individual storage element in the computer memory consists of a simple circuit which can be switched on of off 1 or 0. Most PCs use 32 bit or 64 bit processors. Which means that data travels around in groups of 32 or 64 bits.Each 1 or 0 is a bit or 8 bits to a byteSize Equal to 8 bits 1 byte 1024 bytes 1 kilobyte 1024 kilobytes 1 megabyte 1024 megabytes 1 gigabyte 1024 gigabytes 1 terabyte The size of a file and a storage device's capacity will always be written in its simplest form. For example, an operating system would report a 1 terabyte
  • RAM is memory that is directly available to the processing unit. It holds the data and programs in current use. Data can be written on to or read from random access memoryRAM in microcomputers is volatile which means that the content of the memory are erased when the computer is powered down.
  • ROM is a memory chip into which fixed data is written permanently at the time of its manufacture. New data cannot be written into the memory – the data on the memory chip can’t be changed.RAM is non-volatile memory, which means that its contents does not disappear when the computer is switched off. The start-up program, known as a bootstrap program is always held in a form of a ROM.Cache is a small capacity but extremely fast memory chip which saves a second copy of the pieces of data most recently read from or written to the main memory. When the cache is full, older entries are flushed out to make room for new ones.
  • LAN is a network of computers located in a single building or on a single site. The part of the network are linked by computer cable rather than via telecommunications lines.WANs are networks on a number of sites, perhaps on a wide geographic scale/

Cat info mgt Cat info mgt Presentation Transcript

  • Information for Management Control
    CAT
  • Computer hardware and software
    1. Hardware
    2. Networks and communications
    3. Software
  • A Computer
    Computer definition
    A computer is a device which will accept input data, process it or output the results
    Input
    Process
    Output
  • Hardware
    Types of computer
    Supercomputers
    Mainframe computers
    Minicomputers
    Microcomputers
  • Hardware
    Common descriptions of computers
    File servers
    Portables
    Macs
    Workstations
  • Processor or CPU
    Chips
    MHz, cycles and clock speed
    The bus
    Memory
    Bits and bytes
    PC parts and specifications
  • New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
    7
    Data Representation
    Binary digits (bits)
    A series of eight bits is called a byte
    Kilobyte (KB or K)
    Gigabyte (GB)
    Terabyte (TB)
  • Computer Hardware
    Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor
    Memory (RAM)
    Storage Devices
    Input Devices
    Output Devices
  • New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
    9
    Memory
    Random access memory (RAM)
    Volatile memory
    Cache memory (RAM cache or CPU cache)
    Virtual memory
  • New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
    10
    Memory
    Read-only memory (ROM)
    BIOS (basic input/output system)
    Nonvolatile memory
    Cache
  • Input Devices
    • An input device captures data and sends it to a computer system.
    • Input devices convert physicalmovement, such as key pressing, or environmentaldata, such as temperature, sound or light into electrical signals.
    • There are two types of input device: manual andautomatic.
  • Input Devices
    • A manual input device requires a human hand tocontrol it…
    Keyboard
    Mouse
    Camera
    Scanner
  • Input Devices
    • A manual input device requires a human hand tocontrol it…
    Tracker ball
    Joystick
    Graphics tablet
  • Input Devices
    • An automatic input device inputs data without the need for human intervention (once the device has been set up), e.g. MICR, OMR, barcode reader, webcam, microphone, sensor.
    Microphone
    Barcode reader &EPOS
    Webcam
  • Automatic Input Devices
    A magnetic strip is just a thin band of magnetic tape similar to the tape inside a music cassette.
    The most common place you’ll come across a magnetic strip is on the back of a credit or debit card.
    Magnetic strips are also used on identity cards and electronic key cards in hotels and businesses. Often a PIN is needed.
  • Automatic Input Devices
    Optical Mark Recognition or OMR uses an input device called an optical mark reader to detect marks made in certain places on specially printed forms.
    OMR is used to input data from things like answer sheets for multiple choice exams, registration forms in schools and National Lottery playslips.
  • Automatic Input Devices
    Magnetic Ink Character Recognition or MICR uses an input device called a magnetic ink character reader to input characters that have been printed in special magnetic ink
    Banks use MICR to process cheques because it is a very secure input method.
  • Speech Recognition
    Speech recognition is a type of input in which the computer recognizes words spoken into a microphone
    Special software and a microphone are required
    18
  • Output Devices
    Monitor
    Speakers
    Printer
    Headphones
    Plotter
  • Storage Technology
    Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.
    Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices.
    Capacity and speedare important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.
  • New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition
    21
    Storage Media
    Flash memory
    Flash memory cards
    USB flash storage device
    USB drive (flash drive)
  • Storage Devices
    Hard Disk Drives
    Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).
    Typically permanently installed.
    Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.
    Magnetic storage device.
    Learn more about how a hard disk drive works from How Stuff Works website.
  • Storage Devices
    CD-ROM Drives
    Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).
    Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
    Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.
  • Storage Devices
    CD-ROM Drives
    Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.
    Data is read from CD by a laser.
    Optical storage device.
    Learn how to write data, images, and audio to a CD from Kodak’s website.
  • Storage Devices
    Other Types of Drives
    Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.
    Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.
    DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.
    Learn more about specific hardware components and their functions from Tom’s Hardware.
  • Storage Technology
    Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.
    Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.
  • CPU Types
    CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of a computer.
    CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes instructions and data.
    CPU types.
    Intel Pentium II, III, IV
    Intel Celeron
    AMD Athlon
  • CPU types
    CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second
    Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).
    Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing
    Watch an animated illustration of a CPU at work.
  • Microcomputer Platforms
    All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) or computer platforms.
    PC architecture is based on the first IBM microcomputers. Generally, PCs use Microsoft Windows as their operating system.
    Apple computers or Macs are based on proprietary architecture manufactured exclusively by Apple Computer, Inc.
  • Microcomputer Platforms
    Compatibilityrefers to computers that operate in essentially the same way.
    Compatibility across platforms is limited! You must know which platform your computer runs on before purchasing software.
    All software is designed for a specific platform.
    Windows, Mac or Unix versions
  • Memory (RAM)
    RAM or Random Access Memory
    “Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.
    Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data.
    Ram is measured by:
    Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)
    Speed (in Nanoseconds)
  • Memory (RAM)
    Amount of RAM installed will determine.
    Which software applications will run (efficiently)?
    How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)?
    RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install.
    Check your computer manual for RAM type (DIMM, SDRAM) and speed (100, 90ns).
  • Memory (RAM)
    All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging.
    Many applications list both a minimumand a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software.
    Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.
    Visit the Memory Technology Exhibit at Intel’s Virtual museum.
  • Storage Technology
    Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.
    Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices.
    Capacity and speedare important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.
  • Storage Technology
    Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.
    Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.
  • Storage Devices
    Hard Disk Drives
    Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).
    Typically permanently installed.
    Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.
    Magnetic storage device.
    Learn more about how a hard disk drive works from How Stuff Works website.
  • Storage Devices
    Floppy Disk Drives
    Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
    Storage device with the smallest capacity
    Most portable storage media
    Magnetic storage device.
  • Storage Devices
    CD-ROM Drives
    Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).
    Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
    Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.
  • Storage Devices
    CD-ROM Drives
    Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.
    Data is read from CD by a laser.
    Optical storage device.
    Learn how to write data, images, and audio to a CD from Kodak’s website.
  • Storage Devices
    Other Types of Drives
    Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.
    Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.
    DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.
    Learn more about specific hardware components and their functions from Tom’s Hardware.
  • 41
    Networks
    A network connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices, enabling you to share data and resources with others
    Network interface card (NIC)
    LAN
    WAN
  • Networks
    Local Area Network (LAN) – a network located in a limited area.
    LANs are found in most businesses.
    Many campuses use LANs.
    A network interface card (NIC) – a key hardware component.
    Connects a workstation to the network.
    A circuit board that sends data between the workstation and the network.
  • Networking Topology
    Bus Network
  • Networking Topology
    Star Network
  • Networking Topology
    Ring Network
  • Networking Topology
    Mesh Network
  • Client Server Architecture
    A network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server.
