TEMPERAMENT   •   Stable individual differences in characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity.   •   Ind...
•   Social development – much higher proportion of difficult than easy children experience behavioural       problems late...
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temperament

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Transcript of " temperament"

  1. 1. TEMPERAMENT • Stable individual differences in characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity. • Individual differences are present very early in life – perhaps at birthKey dimensions of temperament – Thomas, Chess & Birch, 1970 • Activity level • Rhythmicity (regularity in biological functioning) • Distractibility • Approach/withdrawal • Adaptability • Attention span and persistence • Intensity of reaction • Threshold of responsiveness (easily bothered by external stimuli such as loud noises, bright lights, or food textures OR tendency to ignore them?) • Quality of moodIndividual differences in dimensionsThomas & Chess suggested many infants can be divided into three basic groups: 1) Easy children 2) Difficult children 3) Slow-to-warm-up childrenEasy Children (40%): • Generally cheerful • Adapt readily to new experiences • Can quickly establish routines for many activities of daily lifeDifficult Children (10%): • Irregular in daily routines • Slow to accept new situations or experiences • Show negative reactions more than other infantsSlow-to-warm-up Children (15%): • Relatively inactive and apathetic • Shows mild negative reactions when exposed to unexpected events or new situations • Will ‘warm up’ to gradual changeThe remaining 35% of infants cannot be readily classified under one of these headings. May be a mixStability • Research findings suggests only moderately stable early in life – from birth – 24 months • Appears to be highly stable after 24 months based on longitudinal research of 133 infants (Korn, 1984) • Different aspects of temperament may be influenced by genetic and environmental factorsImplications
  2. 2. • Social development – much higher proportion of difficult than easy children experience behavioural problems later in life. • More difficulty adjusting to school, forming friendships and getting along with others. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Table 1: Arrival times of infant emotional expressions (adapted from R.J. Trotter, 1983)Expression of emotions Approximate time of emergenceInterest Present at birthNeonatal smileStartled responseDistress (in response to pain)Disgust (in response to unpleasant taste or smell)Social smile 4-6 weeksAnger 3-4 monthsSurpriseSadnessFear 5-7 monthsShame/shyness/self-awareness 6-8 monthsContempt 2nd year of lifeGuilt CRYING Four types: 1) rhythmical cry – also known as hunger cry 2) angry cry – forces excess air through the vocal cords 3) pain cry – sudden onset of loud crying 4) cry of frustration – first two or three cries are long and drawn out

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