Q202 - Adolescence 1


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Q202 - Adolescence 1

  1. 1. Adolescence Physical, Cognitive and Emotional Development
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>A period beginning with the onset of puberty and ending when individuals are fully physically developed and assume adult roles and responsibilities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Development <ul><li>Beginning of adolescence if signaled by a growth spurt . </li></ul><ul><li>Growth spurt just one aspect of puberty – the period of rapid change during which individuals reach sexual maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty occurs earlier for girls (as early as 7) than boys (12 or 13). </li></ul>
  4. 5. Puberty <ul><li>Gonada (primary sex glands) produce increased levels of sex hormones, and external sex organs develops into their adult form. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls menstruate (most by 13), develop breasts, hips widen. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys produce sperm (most by 14 or 15), develop facial and chest hair, voices deepen. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sexes develop pubic hair </li></ul>
  5. 6. Facial Differences <ul><li>Childhood facial features (large eyes, high forehead, round cheeks, small chin)  adult appearance </li></ul><ul><li>“ baby-faced” appearances are sometimes retained by both sexes – plus for women, but not for men </li></ul><ul><li>Zebrowitz et al. (1998) found that baby faced adolescent males may attempt to compensate by behaving in antisocial ways. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Early maturation <ul><li>Early-maturing boys seem to have a definite edge over those who mature later. </li></ul><ul><li>More stronger, athletic, excellence in competitive sports help them to be more self-assured, popular and chosen for leadership roles (Blyth, Bulcroft & Simmons, 1981) </li></ul><ul><li>Early-maturing girls are taller than classmates and their increased sexual attractiveness may invite sexual advances from older persons (Peterson, 1987). </li></ul>
  7. 8. Physical Summary <ul><li>The timing of puberty can play an important role in adolescents’ developing self-identities and so in their later social development. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Piaget’s theory suggests adolescents become capable of logical thought – but only about 40% of adolescents in Australia and North America can solve the kind of problems used by Piaget to test for formal operational thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>If they do show logical thought, it may be restricted to topics or types of problem with which they have had direct experience. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Egocentric thoughts <ul><li>Not yet free as it shows up in preoccupation with their own thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of introspection  convinced that their thoughts are as important to others as they are to themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways: personal fable and the imaginary audience </li></ul>
  10. 11. Personal Fable <ul><li>Where adolescents have spent so much time thinking about their own thoughts and feelings that they become convinced that they are special, one of a kind, and that no one else has ever had these thoughts and feelings before them. </li></ul><ul><li>“ You just don’t understand me, I’m different to you” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It can’t happen to me, I’m special” </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers: unwanted pregnancy, severe injury, drink driving, etc. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Imaginary Audience <ul><li>Shows up as extreme self-consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced that everyone is looking at them and they are always the centre of everyone else’s world as well as their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Explains intense self-consciousness that many experience concerning what others think about how the adolescent looks or behaves. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Theory of mind <ul><li>Their understanding of of how they and others think </li></ul><ul><li>Continues to change and develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Younger children – realist approach </li></ul><ul><li>Older children and preadolescents – relativist approach </li></ul><ul><li>Preadolescents – defended realism approach </li></ul><ul><li>Early adolescents – dogmatism – skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Later adolescents – postskeptical rationalism </li></ul>
  13. 14. Realist approach <ul><li>Belief that knowledge is a property of the real world and that there are definite facts or truths that can be acquired. </li></ul><ul><li>Should Australian soldiers be in Afghanistan? </li></ul>
  14. 15. Relativist Approach <ul><li>Awareness of how experts often disagree, recognising that different people may interpret the same information in contrasting ways </li></ul><ul><li>What? Some people say yes, some people say no? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Defended Realism Approach <ul><li>Recognises the difference between facts and opinions, but continue to believe that there is a set of facts about the world that are completely true and differences in opinion stem from differences in available information. </li></ul><ul><li>Ok… so they are the OPINIONS – not facts… so who is right?? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Dogmatism - skepticism <ul><li>Realisation that there is no secure basis for knowledge or making decisions, and alternate between blind faith in some authority and doubting everything </li></ul><ul><li>The government says yes, but many groups say no… maybe there’s more than one underlying reason for each group… if so, maybe nobody has the answer… </li></ul>
  17. 18. Post-skeptical Rationalism <ul><li>Realisation that while there are no absolute truths, there are better or worse reasons for holding certain views. </li></ul><ul><li>Well, maybe there is no right or wrong answer to the question, but I can work out who has stronger or weaker arguments for believing whether or not the soldiers should be there </li></ul>
  18. 19. Emotional Development <ul><li>Are adolescents wildly emotional (major mood swings and outbursts of emotions)? </li></ul><ul><li>To a degree: yes. </li></ul><ul><li>Csikzentmihalyi & Larson (1984) large numbers of teenagers wore beepers and throughout the week, entered their thoughts and feelings in a diary immediately after being signaled. </li></ul><ul><li>Results indicated more frequent and larger swings in mood than those shown by older persons, and these swings occurred sometimes within minutes. </li></ul>