Violence: Transgender Reality

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  • 1. ViolenceRebekah Radomski & David Greer
  • 2. It is our hope that viewing the videos in this presentationwill add emotional weight to the statistical and empirical informationwhich can often seemfrom the human experience of the victims.
  • 3. The Transgender Violence Statistics Catch-22Because transgender persons are not explicitly protected under hate crimes legislation, no hard data exists on crimes perpetrated against transgender individuals. However, when considering legislation to protect minority groups against hate crimes, lawmakers often require hard data to demonstrate the need for the legislation.So…lawmakers want hard data to justify legislation, but it is partly the lack of legal protection itself which prevents the collection of the data needed.Who pays the price for this conundrum? Transgenders do, of course!
  • 4. Transgender Violence Statistics• The transgender community disproportionally experiences violence – The transgender community is one of the most vulnerable to violence LGBTQ communities• The results of one national survey indicated that over 50% of transgender individuals been the victims of some form of violence – This is more than double the national average • 47% of respondents were physically assaulted • 14% were raped• Male to Female (MTF) individuals more likely to experience sexual assault and physical abuse• Gender variant children experience greater incidents of child abuse at home and bullying in the school than non gender variant children.• Violence against the transgender community is so sever that a national panel of transgender health experts determined that violence and murder prevention are top health priorities
  • 5. Types of Violence• Hate Violence – A hate crime (also known as a bias motivated crime) occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim based off of their perceived membership of a minority group. – According to GenderPAC, in 2009 statistics indicated that those most at risk for hate murder are young gender non-conforming or transgender people of color who present femininely or identify as female4 – Hate violence ranges in severity across a spectrum. A single incident may involve multiple types of violence, which is especially true for hate motivated violence against transgender individuals. • Hate violence against transgender individuals tend to be particularly violent • It is estimated that 1 out of every 1000 murders in the United States is an anti-transgender hate crime – 2009 22 LGBTQ murder nationwide • 79% were people of color • 50% were of transgender women – Hate violence includes • Harassment • Stalking • Verbal & physical abuse • Sexual assault • Vandalism • Workplace discrimination – Angie Zapata • A Colorado Latino trans woman murdered by a man she met online after he learned she was born male • Angie’s story http://youtu.be/T8J8FmbvBcQ • Defendant sentencing http://youtu.be/t-ozOgwOi_Q • In 2008 Allen Andrade became the first person charged with a transgender hate crime – Colorado was 1 of only 11 states in 2008 that included gender identity under their hate crime statues.
  • 6. Types of Violence• Domestic violence/Intimate partner violence – Limited research exists on the prevalence of domestic violence in the transgender community • Victims often remain silent and do not report incidents – Domestic/intimate partner violence can occur in dating or long-term relationships and affects all communities, regardless of race, ethnicity, economic status, age, ability, HIV status, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. Power and control is the central dynamic of a relationship in which domestic/intimate partner violence occurs and patterns of abuse often escalate over time. – Domestic/intimate partner violence tactics in LGBTQ relationships are similar to those used in heterosexual relationships, but also include the use of anti-LGBTQ societal stigma and bias as a central tactic to exert power and control and increase isolation. • Common tactics include-Use of the incorrect pronoun, mocking body appearance, and threatening to disclose the individuals trans identity – Intimate partner violence in the trans community often results from individuals engaging in unsafe relationships due to difficulty finding a steady partner, a partner who accepts the individuals trans identity, or substance abuse. – Studies indicate that transgender individuals make up 4.7% of reported LGBTQ domestic violence survivors • 1.3% FTM • 3.4% MTF
  • 7. Types of Violence• Elder abuse – 64.8% of transgender elder adults have experienced emotional or psychological abuse more than once – Often involves discrimination in nursing homes and elder care facilities. – 30% of elder transgender individuals report being the victim of discrimination in the health care system • Some study participants state that they are very concerned about being victims of abuse for the medical community. Some even refuse to seek out medical treatment due to past experiences of abuse. (Daniels and Mansion)• School Violence – Primarily name calling, harassment, hate speech, and sometimes physical violence • Other forms of harassment reported by transgender youth included notes, suggestive cartoons, and graffiti – 74% of transgender youth report being harassed at school – 94% of transgender youth report hearing transphobic remarks from peers at school – 74% of transgender youth report hearing transphobic remarks from teachers and staff
  • 8. Types of Violence• Transgender sex workers – Experience an increase of sexual assault and abuse compared to other sex workers – Typically make less money and work in more dangerous areas – Have the highest rate of HIV among sex workers due to engaging in high risk sex out of fear of abuse, transphobia, and being discovered – Experience high rates of Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stemming from previous instances of violence. – 75% of transgender sex workers report being assaulted by a customer, 80% threatened with a weapon – Commonly have a history of childhood sexual abuse• Rape – One of the most common crimes against transgender individuals, yet one of the least reported • Goes unreported for fear that gender identity will be the focus of the investigation-or the cause of the rape • Fear of being outed as transgender • Sexual violence is not discussed in the community for fear of additional discrimination
  • 9. Transgender Day of RemembranceTransgender Day of Remembrance honors those in the gender-variant community who have died as a result of transphobic hate. Events are held internationally every year in November. Please visit the websites below for additional information or to participate in a Day of Remembrance in your area. http://www.transgenderdor.org/http://www.rememberingourdead.org/index.html#
  • 10. Transgenderviolence is aninternational problem
  • 11. Diversity Issues• Transgender people of color are a marginalized group within a marginalized group. – More likely to experience • Violence, unemployment, sex work, HIV infection, poverty, and substance abuse• Transgender individuals may experience multiple layers of marginalization which contribute to high-risk status based upon: – Race (an inordinately high percentage of violently victimized transgender persons are people of color. – Gender (Both MTFs and FTMs are potentially subject to misogynistic aggression). – SES (Transgender folks typically have a much lower socioeconomic status than the general population, and many are unemployed due to discrimination). – Health (Prone to higher rates of AIDS/HIV, substance abuse and other mental health issues, and less likely to receive adequate care when needed, especially following a violent attack). – Individuals may experience intracultural discrimination based on religious and/or cultural norms about gender expression, sex, race, etc.
  • 12. Psychological Effects of Violence• Suicidal ideation – 64% of transgender study participants reported considering suicide as a result of transphobic violence and trauma – Transgender identity is an often cited reason for suicide attempts – High rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts indicate that some transgender individuals suffer from sever distress and an inability to cope• Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • Reexperiencing of past traumatic events • May reduce coping ability and lead to maladaptive coping mechanisms • Associated features of PTSD include depression, anxiety, flashbacks, nightmares, and heightened reactivity• Depression – The leading psychological disorder faced by transgender individuals• Anxiety
  • 13. Resilience
  • 14. Thank you for viewing……and please remember, none of this will change by itself!