    Source: http://webopedia.lycos.com
  • Applications that run on computers
    Rely on servers for
    Files
    Devices
    Processing power
    Example: E-mail client
    An application that enables you to send and receive e-mail
    Clients
    Clients are Applications
  • Servers
    Computers or processes that manage network resources
    Disk drives (file servers)
    Printers (print servers)
    Network traffic (network servers)
    Example: Database Server
    A computer system that processes database queries
    Servers Manage Resources
  • Communication Networks
    Networks Connect Clients and Servers
  • Client–Server Computing
    Process takes place
    on the server and
    on the client
    Servers
    Store and protect data
    Process requests from clients
    Clients
    Make requests
    Format data on the desktop
    Client-Server Computing Optimizes Computing Resources
  • Application Functions
    Software application functions are separated into three distinct parts
    Server:
    Data Management
    Client: Presentation & Application Logic
  • A Communications Model
    Source
    generates data to be transmitted
    Transmitter
    Converts data into transmittable signals
    Transmission System
    Carries data
    Receiver
    Converts received signal into data
    Destination
    Takes incoming data
  • Simplified Communications Model - Diagram
  • Computer Software
    Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. Software can be categorized into two types:
    • Operating system software
    • Application software.
    55
  • Operating System Software
    Operating system software tells the computer how to perform the functions of loading, storing and executing an application and how to transfer data.
    Today, many computers use an operating system that has a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides visual clues such as icon symbols to help the user. Microsoft Windows 98 is a widely used graphical operating system. DOS (Disk Operating System) is an older but still widely used operating system that is text-based.
    56
  • 57
    Operating System Categories
    Four categories:
    Real-time (RTOS)
    Single-user, single-task
    Single-user, multitask
    Multiuser
  • 58
    Real-Time Operating Systems
    Systems with a specific purpose and a certain result
    Uses include:
    Industrial machines
    Robotic devices
    Automobiles
    Video game consoles
    Home appliances
  • 59
    Single-User Operating Systems
    Single-task systems
    Perform one task at a time
    PDAs:
    Pocket PC
    Palm OS
    Windows Mobile
    MS-DOS
    Multitask systems
    Perform simultaneous tasks
    Windows
    Mac OS
    Linux
  • 60
    Multiuser Operating Systems
    Known as network operating systems
    Allow access to the computer system by more than one user
    Manage user requests
    Systems include:
    Linux
    UNIX
    Unicos
    Windows Server 2008
    Windows Vista
    Mac OS X
    i5/OS
    z/OS
  • 61
    Desktop and Notebook Operating Systems
    An operating system combined with a processor is known as a platform.
    Microsoft Windows/Intel
    Apple Macintosh/Motorola
    Desktop and notebook operating systems include:
    Microsoft Windows
    Mac OS
    Linux
    UNIX
  • Microsoft Windows
    • This newest version of Windows, which comes in many versions, provides tighter security and improved graphical capabilities.
    Windows Vista(2007)
    62
  • 63
    Mac OS
    First commercially available OS with point-and-click technology (graphical user interface)
    Excellent in:
    Graphics display
    Processing capabilities
    System reliability
    File backup utilities
    Document recovery
    Fewer software applications available than for Windows
  • 64
    Linux
    Open source operating system
    Based on UNIX
    Stable system
    Free
    May be downloaded from the Internet
  • 65
    Operating Systems for Servers and Mainframes
    Servers
    Manage network resources
    Mainframes
    Handle requests from hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously
    Operating systems:
    Windows Server
    Unix
  • 66
    UNIX
    Multiuser, multitask operating system
    Used primarily with mainframes
  • 67
    What the OS Does
    Provides a user interface
    Manages the CPU
    Manages memory and storage
    Manages hardware and peripheral devices
    Coordinates application software with the CPU
  • 68
    The User Interface
    Enables you to interact with the computer
    Types of interfaces:
    Command-driven interface
    Menu-driven interface
    Graphical user interface (GUI)
    Command-driven
  • The Basics
    Using Computers
  • 70
    PC operation and troubleshooting
    Before you turn your PC on
    What happens when you turn on your PC?
    Turning your PC off
    PC doesn’t boot correctly
    Common PC problems and error messages
  • The Desktop
    71
  • Windows
    Title bar
    Close button
    Ribbon
    Minimize button
    Maximize/Restore button
    Scrollbar
    Document view options
    72
  • 73
    File Management
    The operating system provides an organizational structure for the computer’s contents.
    Hierarchical structure of directories:
    Drives
    Folders
    • Subfolders
    Files
  • File Management
    Files and folders inside MGT 111 Spring folder
    Navigation pane with links to favorite folders
    MGT 111 Spring folder selected
    Click to display the Searches Folder
    Folders presented in a hierarchical structure
    74
  • 75
    Working with Files
    File management actions:
    Open
    Copy
    Move
    Rename
    Delete
    Recycle Bin
  • Introduction to E-mail
    Your Name Goes Here
    your_name@anyschool.edu
  • E-Mail - Electronic Mail
    Send mail electronically via the Internet
    Requires an account on a mail server and supporting software on your PC
    The username and password will allow you to access your account
    All e-mail programs allow you to Send, Compose, Reply, and Forward mail
  • Obtaining an E-mail Account
    You will need an e-mail server (post office) in order to send and receive e-mail.
