INFLUENCE OF HOPE VI PUBLIC HOUSING  ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS   <ul><li>Donna Comrie </li></ul>
PROPOSAL DEFENSE <ul><li>Introduction: Problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>Research background </li></ul><ul><li>Research ...
INTRODUCTION  <ul><li>Problem Statement  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the HOPE VI public housing program have an influence on...
BACKGROUND- PUBLIC HOUSING <ul><li>National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing (1992) found 86,000 units “un...
BACKGROUND- PUBLIC SCHOOLS <ul><li>School enrollment patterns are typically organized by neighborhood boundaries. These bo...
RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE <ul><li>Investigates school performance as it relates to community/ neighborhood change. </li></ul><...
LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Reforms in education and housing policy have been two separate efforts  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO...
LIT. REVIEW: INDIVIDUAL STUDENT LEVEL <ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home environment influences social and emoti...
LIT. REVIEW: ORGANIZATIONAL SCHOOL LEVEL <ul><li>Negative effects of concentrated poverty in urban schools:  </li></ul><ul...
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  <ul><li>Hidden curriculum (Jean Anyon) </li></ul><ul><li>Truly Disadvantaged (William Julius Wilson...
RESEARCH BASIS <ul><li>As neighborhoods declined in property value, amenities, and safety, schools followed the same undes...
RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>Q1:  Did the implementation of Hope VI (with an emphasis on mixed income communit...
RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY  <ul><li>Q1:  Did the implementation of Hope VI (with an emphasis on mixed income communitie...
RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Q2: Were Hope VI communities more likely to improve public school performance (i.e. ...
RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Q3:  What are the factors that contribute to higher public school performance in Hop...
TIMELINE Spring 2011 Summer 2011 <ul><li>- Collect Date for Quant and analyze results </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review ...
QUESTIONS
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Influence of Public Housing to Public Education

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  • Commission 6% As early as 1961, Jane Jacobs in The Death and Life of Great American Cities discussed the issues of concentration and diversity. She summarized that cities were deteriorating not because of the mere concentration of poverty but because the concentration of urban areas lacked diversity. Diversity, she argued, not only included ethnicity and race but also dealt extensively with families of various incomes (later termed mixed-income) and the preservation of buildings of various conditions (rehabilitation). In addition, she further defends the need for places to have a diversity of uses to serve various functions (later termed mixed-use)
  • “ Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity,” 1993, http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/PES/esed/prospect.html.
  • Education reformers -classroom instruction &amp; administrative accountability for instruction = Neglecting the school-community relationship! Focus: community context for school performance, with concentrated poverty posing an especially strong challenge. School-Community Relationship/ Neighborhood Based Collaboration
  • Yet the traditional definition of concentrated poverty – 40 percent of the tract population living below the federal poverty threshold – remains problematic in light of burgeoning working poor populations, the emergence of inner-suburban poverty, and long-standing problems with the federal poverty threshold itself. (Wolch, 2005)
  • causation seems to require not just a correlation, but a counterfactual dependence. This is referred to as the Fundamental Problem of Causal Inference – it is impossible to directly observe causal effects Well-designed experimental studies replace equality of individuals as in the previous example by equality of groups. This is achieved by randomization of the subjects to two or more groups. Although not a perfect system, the likeliness of being equal in all aspects rises with the number of subjects placed randomly in the treatment/ placebo groups. From the significance of the difference of the effect of the treatment vs. the placebo, one can conclude the likeliness of the treatment having a causal effect on the disease. This likeliness can be quantified in statistical terms by the P-value .
  • Donna proposal defense3-23 metro

