Task: <ul><li>Write down twenty statements about yourself starting each statement with “I am…” </li></ul>
Adolescence Social Development (need to belong, identity)
Social Development <ul><li>Friendships become increasingly important. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls tend to have a somewhat larger network than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Networks tend to get smaller and more exclusive with age. </li></ul>
Need to belong <ul><li>Motive for forming friendships during adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Leads many pre-teens and teenagers to reject parental influence and identify with peers adopting dress, speech style, overall style of their chosen peer group </li></ul>
Twenty Statements Test <ul><li>The Twenty Statements Test (or TST) is an instrument used to measure self concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Devised in 1954 by Manfred Kuhn & Thomas McPartland </li></ul><ul><li>Kuhn (1960) has stated that responses to the twenty statements test should be grouped into five categories: 1) Social groups and classifications 2) Ideological beliefs 3) Interests 4) Ambitions 5) Self-evaluations. </li></ul>
Social Groups and Classification <ul><li>Age, Gender, Physical specification, Educational level, Occupation, Sports, Arts, Language, Ethnicity/National origin, Race, Human, Religious membership, Name, Me, Kin relations, Boyfriend/Girlfriend/Romantic, Friends, Other relations, Migration status/Residency, Sexuality, and Other identities </li></ul>
Ideological Beliefs <ul><li>Religious, Philosophical, Moral, Cultural and political, Beliefs about life, Beliefs about cosmos, Spiritual, and Other Beliefs </li></ul>
Interests <ul><li>Sports, Arts, Hobbies and entertainment, Social activities, School-related, Family, Friends, Boyfriend/Girlfriend/Romantic, Animals, and Other interests </li></ul>
Ambitions <ul><li>Academic, Occupation, Social, Friendship, Romantic, Financial, and Other ambitions </li></ul>
Self Evaluations <ul><li>Academic, Artistic, Appearance, Physical abilities, Mental abilities, Unique qualities, Success-oriented abilities, Personality, Emotionality, Clinical psychological, Clinical physical, Social abilities/qualities, Relatedness to others, Habits, Self- aspirations, Fears, Past achievements, Resources, and Other self-evaluation </li></ul>
Identity Formation <ul><li>Identity crisis – role confusion! </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents adopt many different strategies to help resolve this crisis – try out many different roles, join may different social groups. </li></ul><ul><li>They consider many possible social selves (diff. kinds of persons they might potentially become) </li></ul><ul><li>From this, they gradually piece together a self-schema , which remains fairly constant and serves as a guide for adolescents </li></ul>
Bicultural Adolescents <ul><li>Growing research suggests special problems in forming a clear identity for those with immigrant parents or two different ethnic/cultural groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Coping technique 1 – Alternation Model : achieve separate identities in both cultures, then alternate between these depending on social situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Coping technique 2 – Identity fusion : combine different cultural identities into one. </li></ul><ul><li>Third alternative – rejecting one to identify entirely with the other. </li></ul>
Marcia (1991) <ul><li>Suggests adolescents can be categorised in four patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Achievement – adolescents who have gone through their identity crisis and made a commitment to one clear alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Moratorium – still searching for an identity </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Foreclosure – chosen an identity suggested to them by parents or authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Diffusion – those who haven’t begun the process yet </li></ul>
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