    You can obtain an account in school
    You can pay for an account through an ISP such as AOL
    You can get free accounts:
    www.hotmail.com
    www.yahoo.com
  • The Mail Folders
    Inbox – new messages as well as messages that have been read
    Outbox – messages not yet sent
    Sent items – messages that have been sent (moved here from outbox)
    Deleted items – messages deleted from any folder
    Custom folders – additional folders created by the user
  • An E-mail Address
    Every e-mail address is unique and consists of two parts, a user name and a host computer
    The @ sign is required
    The host computer can be omitted if you are logged onto the same network or host computer
  • Additional E-mail Capabilities
    Address Book
    Contains the e-mail addresses of frequent contacts
    Enables you to enter an alias; e.g., “Bob” instead of the complete address
    Distribution List
    A set of e-mail addresses stored under one name
    Ideal for your professor to e-mail the class
  • The Internet
    What is it?
    A large network of computers
    Worldwide communication through standards
    Standards allow computers in China to access data from Zimbabwe or New York
    Not like a phone line
    Phones dedicate a connection even the silence
    The internet uses “packet switched” data.
  • Browsers
    The browser takes all that text and uses it to create what you see on the screen.
    Different browsers have different translations. Although the web tries to be uniform, things may not always display the same.
    There are standards for the Web portion of the internet, but not all companies adhere to them.
  • Browsers
    Code looks strange!
    <body class="mediawiki ns-0 ltr page-Byte">
    <div id="globalWrapper">
    <div id="column-content">
    <div id="content">
    <a name="top" id="top"></a>
    <h1 class="firstHeading">Byte</h1>
    <div id="bodyContent">
    <h3 id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</h3>
    <div id="contentSub"></div>
  • Modems
    Basic modem sound conversion uses the normal phone line which wasn’t designed for digital data. A single line has a maximum speed of 56,000 Bytes per second, and is often slower
    These days 14336000000 a second is slow!
    Cable modems use a more digital friendly line and can be very fast
  • Broadband
    ADSL is Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Link (Asymmetric because download is usually much faster than upload… you do more receiving than sending so this is fine)
    By using frequencies much higher than human speech it gets around the slow limit of the telephone 56,000 Bytes
    Can be very fast
    Cable/DSL connections are “Broadband”
  • Bandwidth
    Bandwidth is the amount of data you can shove in at one time. The “Broader” your band the better.
    “Broadband” is becoming common enough that browsing can be painfully slow without it.
    Text is fast, images are slow
    A picture really IS more than a thousand words! Color/Brightness/position…
  • Internet Savvy
    No matter what browser you use some things will be similar
    The address of the internet site you are accessing (Really you are downloading the code into your computer FROM that location
    Usually displayed in a “Bar” at the top
    “Buttons” Forward/Back, Stop, Refresh, Home
    A Title Display for the webpage
    Menus for options or actions you can perform
  • What the root can tell you
    .gov
    Government sites in the United States at any level, city, county, state, federal etc.
    .org
    Organization or individuals
    .com
    Commercial (for profit)
    .net
    Network providers
  • Rule of thumb
    Commercial sites usually have a financial motive, treat them like a salesman when they make statements about quality or capability.
    Org sites often have biases just like we all do. Remember that without some verification there are a lot of opinions that are stated as facts.
  • More dependable
    .gov sites are usually dependable. Remember that Ketchup is a vegetable!
    Although the USDA never passed this into standards… the government is far from infallible. They are still some of the best.
    .edu sites are probably the most reliable but be aware of biases
    Not all .com sites are sales
    www.cityofalabaster.com for example!
  • History Button shows where you’ve been!
  • Gateways to the Web
    Search engines sift through the text on the web and try to find things that match. Different search engines bring different results back!
    Two commonly used search engines
    www.yahoo.com
    www.google.com
    Our library’s home page for public computers is www.yahoo.com.
  • What a Search Engine Isn’t
    It doesn’t check content for you
    There are also filters that are sometimes in place that reduce your content!