    1. 1. INFLUENCE OF HOPE VI PUBLIC HOUSING ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS <ul><li>Donna Comrie </li></ul>
    2. 2. PROPOSAL DEFENSE <ul><li>Introduction: Problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>Research background </li></ul><ul><li>Research significance </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question & Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Research Design and Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline </li></ul>
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the HOPE VI public housing program have an influence on public schools? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOPEVI is a mixed income housing approach, drawing on New Urbanist philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented by HUD since 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is little research on the link between the HOPE VI public housing program and public schools; this research aims to fill the gap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The lack of economic integration in the schools is a direct reflection of the lack of economic integration in the nation’s neighborhoods (HUD, 2003, p4). </li></ul>
    4. 4. BACKGROUND- PUBLIC HOUSING <ul><li>National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing (1992) found 86,000 units “unfit, unsafe and unlivable” </li></ul><ul><li>Demolish Public Housing Projects in 32 states (165 Sites) – </li></ul><ul><li>1993 Revitalization Grant- HOPE VI </li></ul><ul><li>HUD adopted the tenets of New Urbanism to revive inner cities </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Jacobs (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- combat sprawl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- address patterns of high density </li></ul></ul>- expand mix-use opportunities <ul><ul><li>- establish mixed income developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide affordable housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce concentrated poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- create walk able communities </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. BACKGROUND- PUBLIC SCHOOLS <ul><li>School enrollment patterns are typically organized by neighborhood boundaries. These boundaries, clustered by real- estate, inextricably link schools and neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>High poverty school performance rates are lower than low poverty schools </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Orr et al., 2002; Puma et al, 1993; and Kraus, 2008). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>School poverty depresses the scores of all students in schools where at least half of the students are eligible for subsidized lunch, and seriously depresses the scores when more than 75 percent of students live in low-income households. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Puma et al., 1993; and Coleman et al, 1966) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, poor students who attend middle-class schools performed significantly better. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Education Week, 1988). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE <ul><li>Investigates school performance as it relates to community/ neighborhood change. </li></ul><ul><li>Fills gap in the literature linking housing to education at the organizational level. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform policy makers by developing best practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the importance of cooperation at the federal and local level between HUD and DOE as it relates to policy, funding, and service delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings may impact the Obama Administration’s newly developed Choice Neighborhoods Initiative, which is an expansion of the Hope VI program to include high-quality educational opportunities with an emphasis on early childhood education. </li></ul>
    7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Reforms in education and housing policy have been two separate efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOE- improve the level of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HUD- delivery of affordable housing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little empirical research investigates the link between public housing and public education. </li></ul><ul><li>Research focus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Level- Student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Level- School </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. LIT. REVIEW: INDIVIDUAL STUDENT LEVEL <ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home environment influences social and emotional wellbeing and cognitive development (Vandivere, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent mobility negatively effects educational performance (Mueller and Tighe, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality of housing (inadequate heat, inoperable plumbing, rodent infestation, & overcrowding) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative housing conditions could impede student concentration and decreases school readiness (Braconi, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable, affordable housing may contribute to children’s educational achievement by reducing the frequency of unwanted moves (Lubell & Brenna, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homelessness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeless children are less likely to attend preschool have higher rates of grade retention and are more likely to drop out (National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, 1997; Lubell & Brennan, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. LIT. REVIEW: ORGANIZATIONAL SCHOOL LEVEL <ul><li>Negative effects of concentrated poverty in urban schools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial isolation - resources and opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Jargowsky, 1997) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational burdens on teachers, parents, administrators & students; misallocation peer influence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Kahlenberg, 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation perpetuates an underclass -educational and employment opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Massey & Denton, 1993; Rusk, 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial patterning of inequality- rural & urban- drop out rate and educational attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Roscigno, Tomaskovic, & Crowley, 2006) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Students who attend schools with higher proportions of lower-income students will be exposed to more students who are not performing at their grade level and are more likely to drop out of school (Kahlenberg, 2001). </li></ul>
    10. 10. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK <ul><li>Hidden curriculum (Jean Anyon) </li></ul><ul><li>Truly Disadvantaged (William Julius Wilson) </li></ul><ul><li>Place-Based vs. People-Based Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Public- Public Partnership & Public-Private Partnership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public-Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HUD & DOE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal & Local Governments </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. RESEARCH BASIS <ul><li>As neighborhoods declined in property value, amenities, and safety, schools followed the same undesirable path. Thus, if neighborhoods improve, schools could prosper. </li></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li>% FRLP </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>Hope VI Poverty <ul><ul><ul><li>FRLP: Free and Reduced Lunch Program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance: Math & Reading scores </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>Q1: Did the implementation of Hope VI (with an emphasis on mixed income communities) relate to the proportion of low socio-economic status (SES) students (measured by FRLP) in neighboring public schools </li></ul><ul><li>H1: Following the implementation of Hope VI, the proportion of low-SES students were reduced at neighboring public schools. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Q2: Were schools in Hope VI communities more likely to improve public school performance (measured by math and reading scores) than schools in non-Hope VI communities.   </li></ul><ul><li>H2: Schools located in Hope VI communities were more likely to improve school performance than schools in non-Hope VI communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Q3: What are the factors that contribute to higher public school performance in Hope VI areas? </li></ul>
    13. 13. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Q1: Did the implementation of Hope VI (with an emphasis on mixed income communities) relate to the proportion of low socio-economic status (SES) students (measured by FRLP) in neighboring public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Research : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools in Hope VI areas determined by address (165 schools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Configuration K-5 Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupted Time Series- Hope VI Intervention (Before & After ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking of SES (FRLP rates) of students -1990 thru 2010 DOE by state </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Q2: Were Hope VI communities more likely to improve public school performance (i.e. math and reading scores) than schools in non -Hope VI Communities? </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Research : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools in Hope VI areas determined by address (165 schools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Configuration K-5 Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterfactual comparison – random sample of schools in non-Hope VI sites (post intervention)- same school characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking years 1990 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 years after implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 years after implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterfactual scenario investigates whether Hope VI had a residual effect on neighborhood public school performance. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Q3: What are the factors that contribute to higher public school performance in Hope VI areas? </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Research : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results of Time Series- SES rates (greatest rate of change) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most improved school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results of Counterfactual- school performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest scores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two in-depth case studies of schools in Hope VI areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case study will determine best practices for improving reducing the proportion of low-SES students and school performance. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. TIMELINE Spring 2011 Summer 2011 <ul><li>- Collect Date for Quant and analyze results </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction and Background Chapters </li></ul><ul><li>-Create surveys and interview questions </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies stakeholders of Hope VI and local public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Run regression and analyze results </li></ul>Fall 2011 Spring 2012 <ul><li>- Schedule Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Visit Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Compile data </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribe using Atlas.ti </li></ul><ul><li>Literature, Recommendation and Conclusion Chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Final Edits and revisions </li></ul><ul><li>Dissertation Defense </li></ul>
    17. 17. QUESTIONS

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