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Q3L11 -Sleep disorders
 

Q3L11 -Sleep disorders

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    Q3L11 -Sleep disorders Q3L11 -Sleep disorders Presentation Transcript

    • Sleep Disorders
      • Insomnia
      • Sleep Apnea
      • Narcolepsy
      • Hypersomnia
    • Insomnia
      • Refers to difficulties in going to sleep and, less commonly, in staying asleep.
      • Appears twice as many women than men
      • In the US, 15-20% of population and more than half a billion dollars a year on medication
      • Appears to be caused by factors such as stressful events, emotional disturbances, use of drugs, change of sleep schedule.
      • Stress tends to be most common cause in late teens and early adults.
    • Treatment (Drugs)
      • Non-prescriptive drug – little or no sleep inducing capabilities
      • Prescription drugs (benzodiazepines or minor tranquilisers) – can be helpful, but can also cause rebound insomnia when withdrawn.
      • Research show drugs should last no longer than two weeks to avoid drug dependence.
    • Tips
      • Maintain regular sleep schedule
      • Avoid excessive amounts of time in bed
      • Use relaxation techniques before going to bed (warm baths, meditation, soothing music) – but not in bed
      • Exercise during the day but not just before bedtime
      • Avoid stimulants and depressants
      • Make your room sleep friendly! Quiet and dark; earplugs.
    • Sleep Apnea
      • Affects 40% of elderly people.
      • Causes the sleeping individual to stop breathing for periods of 20 sec to 2 minutes.
      • Windpipe closes or the brain centres that control breathing are not functioning properly
      • Link to obesity - Excess body fat on the neck and chest constricts the air-passageways and sometimes the lungs.
      • By day – normal breathing. Each night – cycles not breathing, waking slightly to gulp in air and falls back asleep.. May be hundreds of times without awareness
      • Tend to experience daytime drowsiness, very loud snoring
      • Especially dangerous during infancy – suspected of being one cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) – the most frequent cause of death amongst infants under 12 months
    • Treatment
      • Can be attached to a monitor that sounds an alarm when he or she stops breathing
      • Surgical procedures such as enlarging the upper airway passages of the nose, removing the uvula
      • Sprays to shrink tissues lining the throat
      • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device
    • Narcolepsy
      • Irresistible and sudden sleep attacks lasting from a few minutes to half an hour.
      • These instant periods of sleep are usually accompanied by muscular relaxation, when the person may simply fall asleep or collapse.
      • Wakefulness -> REM… skipping other stages
      • Causes unknown, but appears genetic
      • One in every 2000
      • Some appear able to continue automatic behaviours like driving a car satisfactorily for a few kilometres without awareness.
    • Hypersomnia
      • Less urgent sleep attacks, but longer in duration than those in narcolepsy
      • Causes a person to experience either excessive daytime drowsiness or to have nocturnal sleep periods of longer than average duration.
      • Likely to be inherited
      • Thought to be caused by disruption to the hypothalamic sleep centres which results in a failure of the turn on and turn off mechanisms that regulate sleep
    • Treatments
      • No cure exists
      • Stimulants manage symptoms to some extent