    It doesn’t guarantee veracity
    Just like a book or a newspaper, a webpage can be wrong, or very biased
    It doesn’t filter out garbage for you
    In fact it may be set to filter out good stuff
    It can’t figure out what you really meant 
    It only knows the letters you type and the order
  • Googling 
    Google has been such a popular search engine that people use the term as a verb 
    Google it!
    Since it is so popular, and unlike Yahoo!, isn’t categorized I’ll show you some tips and tricks
  • www.google.com
    But wait, there's more!
    There are a lot more things to Google than the basic search. The first thing to notice is the labels at the top. These change your search type.
    You can click on the “advanced search” link next to the Google search box to really specify what you want.
  • Google Advanced
    The Advanced Search link just to the right of the normal Google search bar gives you lots more control! Limit byfiletype (Like .ppt for power points!) or root domains!
    .ORG .GOV etc.
  • Google Images
    Images, Maps, and More!
  • Be Aware of your Settings! Moderate Safe Search tries to edit out offensive images from your search
    The “Images” search just looks for pictures! “Web” is the default search
  • Search Box Tricks
    “Monkey time” : would search for monkey time, in that order exactly
    Monkey time : would search for any page with monkey AND time on the same page
    Monkey OR time : would search for any page with monkey on it, or any page with time on it
    Monkey –time would search for any page with monkey but without time (- = not)
  • Search Box Tips
    ( ) can be used to enclose a search
    (Monkey OR banana) time : would search for any page with monkey or banana that ALSO has time on it.
    Searches can be very exacting!
    (“monkey with a banana” OR “monkey in a tree”) AND (time lunch spotted (lost OR found)) : the AND is not needed but won’t mess the search up either, and helps make it more clear  ( ( stuff) ) is called “Nesting”
  • Neat Search Filters
    www.rollyo.com
    Roll your own search engine
    This site has some pre-made search limits like “reference” and “tech news” or you can make your own search, using sites you trust
    www.alltheweb.com
    Searches a lot of content that text browsers miss Owned by Yahoo!, filters by type, useful for audio and video
    http://www.pipl.com/
    “Deep Web” search of personal records databases
  • Using word processing software and spreadsheets
  • Using word processing software and spreadsheets
  • Application Software
    Application Software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. Some of the more commonly used packages are:
    • Word processing
    • Electronic spreadsheet
    • Database
    • Presentation graphics
    105
  • 106
    Word Processing
    Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents.
  • 107
    Electronic Spreadsheets
    Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results.
  • 108
    Database oftware
    Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities.
  • 109
    Presentation Graphics
    Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer screen.
  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
    Security and Integrity of Data
  • The Security and Integrity of Data
    The security of data means the protection of data.
    Security involves protecting data and software from being:
    Lost losing disks, badly named
    Destroyed fire or flood, deletion
    Corrupted scratches on disk
    Modified written over, updated by mistake
    Disclosed unauthorised access
  • Possible threats to data security
    Hacking means obtaining access to a computer system without authority.
    It is now illegal. There are 3 main offences:
    Gaining unauthorised access
    Altering programs and data
    Gaining access to commit fraud
    A computer virus is a program which copies itself without the user intending it to.
    They usually affect .exe files, can delete files on a hard disk.
    Macro viruses affect data in programs such as Word
  • Ways to protect data
    A backup file is a copy of a file which is kept in case anything happens to the original file.
    Can be kept on a floppy or a different hard disk
    Can be kept on a backup data tape
    Archive files are kept in long term storage in case they are required.
    Often from a back up data tape
    Back-up systems often use:
    Grandfather – Father – Son principal
  • Physical safeguards for data protection
    Physical safeguards for data include:
    Locking files in a fireproof safe
    To protect files being overwritten use the write protect tab on disks & tapes
    Keeping unauthorised people from entering secure areas by using locks and security passes etc.
  • Other safeguards
    Software safeguards include giving users:
    A user identity and a password.
    Users of this type of system have to log in and log out every time they use it.
    Other safeguards include:
    Password individual files.
    Data encryption.
    To encrypt data is to encode it so that it is unreadable by anyone else who does not have the ‘key’.
  • EXAM QUESTIONS
    Describe how a computer hacker might do more harm than an office burglar.
    Give two ways of protecting personal data.
    Why is is a good idea to have at least 6 characters in a password.