Write down twenty statements about yourself starting each statement with “I am…”
Adolescence Social Development (need to belong, identity)
Friendships become increasingly important.
Girls tend to have a somewhat larger network than boys
Networks tend to get smaller and more exclusive with age.
Need to belong
Motive for forming friendships during adolescence
Leads many pre-teens and teenagers to reject parental influence and identify with peers adopting dress, speech style, overall style of their chosen peer group
Twenty Statements Test
The Twenty Statements Test (or TST) is an instrument used to measure self concept.
Devised in 1954 by Manfred Kuhn & Thomas McPartland
Kuhn (1960) has stated that responses to the twenty statements test should be grouped into five categories: 1) Social groups and classifications 2) Ideological beliefs 3) Interests 4) Ambitions 5) Self-evaluations.
Social Groups and Classification
Age, Gender, Physical specification, Educational level, Occupation, Sports, Arts, Language, Ethnicity/National origin, Race, Human, Religious membership, Name, Me, Kin relations, Boyfriend/Girlfriend/Romantic, Friends, Other relations, Migration status/Residency, Sexuality, and Other identities
Religious, Philosophical, Moral, Cultural and political, Beliefs about life, Beliefs about cosmos, Spiritual, and Other Beliefs
Sports, Arts, Hobbies and entertainment, Social activities, School-related, Family, Friends, Boyfriend/Girlfriend/Romantic, Animals, and Other interests
Academic, Occupation, Social, Friendship, Romantic, Financial, and Other ambitions
Academic, Artistic, Appearance, Physical abilities, Mental abilities, Unique qualities, Success-oriented abilities, Personality, Emotionality, Clinical psychological, Clinical physical, Social abilities/qualities, Relatedness to others, Habits, Self- aspirations, Fears, Past achievements, Resources, and Other self-evaluation
Identity crisis – role confusion!
Adolescents adopt many different strategies to help resolve this crisis – try out many different roles, join may different social groups.
They consider many possible social selves (diff. kinds of persons they might potentially become)
From this, they gradually piece together a self-schema , which remains fairly constant and serves as a guide for adolescents
Growing research suggests special problems in forming a clear identity for those with immigrant parents or two different ethnic/cultural groups.
Coping technique 1 – Alternation Model : achieve separate identities in both cultures, then alternate between these depending on social situation.
Coping technique 2 – Identity fusion : combine different cultural identities into one.
Third alternative – rejecting one to identify entirely with the other.
Suggests adolescents can be categorised in four patterns:
Identity Achievement – adolescents who have gone through their identity crisis and made a commitment to one clear alternative
Identity Moratorium – still searching for an identity
Identity Foreclosure – chosen an identity suggested to them by parents or authority figures
Identity Diffusion – those who haven’t begun the process yet